Difference between revisions of "Human System Development"

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==Introduction==
 
[[File:Stage14_sem2cl.jpg|right]]
 
[[File:Stage14_sem2cl.jpg|right]]
==Introduction==
 
 
Following the first 3 weeks of human development embryonic systems begin to be established. Over the next 5 weeks these embryonic systems lay down a template for the majority of body structures. As much as possible the known human data is shown on the individual systems notes, though there is also reference to animal models of development. See also the notes on [[Fetal Development]].
 
Following the first 3 weeks of human development embryonic systems begin to be established. Over the next 5 weeks these embryonic systems lay down a template for the majority of body structures. As much as possible the known human data is shown on the individual systems notes, though there is also reference to animal models of development. See also the notes on [[Fetal Development]].
  
Use the links listed below to view specific topics. [http://tiny.cc/SystemsDevelopment http://tiny.cc/SystemsDevelopment]
+
[[Embryonic Development]] section of notes covers development before later system formation.
 +
 
 +
This current page is a central link to all the related content, use the links listed below to view specific topics. [http://tiny.cc/SystemsDevelopment http://tiny.cc/SystemsDevelopment]
  
  
{{Template:Systems}}
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{{Systems}}
  
 
==Cardiovascular System==
 
==Cardiovascular System==
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{|
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| [[File:Heart Tube Fusion.jpg|left|100px]]
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| {{Heart Links}}
  
{{Template:Heart Links}} | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/heart.htm original page]
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|}
  
 
==Coelomic Cavity==
 
==Coelomic Cavity==
{{Template:Coelomic Cavity Links}} | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/coelom.htm original page]
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{|
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| [[File:Mesoderm cartoon4.gif|100px]]
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| {{Coelomic Cavity Links}}
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|}
  
 
==Endocrine System==
 
==Endocrine System==
{{Template:Endocrine Links}}
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{|
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| [[File:Week10_adrenal.jpg|left|100px]]
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| {{Endocrine Links}}
 +
|}
 +
 
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==Gastrointestinal System==
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{|
 +
| [[File:Gray0982a.jpg|left|100px]]
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| {{Gastrointestinal Tract Links}}
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|}
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 +
==Genital System==
 +
{|
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| [[File:Paramesonephric_ducts.jpg|left|100px]]
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| {{Genital Links}}
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|}
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==Head and Neck==
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{|
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| [[File:Stage16-18_face.jpg|left|100px]]
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| Not really a system but an anatomical region with complex origins and structures.
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 +
{{Template:Head Links}}
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|}
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==Immune System==
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{|
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| [[File:Spleen_anatomy.jpg|left|100px]]
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|
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{{Immune Links}}
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|}
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==Integumentary System==
 +
{|
 +
| [[File:Skin structure cartoon.jpg|left|100px]]
 +
| {{Integumentary Links}}
 +
 
 +
|}
  
 
==Musculoskeletal System==
 
==Musculoskeletal System==
{{Template:Musculoskeletal Links}}
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{|
 +
| [[File:Stage20-23_limbs_b.jpg|left|100px]]
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| {{Musculoskeletal Links}}
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 +
|}
  
 
==Neural System==
 
==Neural System==
{{Template:Neural Links}}
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{|
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| [[File:Stage10_neural_sm.jpg|left|100px]]
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| {{Neural Links}}
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{{Neural Links 2}}
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{{Historic Neural}}
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|}
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==Neural Crest==
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{|
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| [[File:Chicken-neural-crest-migration-01.jpg|100px]]
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| {{Neural Crest Links}}
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|}
  
 
==Placenta==
 
==Placenta==
{{Template:Placenta Links}} | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/placenta.htm original page]
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{|
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| [[File:Placental_membranes.jpg|100px]]
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| {{Placenta Links}}
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::{{Historic Placenta}}
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|}
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==Renal System==
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{|
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| [[File:Gray1127.jpg|100px]]
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| {{Template:Renal Links}}
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 +
|}
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==Respiratory System==
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{|
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| [[File:Stage14_respiratory_tract.jpg|100px|Respiratory system overview ([[Carnegie_stage_13|stage 13]])]]
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| {{Respiratory Links}}
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|}
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 +
==Sensory System==
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{|
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| [[File:Hearing_cartoon.jpg|100px]]
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| {{Senses Links}}
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|}
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===Hearing===
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:{{Hearing Links}}
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===Vision===
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:{{Vision Links}}
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===Smell===
 +
:{{Smell Links}}
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===Taste===
 +
:{{Taste Links}}
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 +
 
