Neural - Basal Ganglia Development
|Embryology - 28 Feb 2021 Expand to Translate|
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The basal ganglia are a group of central nervous system nuclei linked to the thalamus in the base of the brain and involved in coordination of movement. In the adult brain input from the motor cortex to the basal ganglia comes through the striatum (neostriatum), that consists of the caudate and putamen.
Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
- Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
|These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.|
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|prosencephalon (forebrain)||telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, hippocampus, cerebrum (cortex), hypothalamus, pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|diencephalon||epithalamus, thalamus, Subthalamus, pineal, posterior commissure, pretectum, third ventricle|
|mesencephalon (midbrain)||mesencephalon||tectum, Cerebral peduncle, cerebral aqueduct, pons|
|myelencephalon||medulla oblongata, isthmus|
|spinal cord, pyramidal decussation, central canal|
Early Brain Vesicles
|Basal ganglia frontal lobe connectivities for motor cognitive interaction|
|All regions of the cerebral cortex project to the basal ganglia, but the output of the basal ganglia are directed toward the frontal lobe, particularly the premotor and supplementary motor cortex with specific connectivities of the basal ganglia for (A) attention, working memory, and executive function (B) conditioned fear memory and (C) cerebellar and basal ganglia modulation of cognition.
(text from figure legend)
- Grillner S & Robertson B. (2016). The Basal Ganglia Over 500 Million Years. Curr. Biol. , 26, R1088-R1100. PMID: 27780050 DOI.
- Pyrgaki C, Trainor P, Hadjantonakis AK & Niswander L. (2010). Dynamic imaging of mammalian neural tube closure. Dev. Biol. , 344, 941-7. PMID: 20558153 DOI.
- Leisman G, Braun-Benjamin O & Melillo R. (2014). Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development. Front Syst Neurosci , 8, 16. PMID: 24592214 DOI.
Mazurová Y, Rudolf E, Látr I & Osterreicher J. (2006). Proliferation and differentiation of adult endogenous neural stem cells in response to neurodegenerative process within the striatum. Neurodegener Dis , 3, 12-8. PMID: 16909031 DOI.
Ulfig N, Setzer M & Bohl J. (2003). Ontogeny of the human amygdala. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. , 985, 22-33. PMID: 12724145
Hamasaki T, Goto S, Nishikawa S & Ushio Y. (2003). Neuronal cell migration for the developmental formation of the mammalian striatum. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. , 41, 1-12. PMID: 12505644
Jain M, Armstrong RJ, Barker RA & Rosser AE. (2001). Cellular and molecular aspects of striatal development. Brain Res. Bull. , 55, 533-40. PMID: 11543954
Milardi D, Quartarone A, Bramanti A, Anastasi G, Bertino S, Basile GA, Buonasera P, Pilone G, Celeste G, Rizzo G, Bruschetta D & Cacciola A. (2019). The Cortico-Basal Ganglia-Cerebellar Network: Past, Present and Future Perspectives. Front Syst Neurosci , 13, 61. PMID: 31736719 DOI.
Saitsu H & Shiota K. (2008). Involvement of the axially condensed tail bud mesenchyme in normal and abnormal human posterior neural tube development. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) , 48, 1-6. PMID: 18230116 DOI.
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- University of Wisconsin–Madison Basal Ganglia
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, February 28) Embryology Neural - Basal Ganglia Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Basal_Ganglia_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G