Molecular Development - microRNA
|Embryology - 16 Jan 2021 Expand to Translate|
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Micro RNA (miRNA) are 22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate about 30% of mammalian genes.
The original "RNA family" consisted of just 3 main members; transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and messenger RNAs (mRNA).
These small pieces of RNA have been identified as important negative regulators in both development and adult cell processes involving gene expression. The repressive effects are typically relatively mild, with parallel regulatory mechanisms, the phenotype may require a stress condition or tissue injury for their expression.
miRNAs are initially transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature ~22 (20-24 nt) nucleotide miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products.
The miRNAs then bind (by imperfectly complementation) usually to 3′ untranslated region of target mRNAs, resulting in mRNA degradation and/or translational inhibition.
|Molecular Links: molecular | genetics | epigenetics | mitosis | meiosis | X Inactivation | Signaling | Factors | Mouse Knockout | microRNA | Mechanisms | Developmental Enhancers | Protein | Genetic Abnormal | Category:Molecular|
Some Recent Findings
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This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
Search term: microRNA Embryology
<pubmed limit=5>microRNA Embryology</pubmed>
- Primary miRNA precursors are transcribed in the nucleus
- Processed into 19-22 nt mature miRNAs by
- nuclear RNase III enzyme Drosha and its co-factor Dgcr8
- cytoplasmic RNase III enzyme Dicer
- miRNAs then loaded into the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC)
Some miRNA subclasses are either Drosha- or Dicer-independent.
miRNA-Induced Silencing Complex
(miRISC) components include the argonaute proteins (Ago1–4), Ago2 is the only protein with the slicer activity.
Functional miRNA Grouping
The following identifies microRNAs that have been identified with specific developmental processes, based upon a commercial collation of basic research data.
- let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, let-7d, let-7e, let-7g, miR-101, miR-106b, miR-125b, miR-130a, miR-133b, miR-141, miR-15a, miR-17, miR-182, miR-183, miR-18a, miR-18b, miR-205, miR-20a, miR-20b, miR-21, miR-214, miR-22, miR-222, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-302a, miR-302c, miR-345, miR-424, miR-498, miR-518b, miR-520g.
- miR-10 - microRNA precursor part of an RNA gene family which contains miR-10, miR-51, miR-57, miR-99 and miR-100. miR-10, miR-99 and miR-100 have been confirmed in a wide range of species.
arm the mature sequence
- left (-5p)
- right (-3p)
- Embryoid Bodies
- miR-132, miR-181a, miR-9.
- Definitive Endoderm
- miR-205, miR-375.
- Neural Development
- let-7b, miR-103a, miR-106b, miR-10b, miR-124, miR-125b, miR-130a, miR-132, miR-134, miR-137, miR-16, miR-181a, miR-182, miR-183, miR-20a, miR-210, miR-219-5p, miR-22, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-26a, miR-302a, miR-302c, miR-7, miR-9, miR-96.
- Neural Tube - miRNA-430 organises cell division (planes) for neural tube morphogenesis. PMID 26658217
- Eye Development
- miR-130a, miR-196a, miR-219-5p, miR-23b, miR-96.
- Epidermal Differentiation
- let-7b, miR-205, miR-210, miR-23b, miR-26a.
- Inner Ear Development
- miR-182, miR-183, miR-96.
- Integumentary Development
- 70 miRNAs are expressed in embryonic skin.
- miR-205 in epithelia and promotes keratinocyte migration in vitro
- miR-203 in suprabasal epidermal cells
- let-7e, miR-125a-5p, miR-142-3p, miR-223.
- T Cell Development
- let-7a, let-7f, miR-106b, miR-142-5p, miR-146b-5p, miR-150, miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-16, miR-181a, miR-20a, miR-222, miR-26a.
- let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, let-7d, let-7f, let-7g, let-7i, miR-126, miR-128a, miR-137, miR-155, miR-15b, miR-16, miR-17, miR-181a, miR-182, miR-185, miR-206, miR-21, miR-22, miR-222, miR-24, miR-26a, miR-96.
- let-7b, miR-125b, miR-128a, miR-16, miR-181a, miR-21, miR-24.
- miR-106b, miR-10a, miR-10b, miR-122, miR-126, miR-127-5p, miR-129-5p, miR-134, miR-146a, miR-150, miR-155, miR-17, miR-18a, miR-192, miR-20a, miR-20b, miR-21, miR-22, miR-301a, miR-33a, miR-378, miR-92a, miR-93.
- Monocyte Differentiation
- miR-155, miR-222, miR-424.
- miR-103a, miR-128a, miR-17, miR-181a, miR-24.
- miR-126, miR-130a, miR-218, miR-222, miR-92a.
- miR-1, miR-125b, miR-206, miR-26a.
- miR-141, miR-15b, miR-424.
- let-7b, let-7c, let-7e, miR-100, miR-101, miR-103a, miR-10b, miR-146b-5p, miR-155, miR-182, miR-192, miR-194, miR-196a, miR-21, miR-210, miR-214, miR-22, miR-24, miR-498, miR-96, miR-99a.
- Chondrogenesis: let-7f, miR-1, miR-132, miR-181a, miR-196a, miR-96, miR-99a.
- Heart Development: miR-1, miR-208, miR-488.
- Liver Development
- let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, miR-10a, miR-122, miR-125b, miR-192, miR-21, miR-22, miR-23b, miR-92a, miR-99a.
- Pancreatic Development
- miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-16, miR-195, miR-214, miR-375, miR-7, miR-9.
