Difference between revisions of "Neural - Meninges Development"

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{{Header}}
 
==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
[[Neural_-_Meninges_Development]] | [[Neural System Development]] | [[Neural Crest Development]] | [[Connective Tissue Development]]  
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[[File:Stage_22_image_217.jpg|thumb|300px|Human embryo brain meninges. ([[Week 8]], Carnegie stage {{CS22}})]]
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[[File:Human Stage22 spinal cord02.jpg|thumb|300px|Human embryo spinal cord meninges. ([[Week 8]], Carnegie stage {{CS22}})]]
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The {{meninges}} (singular meninx; Greek, ''meninx'' = membrane) are a complex connective tissue surrounding the central nervous system  (brain and spinal cord). The 3 layers from the central nervous outward are: pia mater, arachnoid mater, and the dura mater. All three layers form initially from the meninx primitiva, a meningeal mesenchyme. The pia mater and the arachnoid can together be called called leptomeninx, and dura mater the pachymeninx.
  
===CoupTFI Interacts with Retinoic Acid Signaling during Cortical Development===
 
PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58219. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058219. Epub 2013 Mar 5.
 
  
Harrison-Uy SJ, Siegenthaler JA, Faedo A, Rubenstein JL, Pleasure SJ.
+
There have been many theories to the embryonic origins of the three layers that form the meninges, as well as potential differences between species. The safest term would be mesenchymal in origin, but the actual source of this mesenchyme may also differ in the same species at different levels of the central nervous system. The space under the arachnoid layer (subarachnoid space) is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.  
Source
 
Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
 
  
Abstract
+
Recent studies also suggest that rather than acting as a passive connective tissue "neural container" during development, the meninges may also interact and regulate cranial skull and neural development. A second recent change in understanding, is the identification of lymphatic vessels within the {{dura mater}}{{#pmid:29917137|PMID29917137}} that develop in the postnatal period.{{#pmid:31993056|PMID31993056}}
  
We examined the role of the orphan nuclear hormone receptor CoupTFI in mediating cortical development downstream of meningeal retinoic acid signaling. CoupTFI is a regulator of cortical development known to collaborate with retinoic acid (RA) signaling in other systems. To examine the interaction of CoupTFI and cortical RA signaling we utilized Foxc1-mutant mice in which defects in meningeal development lead to alterations in cortical development due to a reduction of RA signaling. By analyzing CoupTFI(-/-);Foxc1(H/L) double mutant mice we provide evidence that CoupTFI is required for RA rescue of the ventricular zone and the neurogenic phenotypes in Foxc1-mutants. We also found that overexpression of CoupTFI in Foxc1-mutants is sufficient to rescue the Foxc1-mutant cortical phenotype in part. These results suggest that CoupTFI collaborates with RA signaling to regulate both cortical ventricular zone progenitor cell behavior and cortical neurogenesis.
+
In studying meninges development vascular, lymphatic and cerebrospinal fluid development should also be considered.
  
PMID 23472160
+
 +
Historically, see the 1951 paper describing spinal cord meninges development.<ref name=Sensenig1951>{{Ref-Sensenig1951}}</ref>
  
===The cranial dura mater: a review of its history, embryology, and anatomy===
 
  
Childs Nerv Syst. 2012 Jun;28(6):827-37. doi: 10.1007/s00381-012-1744-6. Epub 2012 Apr 15.
+
:'''Links:''' [[Connective Tissue Development]]
  
