Musculoskeletal System Development
|Embryology - 16 Jan 2018 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Textbooks
- 4 Objectives
- 5 Development Overview
- 6 Shoulder and Pelvis
- 7 References
- 8 Additional Images
- 9 External Links
- 10 Glossary Links
The mesoderm forms nearly all the connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system. Each tissue (cartilage, bone, and muscle) goes through many different mechanisms of differentiation.
The musculoskeletal system consists of skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage and is mainly mesoderm in origin with some neural crest contribution.
The intraembryonic mesoderm can be broken into paraxial, intermediate and lateral mesoderm relative to its midline position. During the 3rd week the paraxial mesoderm forms into "balls" of mesoderm paired either side of the neural groove, called somites.
Somites appear bilaterally as pairs at the same time and form earliest at the cranial (rostral,brain) end of the neural groove and add sequentially at the caudal end. This addition occurs so regularly that embryos are staged according to the number of somites that are present. Different regions of the somite differentiate into dermomyotome (dermal and muscle component) and sclerotome (forms vertebral column). An example of a specialized musculoskeletal structure can be seen in the development of the limbs.
Skeletal muscle forms by fusion of mononucleated myoblasts to form mutinucleated myotubes. Bone is formed through a lengthy process involving ossification of a cartilage formed from mesenchyme. Two main forms of ossification occur in different bones, intramembranous (eg skull) and endochondrial (eg limb long bones) ossification. Ossification continues postnatally, through puberty until mid 20s. Early ossification occurs at the ends of long bones.
Musculoskeletal and limb abnormalities are one of the largest groups of congenital abnormalities.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Oshrat E Tayer-Shifman, Yigal Bar-On, David Pereg, Alon Y Hershko Physical Training in a Medical Fitness Room for Patients with Chronic Diseases: Functional and Metabolic Outcomes. Isr. Med. Assoc. J.: 2018, 1(20);20-24 PubMed 29333789
Yuta Kochi, Yoichiro Kamatani, Yuya Kondo, Akari Suzuki, Eiryo Kawakami, Ryosuke Hiwa, Yukihide Momozawa, Manabu Fujimoto, Masatoshi Jinnin, Yoshiya Tanaka, Takashi Kanda, Robert G Cooper, Hector Chinoy, Simon Rothwell, Janine A Lamb, Jiří Vencovský, Heřman Mann, Koichiro Ohmura, Keiko Myouzen, Kazuyoshi Ishigaki, Ran Nakashima, Yuji Hosono, Hiroto Tsuboi, Hidenaga Kawasumi, Yukiko Iwasaki, Hiroshi Kajiyama, Tetsuya Horita, Mariko Ogawa-Momohara, Akito Takamura, Shinichiro Tsunoda, Jun Shimizu, Keishi Fujio, Hirofumi Amano, Akio Mimori, Atsushi Kawakami, Hisanori Umehara, Tsutomu Takeuchi, Hajime Sano, Yoshinao Muro, Tatsuya Atsumi, Toshihide Mimura, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Tsuneyo Mimori, Atsushi Takahashi, Michiaki Kubo, Hitoshi Kohsaka, Takayuki Sumida, Kazuhiko Yamamoto Splicing variant of WDFY4 augments MDA5 signalling and the risk of clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis. Ann. Rheum. Dis.: 2018; PubMed 29331962
Ross Wilson, J Haxby Abbott Development and validation of a new population-based simulation model of osteoarthritis in New Zealand. Osteoarthr. Cartil.: 2018; PubMed 29331740
Glenda Comai, Agnès Boutet, Kristina Tanneberger, Filippo Massa, Ana-Sofia Rocha, Aurelie Charlet, Clara Panzolini, Fariba Jian Motamedi, Robert Brommage, Wolfgang Hans, Thomas Funck-Brentano, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Christine Hartmann, Martine Cohen-Solal, Jürgen Behrens, Andreas Schedl Genetic and molecular insights into genotype-phenotype relationships in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) through the analysis of novel mouse Wtx mutant alleles. J. Bone Miner. Res.: 2018; PubMed 29329488
Michael Hadjiargyrou Mustn1: A Developmentally Regulated Pan-Musculoskeletal Cell Marker and Regulatory Gene. Int J Mol Sci: 2018, 19(1); PubMed 29329193
| Hill, M.A. (2017). UNSW Embryology (17th ed.) Retrieved January 16, 2018, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au
|Moore, K.L. & Persuad, T.V.N. (2008). The Developing Human: clinically oriented embryology (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.|
| Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R. and Francis-West, P.H. (2009). Larsen’s Human Embryology (4th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
- Identify the components of a somite and the adult derivatives of each component.
- Give examples of sites of endochondral and intramembranous ossification and to compare these two processes.
- Identify the general times of formation of primary and of formation of secondary ossification centres, and of fusion of such centres with each other.
- Briefly summarise the development of the limbs.
- Describe the developmental abnormalities responsible for the following malformations: selected growth plate disorders; congenital dislocation of the hip; scoliosis; arthrogryposis; and limb reduction deformities.