- Intestinal Development
- let-7d, let-7e, miR-103a, miR-106b, miR-125b, miR-126, miR-130a, miR-141, miR-146b-5p, miR-17, miR-192, miR-194, miR-21, miR-215, miR-301a, miR-424.
- Data: SABiosciences Cell Differentiation & Development miRNA PCR Array
Five miRNAs show highest nucleolar concentration in myoblasts using the microarray assay, miR-340-5p, miR-351, miR-494, miR-664, or let-7e, are thought to be skeletal muscle-specific miRNAs (i.e., miR-1, miR-133, and miR-206 and perhaps miR-95, miR-128a, and miR-499).
microRNA shown in mouse genital development (miR-199-214, miR-182-183-96, and miR-34c-5p)
- miR-183 family (miR-96, miR-182, and miR-183) are differentially expressed in the cochleovestibular ganglion compared to neural crest and otic vesicle at Carnegie stage 13. From a recent study of microRNAs in the human embryonic inner ear during Carnegie developmental stages 13, 14 and 15.
- miR-194 regulates the development and differentiation of sensory patches and statoacoustic ganglion of inner ear by fgf4.
The original "RNA family" consisted of just 3 main members; transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and messenger RNAs (mRNA). MicroRNA (miRNA) is a member of other newly identified classes of RNA have been suggested to have many different roles in signalling, protein processing and differentiation.
- long non-coding RNA - (lncRNA) A class of RNA greater than 200bp in length that do not encode a protein product.
- small nuclear RNA - (snRNA)
- small nucleolar RNA - (snoRNA)
- short regulatory RNA (piwi-associated RNA (piRNA)
- endogenous short-interfering RNA - (endo-siRNA)
- microRNA - (miRNA)
- Deiuliis JA. (2016). MicroRNAs as regulators of metabolic disease: pathophysiologic significance and emerging role as biomarkers and therapeutics. Int J Obes (Lond) , 40, 88-101. PMID: 26311337 DOI.
- Chadly DM, Best J, Ran C, Bruska M, Woźniak W, Kempisty B, Schwartz M, LaFleur B, Kerns BJ, Kessler JA & Matsuoka AJ. (2018). Developmental profiling of microRNAs in the human embryonic inner ear. PLoS ONE , 13, e0191452. PMID: 29373586 DOI.
- Liang G, Malmuthuge N, McFadden TB, Bao H, Griebel PJ, Stothard P & Guan le L. (2014). Potential regulatory role of microRNAs in the development of bovine gastrointestinal tract during early life. PLoS ONE , 9, e92592. PMID: 24682221 DOI.
- Svoboda P. (2017). Long and small noncoding RNAs during oocyte-to-embryo transition in mammals. Biochem. Soc. Trans. , 45, 1117-1124. PMID: 28939692 DOI.
- Fernández-Pérez D, Brieño-Enríquez MA, Isoler-Alcaraz J, Larriba E & Del Mazo J. (2018). MicroRNA dynamics at the onset of primordial germ and somatic cell sex differentiation during mouse embryonic gonad development. RNA , 24, 287-303. PMID: 29187591 DOI.
- Reliszko ZP, Gajewski Z & Kaczmarek MM. (2017). Signs of embryo-maternal communication: miRNAs in the maternal serum of pregnant pigs. Reproduction , 154, 117-128. PMID: 28592665 DOI.
- Gilchrist GC, Tscherner A, Nalpathamkalam T, Merico D & LaMarre J. (2016). MicroRNA Expression during Bovine Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization. Int J Mol Sci , 17, 396. PMID: 26999121 DOI.
- Krawetz SA, Kruger A, Lalancette C, Tagett R, Anton E, Draghici S & Diamond MP. (2011). A survey of small RNAs in human sperm. Hum. Reprod. , 26, 3401-12. PMID: 21989093 DOI.
- Politz JC, Hogan EM & Pederson T. (2009). MicroRNAs with a nucleolar location. RNA , 15, 1705-15. PMID: 19628621 DOI.
- Wang XR, Zhang XM, Zhen J, Zhang PX, Xu G & Jiang H. (2010). MicroRNA expression in the embryonic mouse inner ear. Neuroreport , 21, 611-7. PMID: 20467336 DOI.
- Cao H, Shi J, Du J, Chen K, Dong C, Jiang D & Jiang H. (2018). MicroRNA-194 Regulates the Development and Differentiation of Sensory Patches and Statoacoustic Ganglion of Inner Ear by Fgf4. Med. Sci. Monit. , 24, 1712-1723. PMID: 29570699
- Goff LA & Rinn JL. (2015). Linking RNA biology to lncRNAs. Genome Res. , 25, 1456-65. PMID: 26430155 DOI.
Agirre E & Eyras E. (2011). Databases and resources for human small non-coding RNAs. Hum. Genomics , 5, 192-9. PMID: 21504869
Hsu SD, Chu CH, Tsou AP, Chen SJ, Chen HC, Hsu PW, Wong YH, Chen YH, Chen GH & Huang HD. (2008). miRNAMap 2.0: genomic maps of microRNAs in metazoan genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. , 36, D165-9. PMID: 18029362 DOI.
Search Pubmed Now: microRNA
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- miRBase - http://www.mirbase.org
- miRIAD - http://www.bioinfo.mochsl.org.br/miriad/miRNA/hsa-mir-1180/ is a web search tool designed to help users to access integrated information concerning intragenic microRNAs and their host genes
- Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center - microRNA.org - Targets and Expression
- SABiosciences - Cell Differentiation & Development miRNA PCR Array
- Sigma-Aldrich - miRNA Introduction
- miRNAMap - http://mirnamap.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, January 16) Embryology Molecular Development - microRNA. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Molecular_Development_-_microRNA
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G