Difference between revisions of "Mesoderm"

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<pubmed limit=5>Mesoderm+Development</pubmed>
 
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==Mesoderm Movies==
 +
 +
{|
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Week 3 mesoderm movie}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Week 3 notochord 1 movie}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Week 3 notochord 2 movie}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Vertebra movie}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Somite movie}}
 +
|-
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Somitogenesis movie}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Mesoderm migration movie 1}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Presomitic mesoderm movie 3}}
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==Mesoderm Formation during Gastrulation==
 
==Mesoderm Formation during Gastrulation==
 
[[File:Chicken-gastrulation2.jpg]]
 
[[File:Chicken-gastrulation2.jpg]]
{| border='0px'
 
|-
 
| width=400px|<mediaplayer width='390' height='500' image="http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/images/b/b9/Mesoderm_001_icon.jpg">File:Mesoderm_001.mp4</mediaplayer>
 
| valign="top" |This animation shows the migration of mesoderm throughout the embryonic disc during gastrulation.
 
  
The pink arrows show how mesodermal cells spread out between the ectoderm and endoderm layers, forming the third layer of the '''trilaminar''' embryo.
 
 
'''Axial process''' - the arrow running from the '''primitive node''' upward is the axial process which will later form the '''notochord'''.
 
 
There are only 2 regions where mesoderm is not found: '''buccopharyngeal membrane''' and '''cloacal membrane'''.
 
* these two regions form the upper and lower ends of the gastrointestinal tract.
 
 
'''Prechordal plate''' - lies above the '''buccopharyngeal membrane''' and is the cardiogenic mesoderm, that will form the heart.
 
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
 
:'''Links:''' [[Gastrulation]]
 
:'''Links:''' [[Gastrulation]]

Revision as of 16:54, 17 August 2015

Embryology - 19 Oct 2019    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
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Introduction

The trilaminar embryo

The middle layer of the early trilaminar embryo germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) formed by gastrulation.

This middle germ layer forms connective tissues and muscle throughout the body, with the exception of in the head region where some of these structures have a neural crest (ectoderm) origin.

  • connective tissues - cartilage, bone, blood, blood vessel endothelium, dermis, etc.
  • muscle - cardiac, skeletal, smooth.

Students often mix-up the terms mesoderm (middle layer) with mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue). It is true that mesoderm initially does have a mesenchymal cellular organisation, but can also form a range of epithelial structures (surrounding somites, mesothelium lining of body cavities).


Mesoderm Links: Endoderm | Mesoderm | Ectoderm | Lecture - Musculoskeletal Development | Notochord | Development Animation - Notochord | Somitogenesis | Musculoskeletal | Sonic hedgehog | Category:Mesoderm

Some Recent Findings

Mesenchymal cells of the developing limb bud possess long and highly dynamic cytoplasmic extensions.[1]
  • A role for Vg1/Nodal signaling in specification of the intermediate mesoderm[2] "The intermediate mesoderm (IM) is the embryonic source of all kidney tissue in vertebrates. The factors that regulate the formation of the IM are not yet well understood. Through investigations in the chick embryo, the current study identifies and characterizes Vg1/Nodal signaling (henceforth referred to as 'Nodal-like signaling') as a novel regulator of IM formation. ... We postulate that Nodal-like signaling regulates IM formation by modulating the IM-inducing effects of BMP signaling." Renal System Development
  • Signaling gradients during paraxial mesoderm development[3] "These studies indicate that high levels of Wnt and FGF signaling are required for the segmentation clock activity. Furthermore, we discuss how these signaling gradients act in a dose-dependent manner in the progenitors of the paraxial mesoderm, partly by regulating cell movements during gastrulation. Finally, links between the process of axial specification of vertebral segments and Hox gene expression are discussed."
  • Transcriptional profiling of the nucleus pulposus: say yes to notochord[4]"This editorial addresses the debate concerning the origin of adult nucleus pulposus cells in the light of profiling studies by Minogue and colleagues. In their report of several marker genes that distinguish nucleus pulposus cells from other related cell types, the authors provide novel insights into the notochordal nature of the former. Together with recently published work, their work lends support to the view that all cells present within the nucleus pulposus are derived from the notochord. Hence, the choice of an animal model for disc research should be based on considerations other than the cell loss and replacement by non-notochordal cells."
More recent papers
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More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References

Search term: Mesoderm Development | Images

<pubmed limit=5>Mesoderm+Development</pubmed>

Mesoderm Movies

Mesoderm 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Mesoderm
Page | Play
Notochord 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Notochord
Page | Play
Notochord 02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Notochord
Page | Play
Vertebra 003 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Vertebra
Page | Play
Somite 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Musculoskeletal
Page | Play
Somitogenesis 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Somitogenesis
Page | Play
Mesoderm migration movie 1 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Mesoderm Move
Page | Play
Presomitic mesoderm movie 3 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Presomite Mesod
Page | Play

Mesoderm Formation during Gastrulation

Chicken-gastrulation2.jpg


Links: Gastrulation

Patterning

Notochord secreting sonic hedgehog, shown in white

Mesoderm cartoon.gif

Mesoderm-cartoon1.jpgMesoderm-cartoon2.jpgMesoderm-cartoon3.jpgMesoderm-cartoon4.jpg


Somite cartoon5.png

Somite patterning


Molecular Factors

References

  1. Timothy A. Sanders, Esther Llagostera, Maria Barna. Specialized filopodia direct long-range transport of SHH during vertebrate tissue patterning. Nature Apr 28, 2013.
  2. <pubmed>23533180</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>20182616</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>20497604</pubmed>

Reviews

<pubmed>20568241</pubmed>

<pubmed>17705304</pubmed>

Articles

<pubmed>21159819</pubmed> <pubmed>20565707</pubmed> <pubmed>7956820</pubmed>

Historic

<pubmed>17104422</pubmed>

Search PubMed

Search NLM Online Textbooks: "Mesoderm" : Developmental Biology | The Cell- A molecular Approach | Molecular Biology of the Cell | Endocrinology


Search Pubmed: Mesoderm | Notochord

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Take the Quiz

1

Mesenchyme refers to the middle layer of the trilaminar embryo

true
false

2

The intraembryonic coelom forms within :

somites
lateral plate
neural tube
intermediate mesoderm

3

All paraxial mesoderm segments into somites.

true
false

4

Somites are developmental structures that contribute the following adult structures :

vertebra, notochord, dermis, skeletal muscle
vertebra, intervertebral discs, dermis, skeletal muscle
kidney, body wall connective tissue, sensory ganglia
kidney, gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle, mesentry


Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, October 19) Embryology Mesoderm. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Mesoderm

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G