Neural - Epithalamus Development

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Introduction

The uppermost portion of the diencephalon that includes the trigonum habenulae (habenula), the pineal (gland or body), the posterior commissure, and the medullary layers of thalamus.

The adult habenular nuclei acts as a neural relay system, connecting the forebrain with the brain stem. The function appears to be to regulate cognitive behaviors by modulating a range of transmitter system (cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic) activities.

Pineal-body.jpg Pineal gland position.jpg
Adult pineal body (mid-sagittal section view) Pineal gland position (dorsolateral view)


Neural Links: ectoderm | neural | neural crest | ventricular | sensory | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | Postnatal | Postnatal - Neural Examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural
Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus‎ | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural

Some Recent Findings

  • Pitx2c ensures habenular asymmetry by restricting parapineal cell number[1] "Left-right (L/R) asymmetries in the brain are thought to underlie lateralised cognitive functions. Understanding how neuroanatomical asymmetries are established has been achieved through the study of the zebrafish epithalamus. ...We provide evidence suggesting that antagonism between Nodal and Pitx2c activities sets an upper limit on parapineal cell numbers. We conclude that restricting parapineal cell number is crucial for the correct elaboration of epithalamic asymmetry."
  • A neuronal migratory pathway crossing from diencephalon to telencephalon populates amygdala nuclei[2] "Neurons usually migrate and differentiate in one particular encephalic vesicle. We identified a murine population of diencephalic neurons that colonized the telencephalic amygdaloid complex, migrating along a tangential route that crosses a boundary between developing brain vesicles. The diencephalic transcription factor OTP was necessary for this migratory behavior."
More recent papers
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Search term: Epithalamus Embryology

<pubmed limit=5>Epithalamus Embryology</pubmed>

Search term: Epithalamus Development

<pubmed limit=5>Epithalamus Development</pubmed>


Neural Tube Development
Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Brain
prosencephalon telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
Diencephalon Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle
mesencephalon mesencephalon Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct
rhombencephalon metencephalon pons, cerebellum
myelencephalon medulla oblongata
spinal cord

References

  1. <pubmed>24598158</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>20495559</pubmed>

Textbooks

  • Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Nussey, S and Saffron Whitehead, S. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; 2001. Chapter 7. The pineal gland and melatonin

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, July 21) Embryology Neural - Epithalamus Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Epithalamus_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G