Adeeb N, Mortazavi MM, Tubbs RS, Cohen-Gadol AA.
+
{{Neural Links}}
Abstract
+
<br>
INTRODUCTION:
+
{{Neural Links 2}}
The dura mater is important to the clinician as a barrier to the internal environment of the brain, and surgically, its anatomy should be well known to the neurosurgeon and clinician who interpret imaging.
+
<br>
METHODS:
+
{{Historic Neural}}
The medical literature was reviewed in regard to the morphology and embryology of specifically, the intracranial dura mater. A historic review of this meningeal layer is also provided.
+
== Some Recent Findings ==
CONCLUSIONS:
+
{|
Knowledge of the cranial dura mater has a rich history. The embryology is complex, and the surgical anatomy of this layer and its specializations are important to the neurosurgeon.
+
|-bgcolor="F5FAFF"
 +
|
 +
* '''Review - The Tentorium Cerebelli'''{{#pmid:30305987|PMID30305987}} "The tentorium cerebelli functions as a partition, dispelling the burden of weight from supratentorial structures upon inferior brain matter. Clinicians and neurosurgeons, when assessing pathological findings, should have knowledge regarding the tentorium cerebelli anatomy. This work of literature is a comprehensive review of the tentorium cerebelli, including its anatomy, embryology, and clinical and surgical implications. The evolutionary pattern demonstrates sequential stages to higher mammalian lineage. An understanding of the complexity of the neurovascular structures and the anatomy of the tentorium cerebelli is crucial for surgical procedures by neurosurgeons."
  
PMID 22526439
+
* '''Physiology and molecular biology of barrier mechanisms in the fetal and neonatal''' brain{{#pmid:29774535|PMID29774535}} "Properties of the local internal environment of the adult brain are tightly controlled providing a stable milieu essential for its normal function. The mechanisms involved in this complex control are structural, molecular and physiological (influx and efflux transporters) frequently referred to as the "blood-brain barrier". These mechanisms include regulation of ion levels in brain interstitial fluid essential for normal neuronal function, supply of nutrients, removal of metabolic products and prevention of entry or elimination of toxic agents. A key feature is cerebrospinal fluid secretion and turnover. This is much less during development, allowing greater accumulation of permeating molecules."
  
===A cascade of morphogenic signaling initiated by the meninges controls corpus callosum formation===
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|}
 +
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
 +
! More recent papers &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Mark_Hill.jpg|90px|left]] {{Most_Recent_Refs}}
  
Neuron. 2012 Feb 23;73(4):698-712. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.11.036.
+
Search term: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Meninges+Development ''Meninges Development''] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Pia+Development ''Pia Development''] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Arachnoid+Development ''Arachnoid  Development''] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Dura+Development ''Dura  Development'']
  
Choe Y, Siegenthaler JA, Pleasure SJ.
+
|}
Source
+
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
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! Older papers &nbsp;
Abstract
+
|-
The corpus callosum is the most prominent commissural connection between the cortical hemispheres, and numerous neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with callosal agenesis. By using mice either with meningeal overgrowth or selective loss of meninges, we have identified a cascade of morphogenic signals initiated by the meninges that regulates corpus callosum development. The meninges produce BMP7, an inhibitor of callosal axon outgrowth. This activity is overcome by the induction of expression of Wnt3 by the callosal pathfinding neurons, which antagonize the inhibitory effects of BMP7. Wnt3 expression in the cingulate callosal pathfinding axons is developmentally regulated by another BMP family member, GDF5, which is produced by the adjacent Cajal-Retzius neurons and turns on before outgrowth of the callosal axons. The effects of GDF5 are in turn under the control of a soluble GDF5 inhibitor, Dan, made by the meninges. Thus, the meninges and medial neocortex use a cascade of signals to regulate corpus callosum development.
+
| {{Older papers}}
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
+
* '''Postnatal development of lymphatic vasculature in the brain meninges'''{{#pmid:29493038|PMID29493038}} "Traditionally, the central nervous system (CNS) has been viewed as an immune-privileged environment with no lymphatic vessels. This view was partially overturned by the discovery of lymphatic vessels in the dural membrane that surrounds the brain, in contact with the interior surface of the skull. We here examine the distribution and developmental timing of these lymphatic vessels. ...We have found that between birth and postnatal day (P) 13, lymphatic vessels extend alongside dural blood vessels from the side of the skull toward the midline. Between P13 and P20, lymphatic vessels along the transverse sinuses reach the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and extend along the SSS toward the olfactory bulb." [[Mouse Development]]
  