 +
==Cell Types==
 +
The tables below are provided only as a guide.
 +
 
 +
===Adult Human Cell Types===
 +
{{Adult Human Cell Types collapsetable1}}
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 +
===Ectoderm Cell Types===
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{{Ectoderm Cell Types collapsetable1}}
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===Mesoderm Cell Types===
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{{Mesoderm Cell Types collapsetable1}}
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===Endoderm Cell Types===
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{{Endoderm Cell Types collapsetable1}}
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 +
 
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{{Glossary}}
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{{Template:Glossary}}
 
  
{{Template:Footer}}
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{{Footer}}
  
 
[[Category:System Development]]
 
[[Category:System Development]]

Latest revision as of 11:58, 13 December 2019

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Introduction

Stage14 sem2cl.jpg

Following the first 3 weeks of human development embryonic systems begin to be established. Over the next 5 weeks these embryonic systems lay down a template for the majority of body structures. As much as possible the known human data is shown on the individual systems notes, though there is also reference to animal models of development. See also the notes on Fetal Development.

Embryonic Development section of notes covers development before later system formation.

This current page is a central link to all the related content, use the links listed below to view specific topics. http://tiny.cc/SystemsDevelopment


System Links: Introduction | Cardiovascular | Coelomic Cavity | Endocrine | Gastrointestinal Tract | Genital | Head | Immune | Integumentary | Musculoskeletal | Neural | Neural Crest | Placenta | Renal | Respiratory | Sensory | Birth

Cardiovascular System

Heart Tube Fusion.jpg
Cardiovascular Links: cardiovascular | Heart Tutorial | Lecture - Early Vascular | Lecture - Heart | Movies | 2016 Cardiac Review | heart | coronary circulation | heart valve | heart rate | Circulation | blood | blood vessel | blood vessel histology | heart histology | Lymphatic | ductus venosus | spleen | Stage 22 | cardiovascular abnormalities | OMIM | 2012 ECHO Meeting | Category:Cardiovascular
Historic Embryology - Cardiovascular 
1902 Vena cava inferior | 1905 Brain Blood Vessels | 1909 Cervical Veins | 1909 Dorsal aorta and umbilical veins | 1912 Heart | 1912 Human Heart | 1914 Earliest Blood-Vessels | 1915 Congenital Cardiac Disease | 1915 Dura Venous Sinuses | 1916 Blood cell origin | 1916 Pars Membranacea Septi | 1919 Lower Limb Arteries | 1921 Human Brain Vascular | 1921 Spleen | 1922 Aortic-Arch System | 1922 Pig Forelimb Arteries | 1922 Chicken Pulmonary | 1923 Head Subcutaneous Plexus | 1923 Ductus Venosus | 1925 Venous Development | 1927 Stage 11 Heart | 1928 Heart Blood Flow | 1935 Aorta | 1935 Venous valves | 1938 Pars Membranacea Septi | 1938 Foramen Ovale | 1939 Atrio-Ventricular Valves | 1940 Vena cava inferior | 1940 Early Hematopoiesis | 1941 Blood Formation | 1942 Truncus and Conus Partitioning | Ziegler Heart Models | 1951 Heart Movie | 1954 Week 9 Heart | 1957 Cranial venous system | 1959 Brain Arterial Anastomoses | Historic Embryology Papers | 2012 ECHO Meeting | 2016 Cardiac Review | Historic Disclaimer

Coelomic Cavity

Mesoderm cartoon4.gif
Coelom Links: Introduction | Lecture - Week 3 Development | Lecture - Mesoderm Development | Placenta - Membranes | Category:Coelomic Cavity
Historic Embryology: 1891 peritoneal | 1897 human coelom | 1910 | 1924 serous

