Lizards and snakes represent scaled reptiles (squamata). Lizard development involves an amniotic egg, that evolutionary (~320 million years ago) freed the vertebrates from their aquatic (water) to a terrestrial (land) environment. The Galápagos Islands marine iguana was also made famous by Charles Darwin's historic evolution studies.
The genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis (green anole) from southeastern United States has a karyotype of 18 chromosomes, comprising six pairs of large macrochromosomes and 12 pairs of small microchromosomes, and has recently been sequenced . Interestingly, almost all reptilian genomes also contain "microchromosomes", very small chromosomes less than 20 Mb in sequence size. (More? Genome)
Some Recent Findings
root; cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Sauropsida; Sauria; Lepidosauria
Squamata (squamates) - snakes and lizards.
- Iguania (iguanian lizards) - arboreal with primitively fleshy, non-prehensile tongues, highly modified in the chameleons.
- Iguanidae (iguanid lizards)
- Anguimorpha (anguimorph lizards)
- Gekkota - all geckos and the limbless Pygopodidae.
- Scincomorpha (scincomorph lizards)
- Serpentes (snakes)
- unclassified Squamata
- Links: Taxonomy Browser Lizards
Australian Water Skink
Anolis carolinensis (green anole)
The genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis (green anole) from southeastern United States has a karyotype of 18 chromosomes, comprising six pairs of large macrochromosomes and 12 pairs of small microchromosomes, and has recently been sequenced . Interestingly, almost all reptilian genomes also contain "microchromosomes", very small chromosomes less than 20 Mb in sequence size.
It is a model organism for laboratory-based studies of organismal function and for field studies of ecology and evolution. This species was chosen for genome sequencing in part because of the ease and low expense of captive breeding, well studied brain, and sophisticated color vision. It is also well suited for studies involving the role of hormones in development and adult nervous system plasticity. (modified from Genome)
Search PubMed Genome: Lizard
Schwalbe (1891) points out the significant fact that in reptiles that lack an external ear (lizard and turtle) there occur distinct hillocks in the embryo, resembling those in vertebrates that develop an auricle. These hillocks undergo degeneration and are reduced to the level of the surrounding skin. He finds in both birds and reptiles hillocks corresponding to the tragus and antitragus hillocks of His. These animals have one hillock (Auricularkegel), situated dorsal to the first cleft, which seems to represent a more primitive apparatus than is present in mammals, although it may be related to the helix system. In Salachians it possesses a spiracle.
- Jessica Alföldi, Federica Di Palma, Manfred Grabherr, Christina Williams, Lesheng Kong, Evan Mauceli, Pamela Russell, Craig B Lowe, Richard E Glor, Jacob D Jaffe, David A Ray, Stephane Boissinot, Andrew M Shedlock, Christopher Botka, Todd A Castoe, John K Colbourne, Matthew K Fujita, Ricardo Godinez Moreno, Boudewijn F ten Hallers, David Haussler, Andreas Heger, David Heiman, Daniel E Janes, Jeremy Johnson, Pieter J de Jong, Maxim Y Koriabine, Marcia Lara, Peter A Novick, Chris L Organ, Sally E Peach, Steven Poe, David D Pollock, Kevin de Queiroz, Thomas Sanger, Steve Searle, Jeremy D Smith, Zachary Smith, Ross Swofford, Jason Turner-Maier, Juli Wade, Sarah Young, Amonida Zadissa, Scott V Edwards, Travis C Glenn, Christopher J Schneider, Jonathan B Losos, Eric S Lander, Matthew Breen, Chris P Ponting, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals. Nature: 2011, 477(7366);587-91 PubMed 21881562
- Wei-Guo Du, Hua Ye, Bo Zhao, Ligia Pizzatto, Xiang Ji, Richard Shine Patterns of interspecific variation in the heart rates of embryonic reptiles. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(12);e29027 PubMed 22174948 | PMC3184186
- Kevin M Gribbins Reptilian spermatogenesis: A histological and ultrastructural perspective. Spermatogenesis: 2011, 1(3);250-269 PubMed 22319673
Bridget F Murphy, Michael B Thompson A review of the evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles: the past, present and future role of molecular biology and genomics. J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol.: 2011, 181(5);575-94 PubMed 21573966
Edward M Dzialowski, Tushar Sirsat, Saskia van der Sterren, Eduardo Villamor Prenatal cardiovascular shunts in amniotic vertebrates. Respir Physiol Neurobiol: 2011, 178(1);66-74 PubMed 21513818
T Gamble A review of sex determining mechanisms in geckos (Gekkota: Squamata). Sex Dev: 2010, 4(1-2);88-103 PubMed 20234154
Patrick A D Wise, Matthew K Vickaryous, Anthony P Russell An embryonic staging table for in ovo development of Eublepharis macularius, the leopard gecko. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2009, 292(8);1198-212 PubMed 19645023
Miyuki Noro, Asaka Uejima, Gembu Abe, Makoto Manabe, Koji Tamura Normal developmental stages of the Madagascar ground gecko Paroedura pictus with special reference to limb morphogenesis. Dev. Dyn.: 2009, 238(1);100-9 PubMed 19097047
Melissa A Storm, Michael J Angilletta Rapid assimilation of yolk enhances growth and development of lizard embryos from a cold environment. J. Exp. Biol.: 2007, 210(Pt 19);3415-21 PubMed 17872995
Thomas J Sanger, Jeremy J Gibson-Brown The developmental bases of limb reduction and body elongation in squamates. Evolution: 2004, 58(9);2103-6; discussion 2107-8 PubMed 15521466
V Muthukkaruppan, P Kanakambika, V Manickavel, K Veeraraghavan Analysis of the development of the lizard, Calotes versicolor. I. A series of normal stages in the embryonic development. J. Morphol.: 1970, 130(4);479-89 PubMed 5437480
M B Mohammed Development of the lizard limb as shown by the distribution of [35S]sulphate incorporation. J. Anat.: 1984, 138 ( Pt 3);399-403 PubMed 6429113
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- Department of Primary Industries Lizards of Tasmania
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2015) Embryology Lizard Development. Retrieved August 30, 2015, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Lizard_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2015, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G