Mesoderm

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Introduction

The trilaminar embryo

The middle layer of the early trilaminar embryo germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) formed by gastrulation.

This middle germ layer forms connective tissues and muscle throughout the body, with the exception of in the head region where some of these structures have a neural crest (ectoderm) origin.

  • connective tissues - cartilage, bone, blood, blood vessel endothelium, dermis, etc.
  • muscle - cardiac, skeletal, smooth.

Students often mix-up the terms mesoderm (middle layer) with mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue). It is true that mesoderm initially does have a mesenchymal cellular organisation, but can also form a range of epithelial structures (surrounding somites, mesothelium lining of body cavities).


Mesoderm Links: Endoderm | Mesoderm | Ectoderm | Lecture - Musculoskeletal Development | Notochord | Development Animation - Notochord | Somitogenesis | Musculoskeletal | Sonic hedgehog | Category:Mesoderm
Historic Embryology
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Minot CS. Origin of mesoderm. (1883) Science 2(47);815-8 . PMID 17776824

Florian J. The early development of man, with special reference to the development of the mesoderm and cloacal membrane. (1933) J. Anat., 67(2): 263-76. PMID 17104422

Some Recent Findings

Mesenchymal cells of the developing limb bud possess long and highly dynamic cytoplasmic extensions.[1]
  • A role for Vg1/Nodal signaling in specification of the intermediate mesoderm[2] "The intermediate mesoderm (IM) is the embryonic source of all kidney tissue in vertebrates. The factors that regulate the formation of the IM are not yet well understood. Through investigations in the chick embryo, the current study identifies and characterizes Vg1/Nodal signaling (henceforth referred to as 'Nodal-like signaling') as a novel regulator of IM formation. ... We postulate that Nodal-like signaling regulates IM formation by modulating the IM-inducing effects of BMP signaling." Renal System Development
  • Signaling gradients during paraxial mesoderm development[3] "These studies indicate that high levels of Wnt and FGF signaling are required for the segmentation clock activity. Furthermore, we discuss how these signaling gradients act in a dose-dependent manner in the progenitors of the paraxial mesoderm, partly by regulating cell movements during gastrulation. Finally, links between the process of axial specification of vertebral segments and Hox gene expression are discussed."
  • Transcriptional profiling of the nucleus pulposus: say yes to notochord[4]"This editorial addresses the debate concerning the origin of adult nucleus pulposus cells in the light of profiling studies by Minogue and colleagues. In their report of several marker genes that distinguish nucleus pulposus cells from other related cell types, the authors provide novel insights into the notochordal nature of the former. Together with recently published work, their work lends support to the view that all cells present within the nucleus pulposus are derived from the notochord. Hence, the choice of an animal model for disc research should be based on considerations other than the cell loss and replacement by non-notochordal cells."
More recent papers
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Search term: Mesoderm Development | Images

<pubmed limit=5>Mesoderm+Development</pubmed>

Mesoderm Movies

Mesoderm 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Mesoderm
Page | Play
Notochord 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Notochord
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Notochord 02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Notochord
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Vertebra 003 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Vertebra
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Somite 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Musculoskeletal
Page | Play
Mesoderm migration movie 1 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Mesoderm Move
Page | Play
Presomitic mesoderm movie 3 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Presomite Mesod
Page | Play
Somitogenesis 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Somitogenesis
Page | Play

Mesoderm Formation during Gastrulation

Chicken-gastrulation2.jpg


Links: Gastrulation

Patterning

Notochord secreting sonic hedgehog, shown in white

Mesoderm cartoon.gif

Mesoderm-cartoon1.jpgMesoderm-cartoon2.jpgMesoderm-cartoon3.jpgMesoderm-cartoon4.jpg


Somite cartoon5.png

Somite patterning


Molecular Factors

References

  1. Timothy A. Sanders, Esther Llagostera, Maria Barna. Specialized filopodia direct long-range transport of SHH during vertebrate tissue patterning. Nature Apr 28, 2013.
  2. <pubmed>23533180</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>20182616</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>20497604</pubmed>

Reviews

<pubmed>20568241</pubmed>

<pubmed>17705304</pubmed>

Articles

<pubmed>21159819</pubmed> <pubmed>20565707</pubmed> <pubmed>7956820</pubmed>

Historic

<pubmed>17104422</pubmed>

Search PubMed

Search NLM Online Textbooks: "Mesoderm" : Developmental Biology | The Cell- A molecular Approach | Molecular Biology of the Cell | Endocrinology


Search Pubmed: Mesoderm | Notochord

External Links

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Take the Quiz

1

Mesenchyme refers to the middle layer of the trilaminar embryo

true
false

2

The intraembryonic coelom forms within :

somites
lateral plate
neural tube
intermediate mesoderm

3

All paraxial mesoderm segments into somites.

true
false

4

Somites are developmental structures that contribute the following adult structures :

vertebra, notochord, dermis, skeletal muscle
vertebra, intervertebral discs, dermis, skeletal muscle
kidney, body wall connective tissue, sensory ganglia
kidney, gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle, mesentry


Glossary Links

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, July 16) Embryology Mesoderm. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Mesoderm

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G