Endocrine System

Week10 adrenal.jpg
Endocrine Links: Introduction | BGD Lecture | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | pineal | hypothalamus‎ | pituitary | thyroid | parathyroid | thymus | pancreas | adrenal | endocrine gonad‎ | endocrine placenta | other tissues | Stage 22 | endocrine abnormalities | Hormones | Category:Endocrine
Historic Embryology - Endocrine  
1903 Islets of Langerhans | 1904 interstitial Cells | 1908 Pancreas Different Species | 1908 Pituitary | 1908 Pituitary histology | 1911 Rathke's pouch | 1912 Suprarenal Bodies | 1914 Suprarenal Organs | 1915 Pharynx | 1916 Thyroid | 1918 Rabbit Hypophysis | 1920 Adrenal | 1935 Mammalian Hypophysis | 1926 Human Hypophysis | 1927 Hypophyseal fossa | 1932 Pineal Gland and Cysts | 1935 Hypophysis | 1937 Pineal | 1938 Parathyroid | 1940 Adrenal | 1941 Thyroid | 1950 Thyroid Parathyroid Thymus | 1957 Adrenal

Gastrointestinal System

Gray0982a.jpg
GIT Links: Introduction | Medicine Lecture | Science Lecture | endoderm | mouth | oesophagus | stomach | liver | gallbladder | Pancreas | intestine | mesentery | tongue | taste | enteric nervous system | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | gastrointestinal abnormalities | Movies | Postnatal | milk | tooth | salivary gland | BGD Lecture | BGD Practical | GIT Terms | Category:Gastrointestinal Tract
GIT Histology Links: Upper GIT | Salivary Gland | Smooth Muscle Histology | Liver | Gallbladder | Pancreas | Colon | Histology Stains | Histology | GIT Development
Historic Embryology - Gastrointestinal Tract  
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1884 Great omentum and transverse mesocolon | 1902 Meckel's diverticulum | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1903 Submaxillary Gland | 1906 Liver | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1908 Liver and Vascular | 1910 Mucous membrane Oesophagus to Small Intestine | 1910 Large intestine and Vermiform process | 1911-13 Intestine and Peritoneum - Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 5 | Part 6 | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1912 Stomach | 1914 Digestive Tract | 1914 Intestines | 1914 Rectum | 1915 Pharynx | 1915 Intestinal Rotation | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 1932 Gall Bladder | 1939 Alimentary Canal Looping | 1940 Duodenum anomalies | 2008 Liver | 2016 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1921 Liver Suspensory Ligament | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog

Genital System

Paramesonephric ducts.jpg
Genital Links: genital | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Lecture Movie | Medicine - Practical | primordial germ cell | meiosis | Female | X | ovary | corpus luteum | oocyte | uterus | vagina | reproductive cycles | menstrual cycle | Male | Y | SRY | testis | spermatozoa | ductus deferens | penis | prostate | endocrine gonad‎ | Genital Movies | genital abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | puberty | Category:Genital
Historic Embryology - Genital 
1887-88 Testis | 1901 Urinogenital Tract | 1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1909 Prostate | 1912 Prostate | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 External Genitalia | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1920 Wolffian tubules | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Head and Neck

Stage16-18 face.jpg
Not really a system but an anatomical region with complex origins and structures.
Head Links: Introduction | Medicine Lecture | Medicine Lab | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | Science Lab | pharyngeal arch | Craniofacial Seminar | mouth | palate | tongue | placode | skull | neural crest | Head and Face Movies | head abnormalities | Category:Head
Historic Head Embryology  
1910 Skull | 1910 Skull Images | 1912 Nasolacrimal Duct | 1921 Human Brain Vascular | 1923 Head Subcutaneous Plexus | 1919 21mm Embryo Skull | 1920 Human Embryo Head Size | 1921 43 mm Fetal Skull | Historic Disclaimer

Immune System

Spleen anatomy.jpg
Immune Links: immune | blood | spleen | thymus | Lymphatic | lymph node | Antibody | Med Lecture - Lymphatic Structure | Med Practical | Immune Movies | vaccination | bacterial infection | Abnormalities | Category:Immune
Historic Embryology  
1909 Lymph glands | 1912 Development of the Lymphatic System | 1918 Gray's Lymphatic Images | 1916 Pig Lymphatics | 1919 Chicken Lymphatic | 1921 Spleen | 1922 Pig Stomach Lymphatics | 1932 Cat Pharyngeal Tonsil | Historic Disclaimer