PMID 22365545
+
* '''Intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed in developing meninges'''{{#pmid:25428542|PMID25428542}} " Nestin is a type VI intermediate filament protein known as a marker for progenitor cells that can be mostly found in tissues during the embryonic and fetal periods. ...In this study, in the human meninges intense nestin expression was detected as early as in the 9th week of development. Intensity of this expression gradually decreased in later stages of development and nestin expression still persisted in a small population of newborn meningeal cells."
 +
|}
 +
[[File:Meninges_cartoon.jpg|thumb|Meninges simplified cartoon]]
 +
==Pia Mater==
 +
The {{pia mater}} forms innermost part of the meningial layers and is a fine connective tissue covering of the central nervous system. Lies beneath the {{arachnoid mater}}and then tough outer dura mater layer. All three layers form from the meninx primitiva, a meningeal mesenchyme that is mesodermal and neural crest in origin. The space overlying the pia mater (subarachnoid space) is filled with [[C#cerebrospinal fluid|cerebrospinal fluid]]. The pia mater has close contact with the spinal cord and brain, in the brain it follows down into the sulci and fissures of the cortex. This layer also fuses with the membranous lining of the ventricles ({{ependyma}}) forming the {{choroid plexus}}.
  
===We have got you 'covered': how the meninges control brain development.===
 
  
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2011 Jun;21(3):249-55. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2010.12.005. Epub 2011 Jan 20.
+
==Arachnoid Mater==
  
Siegenthaler JA, Pleasure SJ.
+
The arachnoid mater (Greek, ''arachne'' = spider + ''-oeides'' = form) forms the central part of the {{meninges}} layers as a meshwork (spider web-like) connective tissue covering of the central nervous system. Lying between the tough outer {{dura mater}} layer and the inner fine {{pia mater}} layer. All three layers form from the meninx primitiva, a meningeal mesenchyme that is mesodermal and neural crest in origin. The space underlying the arachnoid mater (subarachnoid space) is filled with  cerebrospinal fluid.
Source
 
Department of Neurology, Programs in Neuroscience and Developmental Biology, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States.
 
  
Abstract
 
  
The meninges have traditionally been viewed as specialized membranes surrounding and protecting the adult brain from injury. However, there is increasing evidence that the fetal meninges play important roles during brain development. Through the release of diffusible factors, the meninges influence the proliferative and migratory behaviors of neural progenitors and neurons in the forebrain and hindbrain. Meningeal cells also secrete and organize the pial basement membrane (BM), a critical anchor point for the radially oriented fibers of neuroepithelial stem cells. With its emerging role in brain development, the potential that defects in meningeal development may underlie certain congenital brain abnormalities in humans should be considered. In this review, we will discuss what is known about assembly of the fetal meninges and review the role of meningeal-derived proteins in mouse and human brain development.
+
==Dura Mater==
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
  
PMID 21251809
+
The {{dura mater}} (Latin, ''dura mater'' = hard mother) forms the outer tough connective tissue layer of the {{meninges}} 3 layers that cover the central nervous system. of 3 layers (overlays the {{arachnoid mater}} middle layer and {{pia mater}} inner layer). All three layers form from the meninx primitiva, a meningeal mesenchyme that is mesodermal and neural crest in origin. 
  
===Tissue origins and interactions in the mammalian skull vault===
 
  
Dev Biol. 2002 Jan 1;241(1):106-16.
+
At the level of the skull, the outer dura layer forms the inner periosteum of the skull and the inner dura layer forms the dural folds (falx and tentorium) that contains the dural sinuses. The dura mater also expresses osteogenic growth factors that may be required for ossification of cranial vault bones. At the level of the spinal cord, the dura is separated from the periosteum of the vertebral canal by an epidural space.  
Jiang X, Iseki S, Maxson RE, Sucov HM, Morriss-Kay GM.
 
Source
 
Institute for Genetic Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.
 
