Neural - Cerebellum Development
Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
- Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.
Some Recent Findings
<refname="PMID21858122"><pubmed>21858122</pubmed>| PLoS One</ref> "A rapid growth in human cerebellar development occurs in the third trimester, which is impeded by preterm delivery. ...We report that premature birth and development in an ex-utero environment leads to a significant decrease in the thickness and an increase in the packing density of the cells within the external granular layer and the inner granular layer well, as a reduction in the density of bergmann glial fibres. In addition, this also leads to a reduced expression of sonic hedgehog in the purkinje layer. We conclude that the developmental program of the cerebellum is specifically modified by events that follow preterm delivery."
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|prosencephalon||telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|Diencephalon||Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle|
|mesencephalon||mesencephalon||Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct|
Early Brain Vesicles
Fetal Cerebellum (Week 10)
|Plane A (midline)||Plane B (medial)|
|Plane C (lateral)||Plane D (most lateral)|
Developing human cerebellum <refname="PMID21858122"><pubmed>21858122</pubmed>| PLoS One</ref>
A greater EGL cell density and reduced EGL thickness were reported in preterms with ex-utero exposure, as compared to their age matched stillborn controls.
<pubmed>19732611</pubmed> <pubmed>17408845</pubmed> <pubmed>16243598</pubmed> <pubmed>15610138</pubmed> <pubmed>12843872</pubmed>
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, November 22) Embryology Neural - Cerebellum Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Cerebellum_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G