Integumentary System

Skin structure cartoon.jpg
Integumentary Links: integumentary | Lecture | hair | tooth | nail | integumentary gland | mammary gland | vernix caseosa | melanocyte | touch | Eyelid | outer ear | Histology | integumentary abnormalities | Category:Integumentary
Hair Links  
Hair Links: Overview | Lanugo | Neonatal | Vellus | Terminal | Hair Follicle | Follicle Phases | Stem Cells | Molecular | Pattern | Puberty | Histology | Hair Colour | Arrector Pili Muscle | Hair Loss | Integumentary
Touch Links  
Touch Links: Touch Receptors | Touch Pathway | Pacinian Corpuscle | Meissner's Corpuscle | Merkel Cell | Sensory Modalities | Neural Crest Development | Neural System Development | Student project | Integumentary | Sensory System
Historic Embryology  
1906 Papillary ridges | 1910 Manual of Human Embryology | 1914 Integumentary | 1923 Head Subcutaneous Plexus | 1921 Text-Book of Embryology | 1924 Developmental Anatomy | 1941 Skin Sensory | Historic Disclaimer
Tinycc  
http://tiny.cc/Integument_Development

Musculoskeletal System

Stage20-23 limbs b.jpg
Musculoskeletal Links: Introduction | mesoderm | somitogenesis | limb | cartilage | bone | bone timeline | shoulder | pelvis | axial skeleton | skull | joint | skeletal muscle | muscle timeline | tendon | diaphragm | Lecture - Musculoskeletal | Lecture Movie | musculoskeletal abnormalities | limb abnormalities | developmental hip dysplasia | cartilage histology | bone histology | Skeletal Muscle Histology | Category:Musculoskeletal
Historic Musculoskeletal Embryology  
1853 Bone | 1885 Sphenoid | 1902 - Pubo-femoral Region | Spinal Column and Back | Body Segmentation | Cranium | Body Wall, Ribs, and Sternum | Limbs | 1901 - Limbs | 1902 - Arm Development | 1906 Human Embryo Ossification | 1906 Lower limb Nerves and Muscle | 1907 - Muscular System | Skeleton and Limbs | 1908 Vertebra | 1908 Cervical Vertebra | 1909 Mandible | 1910 - Skeleton and Connective Tissues | Muscular System | Coelom and Diaphragm | 1913 Clavicle | 1920 Clavicle | 1921 - External body form | Connective tissues and skeletal | Muscular | Diaphragm | 1929 Rat Somite | 1932 Pelvis | 1940 Synovial Joints | 1943 Human Embryonic, Fetal and Circumnatal Skeleton | 1947 Joints | 1949 Cartilage and Bone | 1957 Chondrification Hands and Feet | 1968 Knee

Neural System

Stage10 neural sm.jpg
Neural Links: ectoderm | neural | neural crest | ventricular | sensory | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | neural postnatal | neural examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural
Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus‎ | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural
Historic Neural Embryology  
1883 Nervous System | 1893 Brain Structure | 1892 Nervous System Development | 1900 fourth ventricle | 1905 Brain Blood-Vessels | 1909 corpus ponto-bulbare | 1912 nuclei pontis - nucleus arcuatus | 1921 Neural Development | 1921 Anencephaly | 1921 Brain Weight | 1921 Brain Vascular System | 1921 Cerebellum | 1922 Brain Plan | 1923 Neural Folds | 1904 Brain and Mind | 1904 Brain Structure | 1909 Forebrain Vesicle | 1922 Hippocampal Fissure | 1923 Forebrain | 1927 Anencephaly | 1934 Anencephaly | 1937 Anencephaly | 1945 Spinal Cord | 1945 cerebral cortex | Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Ziegler Neural Models | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Neural Crest

Chicken-neural-crest-migration-01.jpg
Neural Crest Links: neural crest | Lecture - Early Neural | Lecture - Neural Crest Development | Lecture Movie | Schwann cell | adrenal | melanocyte | peripheral nervous system | enteric nervous system | cornea | cranial nerve neural crest | head | skull | cardiac neural crest | Nicole Le Douarin | Neural Crest Movies | neural crest abnormalities | Category:Neural Crest
Historic Embryology - Neural Crest  
1879 Olfactory Organ | 1905 Cranial and Spinal Nerves | 1908 10 mm Peripheral | 1910 Mammal Sympathetic | 1920 Human Sympathetic | 1939 10 Somite Embryo | 1942 Origin | 1957 Adrenal