  
Abstract
+
===Dural Lymphatic Vessels===
  
During mammalian evolution, expansion of the cerebral hemispheres was accompanied by expansion of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull vault and deployment of the coronal (fronto-parietal) and sagittal (parietal-parietal) sutures as major growth centres. Using a transgenic mouse with a permanent neural crest cell lineage marker, Wnt1-Cre/R26R, we show that both sutures are formed at a neural crest-mesoderm interface: the frontal bones are neural crest-derived and the parietal bones mesodermal, with a tongue of neural crest between the two parietal bones. By detailed analysis of neural crest migration pathways using X-gal staining, and mesodermal tracing by DiI labelling, we show that the neural crest-mesodermal tissue juxtaposition that later forms the coronal suture is established at E9.5 as the caudal boundary of the frontonasal mesenchyme. As the cerebral hemispheres expand, they extend caudally, passing beneath the neural crest-mesodermal interface within the dermis, carrying with them a layer of neural crest cells that forms their meningeal covering. Exposure of embryos to retinoic acid at E10.0 reduces this meningeal neural crest and inhibits parietal ossification, suggesting that intramembranous ossification of this mesodermal bone requires interaction with neural crest-derived meninges, whereas ossification of the neural crest-derived frontal bone is autonomous. These observations provide new perspectives on skull evolution and on human genetic abnormalities of skull growth and ossification.
+
Lymphatic vessels are uniquely found within the {{dura mater}}{{#pmid:29917137|PMID29917137}}, and these vessels only develop during the postnatal period.{{#pmid:31993056|PMID31993056}} They are thought to have a role in trafficking {{neural}} macromolecules to the deep cervical lymph nodes.
  
PMID 11784098
+
===Dural Venous Sinuses===
 +
The {{dural venous sinuses}} form the major drainage of the brain to the internal jugular veins in the adult.
  
 +
The dural venous sinuses:
 +
* lie between the dura mater layers  (endosteal layer and meningeal)
 +
* run alone not parallel to arteries.
 +
* are valveless allowing for bidirectional blood flow
  
===The meninges in human development===
 
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1986 Sep;45(5):588-608.
 
  
O'Rahilly R, Müller F.
+
Unpaired - superior sagittal sinus, inferior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, occipital sinus, intercavernous sinus
 +
Paired - transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, superior petrosal sinus, inferior petrosal sinus, cavernous sinus, sphenoparietal sinus, basilar venous plexus
  
Abstract
+
The following figures are from a 1915 study of the venous sinuses of the dura mater in the human embryo.<ref name=Streeter1915>{{Ref-Streeter1915}}</ref>
  
The brain and cranial meninges were studied in 61 serially sectioned embryos of stages 8-23. Much earlier stages than those examined by previous authors provided a more comprehensive view of meningeal development. As a result, the possible and probable sources of the cranial and spinal meninges are believed to be: (a) prechordal plate, (b) unsegmented paraxial (parachordal) mesoderm, (c) segmented paraxial (somitic) mesoderm, (d) mesectoderm (neural crest), (e) neurilemmal cells (neural crest), and (f) neural tube. Some of these sources (a, b, d) pertain to the cranial meninges, others (c, d, e) to the spinal coverings. The first of the future dural processes to develop is the tentorium cerebelli, which, at the end of the embryonic period proper, differs considerably in shape and composition from the later fetal and postnatal tentorium. The embryonic dural limiting layer (Duragrenzschicht) probably corresponds to the interface layer of the adult meninges. The appropriate literature was reviewed and summarized.
+
<gallery>
 +
File:Streeter1915 fig01.jpg|fig 1 embryo 4 mm Embryo No. {{CE588}}
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File:Streeter1915 fig02.jpg|fig 2 embryo 13.8 mm Embryo No. {{CE940}}
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File:Streeter1915 fig03.jpg|fig 3 embryo 18 mm Embryo No. {{CE144}}
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File:Streeter1915 fig04.jpg|fig 4 embryo 21 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 460|No. 460]]
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File:Streeter1915 fig05.jpg|fig 5 embryo 24 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 632|No. 632]]
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File:Streeter1915 fig06.jpg|fig 6 embryo 50 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 96|No. 96]]
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File:Streeter1915 fig07.jpg|fig 7 embryo 13.8 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 940|No. 940]]
 +
File:Streeter1915 fig08.jpg|fig 8 embryo 20 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 349|No. 349]]
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File:Streeter1915 fig09.jpg|fig 9 fetus 54 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 458|No. 458]]
 +
File:Streeter1915 fig11.jpg|fig 11 embryo 14 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 940|No. 940]]
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File:Streeter1915 fig12.jpg|fig 12 embryo 18 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 144|No. 144]]
 +
File:Streeter1915 fig13.jpg|fig 13 embryo 21 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 460|No. 460]]
 +
File:Streeter1915 fig14.jpg|fig 14 embryo 35 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 199|No. 100]]
 +
File:Streeter1915 fig15.jpg|fig 15 fetus 50 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 96|No. 96]]
 +
File:Streeter1915 fig16.jpg|fig 16 fetus 80 mm [[:Category:Carnegie Embryo 234a|No. 234a]]
 +
File:Streeter1915 fig17.jpg|fig 17 adult
 +
</gallery>
 +
 
