Menstrual Cycle - Histology

From Embryology

Introduction

This page presents images from vaginal smears and uterine endometrium dilatation and curettage[1] samples during different phases of the human menstrual cycle.


Menstrual Cycle Links: Introduction | menstrual histology | ovary | corpus luteum | oocyte | uterus | Uterine Gland | estrous cycle | pregnancy test
Historic Embryology - Menstrual 
1839 Corpus Luteum Structure | 1851 Corpus Luteum | 1933 Pap Smear | 1937 Corpus Luteum Hormone | 1942 Human Reproduction Hormones | 1951 Corpus Luteum | 1969 Ultrastructure of Development and Regression | 1969 Ultrastructure during Pregnancy
Histology Links: stains | fixatives | artifacts | menstrual histology | placenta histology | heart histology | liver histology | Pancreas | Gall Bladder | Colon | Renal | Respiratory Histology | Bone | Category:Histology | UNSW Histology
  Historic Histology Textbooks: 1941 Histology] | 1944 Oral Histology
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Phase Days (range) Smear Smear Description Uterine Endometrium (D&C)
Menstrual 1 - 4 Click on image to see full size. Both stratum corneum (red) and stratum spinosum (blue) epithelial cells will mostly blood.

Leukocytes and bacteria may also be present.

Human- menstrual uterine endometrium.jpg
Early Proliferative 5 - 9 Smear- early proliferative.jpg Mainly large and small basophilic (blue) stratum spinosum cells.  
Mid Proliferative 9 - 13 Smear- mid-proliferative.jpg Stratum spinosum (blue) increase in size.

Dark precipate outside cells are bacteria.

Human- mid-proliferative uterine endometrium.jpg
Late Proliferative, Ovulatory 13-14 Smear- late-proliferative.jpg mainly stratum corneum (red) which are large and flat.

Appear due to high estrogen levels.

Human- late proliferative uterine endometrium.jpg
Secretory 15 - 22 Smear- secretory.jpg stratum spinosum cells (blue) which are folded or with curled edges.

Appear immediately after ovulation due to increase in progesterone.

Leukocytes (small black cells) becoming more numerous.

Human- secretory uterine endometrium.jpg
Late Secretory, (Ischemic) Premenstrual 23 - 28 Smear- late secretory.jpg stratum spinosum cells (blue) mainly with a few stratum corneum cells (red).

Clustering of cells occurs at this stage.

Both leukocytes and bacteria are prevelant.

Human- late secretory uterine endometrium.jpg


Human vaginal smear histology images in sequence: early proliferative | mid-proliferative | late proliferative | secretory | late secretory

Human Uterus (D and C histology images) in sequence: menstrual | mid-proliferative | late proliferative | secretory | late secretory


See also Uterus Development

Abnormalities

Bacterial Vaginosis

  • The normal vaginal flora (lactobacillus morphotypes) is replaced by a mixed microbial flora consisting of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and anaerobes.
    • Originally described by Gardner and Dukes (1955).[2]
  • clinical features - malodorous, thin homogeneous vaginal discharge with elevated vaginal pH above 4.5.
Smear Image Links: L. crispatus | L. crispatus | non-L. crispatus with thin lactobacilli | non-L. crispatus with thin lactobacilli | mixture non-L. crispatus with L. crispatus | mixture non-L. crispatus with L. crispatus | irregular-shaped Gram positive rod | irregular-shaped Gram positive rod | mixture Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated | mixture Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated | bacterial vaginosis | bacterial vaginosis
Links: Menstrual Cycle - Histology | Histology - Gram Stain | Bacterial Vaginosis | CDC (USA) Fact Sheet - Bacterial Vaginosis

References

  1. <pubmed>19594996</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>14361525</pubmed>

Search Pubmed

Search Pubmed Now: Menstrual Cycle Histology | uterine histology | vaginal smear | pap smear |

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, September 26) Embryology Menstrual Cycle - Histology. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Menstrual_Cycle_-_Histology

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© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G