Placenta

Placental membranes.jpg
Placenta Links: placenta | Lecture - Placenta | Lecture Movie | Practical - Placenta | implantation | placental villi | trophoblast | maternal decidua | uterus | endocrine placenta | placental cord | placental membranes | placenta abnormalities | ectopic pregnancy | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | placenta histology | placenta vascular | blood vessel | cord stem cells | 2013 Meeting Presentation | Placenta Terms | Category:Placenta
Historic Embryology - Placenta 
1883 Embryonic Membranes | 1907 Development Atlas | 1909 | 1910 Textbook | 1917 Textbook | 1921 Textbook | 1921 Foetal Membranes |1921 human | 1921 Pig implantation | 1922 Single placental artery | 1923 Placenta Review | 1939 umbilical cord | 1943 human and monkey | 1944 chorionic villus and decidua parietalis | 1946 placenta ageing | 1960 monkey | 1972 Placental circulation | Historic Disclaimer
Historic Embryology - Placenta 
1883 Embryonic Membranes | 1907 Development Atlas | 1909 | 1910 Textbook | 1917 Textbook | 1921 Textbook | 1921 Foetal Membranes |1921 human | 1921 Pig implantation | 1922 Single placental artery | 1923 Placenta Review | 1939 umbilical cord | 1943 human and monkey | 1944 chorionic villus and decidua parietalis | 1946 placenta ageing | 1960 monkey | 1972 Placental circulation | Historic Disclaimer

Renal System

Gray1127.jpg
Renal Links: renal | Lecture - Renal | Lecture Movie | urinary bladder | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | Fetal | Renal Movies | Stage 22 Movie | renal histology | renal abnormalities | Molecular | Category:Renal
Historic Embryology - Renal  
1907 Urogenital images | 1911 Cloaca | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1915 Renal Artery | 1917 Urogenital System | 1925 Horseshoe Kidney | 1926 Embryo 22 Somites | 1930 Mesonephros 10 to 12 weeks | 1931 Horseshoe Kidney | 1932 Renal Absence | 1939 Ureteric Bud Agenesis | 1943 Renal Position

Respiratory System

Respiratory system overview (stage 13)
Respiratory Links: respiratory | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | Med Lecture | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | upper respiratory tract | diaphragm | Histology | Postnatal | respiratory abnormalities | Respiratory Quiz | Respiratory terms | Category:Respiratory
Historic Embryology  
1902 The Nasal Cavities and Olfactory Structures | 1906 Lung | 1912 Upper Respiratory Tract | 1912 Respiratory | 1914 Phrenic Nerve | 1918 Respiratory images | 1921 Respiratory | 1922 Chick Pulmonary Vessels | 1934 Right Fetal Lung | 1936 Early Human Lung | 1937 Terminal Air Passages | 1938 Human Histology

Sensory System

Hearing cartoon.jpg
Senses Links: Introduction | placode | Hearing and Balance hearing | balance | vision | smell | taste | touch | Stage 22 | Category:Sensory

Hearing

Hearing Links: Introduction | inner ear | middle ear | outer ear | balance | placode | hearing neural | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | Medicine Lecture | Stage 22 | hearing abnormalities | hearing test | sensory | Student project

  Categories: Hearing | Outer Ear | Middle Ear | Inner Ear | Balance

Historic Hearing 
Historic Embryology: 1880 Platypus cochlea | 1902 Development of Hearing | 1906 Membranous Labyrinth | 1910 Auditory Nerve | 1913 Tectorial Membrane | 1918 Human Embryo Otic Capsule | 1918 Cochlea | 1918 Grays Anatomy | 1922 Human Auricle | 1922 Otic Primordia | 1931 Internal Ear Scalae | 1932 Otic Capsule 1 | 1933 Otic Capsule 2 | 1936 Otic Capsule 3 | 1933 Endolymphatic Sac | 1934 Otic Vesicle | 1934 Membranous Labyrinth | 1938 Stapes - 7 to 21 weeks | 1938 Stapes - Term to Adult | 1940 Stapes | 1942 Stapes - Embryo 6.7 to 50 mm | 1943 Stapes - Fetus 75 to 150 mm | 1946 Aquaductus cochleae and periotic (perilymphatic) duct | 1946 aquaeductus cochleae | 1948 Fissula ante fenestram | 1948 Stapes - Fetus 160 mm to term | 1959 Auditory Ossicles | 1963 Human Otocyst | Historic Disclaimer