 +
===Cerebellar Tentorium===
 +
 
 +
The cerebellar tentorium or tentorium cerebelli forms an extension of the {{dura mater}} separating the cerebellum from the inferior portion of the occipital lobes. For a recent review see.{{#pmid:30305987|PMID30305987}}
  
PMID 3746345
 
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
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===Reviews===
 
===Reviews===
<pubmed></pubmed>
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{{#pmid:30801905}}
<pubmed></pubmed>
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<pubmed></pubmed>
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{{#pmid:29368214}}
<pubmed></pubmed>
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{{#pmid:29269062}}
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{{#pmid:23381008}}
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{{#pmid:22526439}}
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{{#pmid:21251809}}
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{{#pmid:20099639}}
  
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{{#pmid:19165479}}
  
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{{#pmid:3746345}}
 
===Articles===
 
===Articles===
<pubmed></pubmed>
 
<pubmed></pubmed>
 
<pubmed></pubmed>
 
<pubmed></pubmed>
 
  
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{{#pmid:27250699}}
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{{#pmid:26214850}}
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{{#pmid:25468011}}
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{{#pmid:23437266}}
  
  
Line 105: Line 143:
  
 
'''Search Pubmed:''' [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=search&term=Meninges Development Meninges Development]
 
'''Search Pubmed:''' [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=search&term=Meninges Development Meninges Development]
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===Historic===
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{{Ref-Salvi1898}}
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{{Ref-Heuser1913}}
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{{Ref-HarveyBurr1924}}
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{{Ref-HarveyBurr1926}}
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{{Ref-O’RahillyMuller1986}}
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
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<gallery>
 
<gallery>
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</gallery>
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===Historic===
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{{Historic Disclaimer}}
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{{Ref-Sensenig1951}}
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<gallery>
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File:Sensenig1951 plate01.jpg|Plate 1
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File:Sensenig1951 plate02.jpg|Plate 2
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File:Sensenig1951 plate03.jpg|Plate 3
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File:Sensenig1951 plate04.jpg|Plate 4
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
 
==Terms==
 
==Terms==
  
{{Template:Glossary}}
 
  
{{Template:Footer}}
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{{Glossary}}
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{{Footer}}
  
 
[[Category:Neural]] [[Category:Ventricular System]]
 
[[Category:Neural]] [[Category:Ventricular System]]

Latest revision as of 13:54, 25 July 2020

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Introduction

Human embryo brain meninges. (Week 8, Carnegie stage 22)
Human embryo spinal cord meninges. (Week 8, Carnegie stage 22)

The meninges (singular meninx; Greek, meninx = membrane) are a complex connective tissue surrounding the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The 3 layers from the central nervous outward are: pia mater, arachnoid mater, and the dura mater. All three layers form initially from the meninx primitiva, a meningeal mesenchyme. The pia mater and the arachnoid can together be called called leptomeninx, and dura mater the pachymeninx.


There have been many theories to the embryonic origins of the three layers that form the meninges, as well as potential differences between species. The safest term would be mesenchymal in origin, but the actual source of this mesenchyme may also differ in the same species at different levels of the central nervous system. The space under the arachnoid layer (subarachnoid space) is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.

