Difference between revisions of "Neural - Cerebrum Development"
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Revision as of 19:11, 14 December 2010
The brain as it is generally recognised. The cerebral cortex like other neural structures has a laminar organization. In development this lamination occurs in an "inside-out" sequence earlier inside and later born neurons outside. The cortex is divided into areas which serve distinct functions including motor, sensory and cognitive processing. The lamination process requires a range of different signals including; Reelin (Reln, an extracellular protein), Disabled-1 (Dab1, an intracellular signaling molecule), and Cullin-5 (Cul5, an E3 ubiquitin ligase).
Some Recent Findings
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|prosencephalon (forebrain)||telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, hippocampus, cerebrum (cortex), hypothalamus, pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|diencephalon||epithalamus, thalamus, Subthalamus, pineal, posterior commissure, pretectum, third ventricle|
|mesencephalon (midbrain)||mesencephalon||tectum, Cerebral peduncle, cerebral aqueduct, pons|
|myelencephalon||medulla oblongata, isthmus|
|spinal cord, pyramidal decussation, central canal|
Early Brain Vesicles
Fissures are the major indentations, sulci (singular sulcus), that divide the brain surface into lobes and appear during fetal development as the brain grows. The images below show MRI analysis of the developing human fetal brain.
- Links: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells are some of the earliest generated cortical neurons arising from restricted domains of the pallial ventricular zone, and then migrate from the borders of the developing pallium to cover the cortical primordium. These early forming neurons then control the radial migration of neurons and the formation of cortical layers. In mice, this has been shown by these cells secreting the extracellular glycoprotein Reelin (Reln) and it has been suggested that these cells also fine tune multiple signaling pathways underlying the regulation of cortical regionalization.
- <pubmed>20668538</pubmed>| PLoS Biol.
<pubmed>20161753</pubmed> <pubmed>20040495</pubmed> <pubmed>20410119</pubmed> <pubmed>20410112</pubmed> <pubmed>20215343</pubmed>
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, April 23) Embryology Neural - Cerebrum Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Cerebrum_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G