Vision

Vision Links: vision | lens | retina | placode | extraocular muscle | cornea | eyelid | vision abnormalities | Student project 1 | Student project 2 | Category:Vision | sensory
Historic Vision 
Historic Embryology: 1906 Eye Embryology | 1907 Development Atlas | 1912 Eye Development | 1912 Nasolacrimal Duct | 1918 Grays Anatomy | 1921 Eye Development | 1922 Optic Primordia | 1925 Eyeball and optic nerve | 1925 Iris | 1927 Oculomotor | 1928 Human Retina | 1928 Retina | 1928 Hyaloid Canal | Historic Disclaimer

Smell

Smell Links: Introduction | placode | Rhinencephalon | head | respiratory | Student project | taste | sensory | Category:Smell
Historic Smell 
Historic Embryology: 1902 Olfactory Structures | 1910 cavum nasi | 1940 Olfactory and Accessory Olfactory Formations | 1941 Olfactory nerve | 1944 Jacobson’s organ | 1980 Staged embryos

Taste

Taste Links: Introduction | Student project | Tongue Development | Category:Taste
Historic Taste 
Historic Embryology: 1888 human infant papilla foliata | 1889 man taste-organs | Paper - Further observations on the development of the taste-organs of man|1889 further man taste-organs]]


Cell Types

The tables below are provided only as a guide.

Adult Human Cell Types

Adult Human Cell Types  
Adult Human Cell Types
Integumentary system
  • Keratinizing epithelial cells
  • Epidermal keratinocyte (differentiating epidermal cell)
  • Epidermal basal cell (stem cell)
  • Keratinocyte of fingernails and toenails
  • Nail bed basal cell (stem cell)
  • Medullary hair shaft cell
  • Cortical hair shaft cell
  • Cuticular hair shaft cell
  • Cuticular hair root sheath cell
  • Hair root sheath cell of Huxley's layer
  • Hair root sheath cell of Henle's layer
  • External hair root sheath cell
  • Hair matrix cell (stem cell)
Wet stratified barrier epithelial cells
  • Surface epithelial cell of stratified squamous epithelium of cornea, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina
  • Basal cell (stem cell) of epithelia of cornea, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina Urinary epithelium cell (lining urinary bladder and urinary ducts)
Exocrine secretory epithelial cells
  • Salivary gland mucous cell (polysaccharide-rich secretion)
  • Salivary gland serous cell (glycoprotein enzyme-rich secretion)
  • Von Ebner's gland cell in tongue (washes taste buds)
  • Mammary gland cell (milk secretion)
  • Lacrimal gland cell (tear secretion)
  • Ceruminous gland cell in ear (wax secretion)
  • Eccrine sweat gland dark cell (glycoprotein secretion)
  • Eccrine sweat gland clear cell (small molecule secretion)
  • Apocrine sweat gland cell (odoriferous secretion, sex-hormone sensitive)
  • Gland of Moll cell in eyelid (specialized sweat gland)
  • Sebaceous gland cell (lipid-rich sebum secretion)
  • Bowman's gland cell in nose (washes olfactory epithelium)
  • Brunner's gland cell in duodenum (enzymes and alkaline mucus)
  • Seminal vesicle cell (secretes seminal fluid components, including fructose for swimming sperm)
  • Prostate gland cell (secretes seminal fluid components)
  • Bulbourethral gland cell (mucus secretion)
  • Bartholin's gland cell (vaginal lubricant secretion)
  • Gland of Littre cell (mucus secretion)
  • Uterus endometrium cell (carbohydrate secretion)
  • Isolated goblet cell of respiratory and digestive tracts (mucus secretion) Stomach lining mucous cell (mucus secretion)
  • Gastric gland zymogenic cell (pepsinogen secretion)
  • Gastric gland oxyntic cell (hydrochloric acid secretion)
  • Pancreatic acinar cell (bicarbonate and digestive enzyme secretion)
  • Paneth cell of small intestine (lysozyme secretion)
  • Type II pneumocyte of lung (surfactant secretion) Clara cell of lung
Hormone secreting cells
  • Anterior pituitary cells Somatotropes
  • Lactotropes
  • Thyrotropes Gonadotropes Corticotropes
  • Intermediate pituitary cell, secreting melanocyte-stimulating hormone Magnocellular neurosecretory cells
  • secreting oxytocin
  • secreting vasopressin Gut and respiratory tract cells
  • secreting serotonin secreting endorphin secreting somatostatin secreting gastrin secreting secretin secreting cholecystokinin secreting insulin secreting glucagon secreting bombesin
  • Thyroid gland cells thyroid epithelial cell
  • parafollicular cell Parathyroid gland cells
  • Parathyroid chief cell
  • Oxyphil cell Adrenal gland cells
  • chromaffin cells
  • secreting steroid hormones (mineralcorticoids and gluco corticoids) Leydig cell of testes secreting testosterone Theca interna cell of ovarian follicle secreting oestrogen
  • Corpus luteum cell of ruptured ovarian follicle secreting progesterone
  • Granulosa lutein cells
  • Theca lutein cells
  • Juxtaglomerular cell (renin secretion)
  • Macula densa cell of kidney
  • Peripolar cell of kidney
  • Mesangial cell of kidney
Metabolism and storage cells
  • Hepatocyte (liver cell) White fat cell Brown fat cell Liver lipocyte
Barrier function cells (Lung, Gut, Exocrine Glands and Urogenital Tract)