Recent studies also suggest that rather than acting as a passive connective tissue "neural container" during development, the meninges may also interact and regulate cranial skull and neural development. A second recent change in understanding, is the identification of lymphatic vessels within the dura mater[1] that develop in the postnatal period.[2]

In studying meninges development vascular, lymphatic and cerebrospinal fluid development should also be considered.


Historically, see the 1951 paper describing spinal cord meninges development.[3]


Links: Connective Tissue Development
Neural Links: ectoderm | neural | neural crest | ventricular | sensory | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | neural postnatal | neural examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural


Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | diencephalon | epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus‎ | pituitary | pineal | mesencephalon | tectum | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | ventricular | lateral ventricles | third ventricle | cerebral aqueduct | fourth ventricle | central canal | meninges | Category:Ventricular System | Category:Neural


Historic Neural Embryology  
1883 Nervous System | 1893 Brain Structure | 1892 Nervous System Development | 1900 fourth ventricle | 1905 Brain Blood-Vessels | 1909 corpus ponto-bulbare | 1912 nuclei pontis - nucleus arcuatus | 1912 Diencephalon | 1921 Neural Development | 1921 Anencephaly | 1921 Brain Weight | 1921 Brain Vascular System | 1921 Cerebellum | 1922 Brain Plan | 1923 Neural Folds | 1904 Brain and Mind | 1904 Brain Structure | 1909 Forebrain Vesicle | 1922 Hippocampal Fissure | 1923 Forebrain | 1927 Anencephaly | 1934 Anencephaly | 1937 Anencephaly | 1945 Spinal Cord | 1945 cerebral cortex | Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Ziegler Neural Models | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Review - The Tentorium Cerebelli[4] "The tentorium cerebelli functions as a partition, dispelling the burden of weight from supratentorial structures upon inferior brain matter. Clinicians and neurosurgeons, when assessing pathological findings, should have knowledge regarding the tentorium cerebelli anatomy. This work of literature is a comprehensive review of the tentorium cerebelli, including its anatomy, embryology, and clinical and surgical implications. The evolutionary pattern demonstrates sequential stages to higher mammalian lineage. An understanding of the complexity of the neurovascular structures and the anatomy of the tentorium cerebelli is crucial for surgical procedures by neurosurgeons."
  • Physiology and molecular biology of barrier mechanisms in the fetal and neonatal brain[5] "Properties of the local internal environment of the adult brain are tightly controlled providing a stable milieu essential for its normal function. The mechanisms involved in this complex control are structural, molecular and physiological (influx and efflux transporters) frequently referred to as the "blood-brain barrier". These mechanisms include regulation of ion levels in brain interstitial fluid essential for normal neuronal function, supply of nutrients, removal of metabolic products and prevention of entry or elimination of toxic agents. A key feature is cerebrospinal fluid secretion and turnover. This is much less during development, allowing greater accumulation of permeating molecules."
More recent papers  
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

  • This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled.
  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.


References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References

Search term: Meninges Development | Pia Development | Arachnoid Development | Dura Development

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

  • Postnatal development of lymphatic vasculature in the brain meninges[6] "Traditionally, the central nervous system (CNS) has been viewed as an immune-privileged environment with no lymphatic vessels. This view was partially overturned by the discovery of lymphatic vessels in the dural membrane that surrounds the brain, in contact with the interior surface of the skull. We here examine the distribution and developmental timing of these lymphatic vessels. ...We have found that between birth and postnatal day (P) 13, lymphatic vessels extend alongside dural blood vessels from the side of the skull toward the midline. Between P13 and P20, lymphatic vessels along the transverse sinuses reach the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and extend along the SSS toward the olfactory bulb." Mouse Development
  • Intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed in developing meninges[7] " Nestin is a type VI intermediate filament protein known as a marker for progenitor cells that can be mostly found in tissues during the embryonic and fetal periods. ...In this study, in the human meninges intense nestin expression was detected as early as in the 9th week of development. Intensity of this expression gradually decreased in later stages of development and nestin expression still persisted in a small population of newborn meningeal cells."
Meninges simplified cartoon