Bone is a connective tissue and develops from mesoderm except in the head where neural crest also contributes. Below is a very brief cartoon overview using simple figures of 3 aspects of early musculoskeletal development. More detailed overviews are shown on other notes pages Mesoderm and Somite, Vertebral Column, Limb in combination with serial sections and Carnegie images.
|Cells migrate through the primitive streak to form mesodermal layer. Extraembryonic mesoderm lies adjacent to the trilaminar embryo totally enclosing the amnion, yolk sac and forming the connecting stalk.|
|Paraxial mesoderm accumulates under the neural plate with thinner mesoderm laterally. This forms 2 thickened streaks running the length of the embryonic disc along the rostrocaudal axis. In humans, during the 3rd week, this mesoderm begins to segment. The neural plate folds to form a neural groove and folds.|
| Segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm into somites continues caudally at 1 somite/90minutes and a cavity (intraembryonic coelom) forms in the lateral plate mesoderm separating somatic and splanchnic mesoderm.
Note intraembryonic coelomic cavity communicates with extraembryonic coelom through portals (holes) initially on lateral margin of embryonic disc.
|Somites continue to form. The neural groove fuses dorsally to form a tube at the level of the 4th somite and "zips up cranially and caudally and the neural crest migrates into the mesoderm.|
|Mesoderm beside the notochord (axial mesoderm, blue) thickens, forming the paraxial mesoderm as a pair of strips along the rostro-caudal axis.|
|Paraxial mesoderm towards the rostral end, begins to segment forming the first somite. Somites are then sequentially added caudally. The somitocoel, is a cavity forming in early somites, which is lost as the somite matures.|
|Cells in the somite differentiate medially to form the sclerotome (forms vertebral column) and dorsolaterally to form the dermomyotome.|
| The dermomyotome then forms the dermotome (forms dermis) and myotome (forms muscle).
Neural crest cells migrate beside and through somite.
|The myotome differentiates to form 2 components dorsally the epimere and ventrally the hypomere, which in turn form epaxial and hypaxial muscles respectively. The bulk of the trunk and limb muscle coming from the Hypaxial mesoderm. Different structures will be contributed depending upon the somite level.|
Somite Links: 1 paraxial | 2 early somite | 3 sclerotome and dermomyotome | 4 dermatome and myotome | 5 somite spreading | SEM image - Human Embryo (week 4) showing somites | Movie - somitogenesis Hes expression
| Mesoderm within the developing limb bud differentiates to initially form cartilage which later ossifies by endochondral ossification.
Hypaxial somitic mesoderm from somites at the levels of limb bud formation, migrates into the bud. These cells within the bud proliferate in regions of muscle formation, fuse to form myotubes and then differentiate to form skeletal muscle cells.
Shoulder and Pelvis
The skeletal shoulder consists of: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus. Development of his region occurs through both forms of ossification processes.
The skeletal pelvis consists of: the sacrum and coccyx (axial skeleton), and pelvic girdle formed by a pair of hip bones (appendicular skeleton). Before puberty, he pelvic girdle also consists of three unfused bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis. In chicken, the entire pelvic girdle originates from the somatopleure mesoderm (somite levels 26 to 35) and the ilium, but not of the pubis and ischium, depends on somitic and ectodermal signals.
- Urs H Langen, Mara E Pitulescu, Jung Mo Kim, Rocio Enriquez-Gasca, Kishor K Sivaraj, Anjali P Kusumbe, Amit Singh, Jacopo Di Russo, M Gabriele Bixel, Bin Zhou, Lydia Sorokin, Juan M Vaquerizas, Ralf H Adams Cell-matrix signals specify bone endothelial cells during developmental osteogenesis. Nat. Cell Biol.: 2017, 19(3);189-201 PubMed 28218908
- Olivier Pourquié Vertebrate segmentation: from cyclic gene networks to scoliosis. Cell: 2011, 145(5);650-63 PubMed 21620133
- Yegor Malashichev, Bodo Christ, Felicitas Pröls Avian pelvis originates from lateral plate mesoderm and its development requires signals from both ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm. Cell Tissue Res.: 2008, 331(3);595-604 PubMed 18087724
- Developmental Biology by Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000 Paraxial and intermediate mesoderm | Myogenesis: The Development of Muscle | Osteogenesis: The Development of Bones | Figure 14.10. Conversion of myoblasts into muscles in culture
- Molecular Biology of the Cell Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter New York and London: Garland Science; c2002 Search Molecular Biology of the CellBone Is Continually Remodeled by the Cells Within ItImage: Figure 22-52. Deposition of bone matrix by osteoblasts.Image: Figure 22-56. The development of a long bone.
Olivier Pourquié Vertebrate segmentation: from cyclic gene networks to scoliosis. Cell: 2011, 145(5);650-63 PubMed 21620133
Katarzyna A Piróg, Michael D Briggs Skeletal dysplasias associated with mild myopathy-a clinical and molecular review. J. Biomed. Biotechnol.: 2010, 2010;686457 PubMed 20508815
Avan Aihie Sayer, Cyrus Cooper Fetal programming of body composition and musculoskeletal development. Early Hum. Dev.: 2005, 81(9);735-44 PubMed 16081228
J M Walker Musculoskeletal development: a review. Phys Ther: 1991, 71(12);878-89 PubMed 1946622
Kimberly E Applegate Can MR imaging be used to characterize fetal musculoskeletal development? Radiology: 2004, 233(2);305-6 PubMed 15516609
Jung Kyu Ryu, Jeong Yeon Cho, Jong Sun Choi Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies. Korean J Radiol: 2004, 4(4);243-51 PubMed 14726642
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2018 Embryology Musculoskeletal System Development. Retrieved January 16, 2018, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_Development
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