Pia Mater

The pia mater forms innermost part of the meningial layers and is a fine connective tissue covering of the central nervous system. Lies beneath the arachnoid materand then tough outer dura mater layer. All three layers form from the meninx primitiva, a meningeal mesenchyme that is mesodermal and neural crest in origin. The space overlying the pia mater (subarachnoid space) is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The pia mater has close contact with the spinal cord and brain, in the brain it follows down into the sulci and fissures of the cortex. This layer also fuses with the membranous lining of the ventricles (Template:Ependyma) forming the choroid plexus.


Arachnoid Mater

The arachnoid mater (Greek, arachne = spider + -oeides = form) forms the central part of the meninges layers as a meshwork (spider web-like) connective tissue covering of the central nervous system. Lying between the tough outer dura mater layer and the inner fine pia mater layer. All three layers form from the meninx primitiva, a meningeal mesenchyme that is mesodermal and neural crest in origin. The space underlying the arachnoid mater (subarachnoid space) is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.


Dura Mater

The dura mater (Latin, dura mater = hard mother) forms the outer tough connective tissue layer of the meninges 3 layers that cover the central nervous system. of 3 layers (overlays the arachnoid mater middle layer and pia mater inner layer). All three layers form from the meninx primitiva, a meningeal mesenchyme that is mesodermal and neural crest in origin.


At the level of the skull, the outer dura layer forms the inner periosteum of the skull and the inner dura layer forms the dural folds (falx and tentorium) that contains the dural sinuses. The dura mater also expresses osteogenic growth factors that may be required for ossification of cranial vault bones. At the level of the spinal cord, the dura is separated from the periosteum of the vertebral canal by an epidural space.

Dural Lymphatic Vessels

Lymphatic vessels are uniquely found within the dura mater[1], and these vessels only develop during the postnatal period.[2] They are thought to have a role in trafficking neural macromolecules to the deep cervical lymph nodes.

Dural Venous Sinuses

The dural venous sinuses form the major drainage of the brain to the internal jugular veins in the adult.

The dural venous sinuses:

  • lie between the dura mater layers (endosteal layer and meningeal)
  • run alone not parallel to arteries.
  • are valveless allowing for bidirectional blood flow


Unpaired - superior sagittal sinus, inferior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, occipital sinus, intercavernous sinus Paired - transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, superior petrosal sinus, inferior petrosal sinus, cavernous sinus, sphenoparietal sinus, basilar venous plexus

The following figures are from a 1915 study of the venous sinuses of the dura mater in the human embryo.[8]

Cerebellar Tentorium

The cerebellar tentorium or tentorium cerebelli forms an extension of the dura mater separating the cerebellum from the inferior portion of the occipital lobes. For a recent review see.[4]


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Jani RH & Sekula RF. (2018). Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Dural Meningeal Lymphatics. Neurosurgery , 83, E10-E12. PMID: 29917137 DOI.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Bálint L, Ocskay Z, Deák BA, Aradi P & Jakus Z. (2019). Lymph Flow Induces the Postnatal Formation of Mature and Functional Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels. Front Immunol , 10, 3043. PMID: 31993056 DOI.
  3. Sensenig EC. The early development of the meninges of the spinal cord in human embryos. (1951) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 611.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Rai R, Iwanaga J, Shokouhi G, Oskouian RJ & Tubbs RS. (2018). The Tentorium Cerebelli: A Comprehensive Review Including Its Anatomy, Embryology, and Surgical Techniques. Cureus , 10, e3079. PMID: 30305987 DOI.
  5. Saunders NR, Dziegielewska KM, Møllgård K & Habgood MD. (2018). Physiology and molecular biology of barrier mechanisms in the fetal and neonatal brain. J. Physiol. (Lond.) , , . PMID: 29774535 DOI.
  6. Izen RM, Yamazaki T, Nishinaka-Arai Y, Hong YK & Mukouyama YS. (2018). Postnatal development of lymphatic vasculature in the brain meninges. Dev. Dyn. , , . PMID: 29493038 DOI.
  7. Yay A, Ozdamar S, Canoz O, Baran M, Tucer B & Sonmez MF. (2014). Intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed in developing meninges. Bratisl Lek Listy , 115, 718-22. PMID: 25428542
  8. Streeter GL. The development of the venous sinuses of the dura mater in the human embryo. (1915) Amer. J Anat.18: 145-178.


Reviews

Dasgupta K & Jeong J. (2019). Developmental biology of the meninges. Genesis , 57, e23288. PMID: 30801905 DOI.

Weller RO, Sharp MM, Christodoulides M, Carare RO & Møllgård K. (2018). The meninges as barriers and facilitators for the movement of fluid, cells and pathogens related to the rodent and human CNS. Acta Neuropathol. , 135, 363-385. PMID: 29368214 DOI.

Mortazavi MM, Quadri SA, Khan MA, Gustin A, Suriya SS, Hassanzadeh T, Fahimdanesh KM, Adl FH, Fard SA, Taqi MA, Armstrong I, Martin BA & Tubbs RS. (2018). Subarachnoid Trabeculae: A Comprehensive Review of Their Embryology, Histology, Morphology, and Surgical Significance. World Neurosurg , 111, 279-290. PMID: 29269062 DOI.

Adeeb N, Mortazavi MM, Deep A, Griessenauer CJ, Watanabe K, Shoja MM, Loukas M & Tubbs RS. (2013). The pia mater: a comprehensive review of literature. Childs Nerv Syst , 29, 1803-10. PMID: 23381008 DOI.

Adeeb N, Mortazavi MM, Tubbs RS & Cohen-Gadol AA. (2012). The cranial dura mater: a review of its history, embryology, and anatomy. Childs Nerv Syst , 28, 827-37. PMID: 22526439 DOI.

Siegenthaler JA & Pleasure SJ. (2011). We have got you 'covered': how the meninges control brain development. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. , 21, 249-55. PMID: 21251809 DOI.

Patel N & Kirmi O. (2009). Anatomy and imaging of the normal meninges. Semin. Ultrasound CT MR , 30, 559-64. PMID: 20099639

Mack J, Squier W & Eastman JT. (2009). Anatomy and development of the meninges: implications for subdural collections and CSF circulation. Pediatr Radiol , 39, 200-10. PMID: 19165479 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1986). The meninges in human development. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. , 45, 588-608. PMID: 3746345

Articles

Tanaka M. (2016). Embryological Consideration of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas. Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo) , 56, 544-51. PMID: 27250699 DOI.

Yokogawa N, Murakami H, Demura S, Kato S, Yoshioka K, Yamamoto M, Iseki S & Tsuchiya H. (2015). Effects of Radiation on Spinal Dura Mater and Surrounding Tissue in Mice. PLoS ONE , 10, e0133806. PMID: 26214850 DOI.

Baltsavias G, Parthasarathi V, Aydin E, Al Schameri RA, Roth P & Valavanis A. (2015). Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins. Neurosurg Rev , 38, 253-63; discussion 263-4. PMID: 25468011 DOI.

Tochitani S & Kondo S. (2013). Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the meninges and the choroid plexus: implications for non-neuronal sources for GABA in the developing mouse brain. PLoS ONE , 8, e56901. PMID: 23437266 DOI.


Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Development Meninges Development

Historic

Salvi G. Meninges histogenesis and structure (L'istogenesi E La Struttura Delle Meningi). (1898) Thèse de Paris.

Heuser CH. The development of the cerebral ventricles in the pig. (1913) Amer. J Anat. 15(2): 215-251.

Harvey SC. and Burr HS. An experimental study of the origin of the meninges. (1924) Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med. 22: 52-53.

Harvey SC. and Burr HS. The development of the meninges. (1926) Arch Neurol Psychiatry 15:545–567

O'Rahilly R. and Müller F. The meninges in human development. (1986) J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 45: 588–608.

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