Kidney

  • Kidney glomerulus parietal cell
  • Kidney glomerulus podocyte
  • Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell
  • Loop of Henle thin segment cell
  • Kidney distal tubule cell
  • Kidney collecting duct cell

Other

  • Type I pneumocyte (lining air space of lung)
  • Pancreatic duct cell (centroacinar cell)
  • Nonstriated duct cell (of sweat gland, salivary gland, mammary gland, etc.)
  • principal cell
  • Intercalated cell Duct cell (of seminal vesicle, prostate gland, etc.)
  • Intestinal brush border cell (with microvilli)
  • Exocrine gland striated duct cell
  • Gall bladder epithelial cell
  • Ductulus efferens nonciliated cell
  • Epididymal principal cell
  • Epididymal basal cell

Epithelial cells lining closed internal body cavities

  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial fenestrated cell
  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial continuous cell
  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial splenic cell
  • Synovial cell (lining joint cavities, hyaluronic acid secretion)

Serosal cell (lining peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities) Squamous cell (lining perilymphatic space of ear) Squamous cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Columnar cell of endolymphatic sac with microvilli (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Columnar cell of endolymphatic sac without microvilli (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Dark cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Vestibular membrane cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Stria vascularis basal cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Stria vascularis marginal cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Cell of Claudius (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Cell of Boettcher (lining endolymphatic space of ear) Choroid plexus cell (cerebrospinal fluid secretion) Pia-arachnoid squamous cell Pigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye Nonpigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye Corneal endothelial cell

Ciliated cells with propulsive function
  • Respiratory tract ciliated cell
  • Oviduct ciliated cell (in female)
  • Uterine endometrial ciliated cell (in female)
  • Rete testis ciliated cell (in male)
  • Ductulus efferens ciliated cell (in male)
  • Ciliated ependymal cell of central nervous system (lining brain cavities)


Extracellular matrix secretion cells
  • Ameloblast epithelial cell (tooth enamel secretion)
  • Planum semilunatum epithelial cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (proteoglycan secretion)
  • Organ of Corti interdental epithelial cell (secreting tectorial membrane covering hair cells)
  • Loose connective tissue fibroblasts
  • Corneal fibroblasts
  • Tendon fibroblasts
  • Bone marrow reticular tissue fibroblasts
  • Other nonepithelial fibroblasts
  • Pericyte
  • Nucleus pulposus cell of intervertebral disc
  • Cementoblast/cementocyte (tooth root bonelike cementum secretion)
  • Odontoblast/odontocyte (tooth dentin secretion)
  • Hyaline cartilage chondrocyte
  • Fibrocartilage chondrocyte
  • Elastic cartilage chondrocyte Osteoblast/osteocyte
  • Osteoprogenitor cell (stem cell of osteoblasts)
  • Hyalocyte of vitreous body of eye
  • Stellate cell of perilymphatic space of ear
Contractile cells
  • Skeletal muscle cells
  • Red skeletal muscle cell (slow)
  • White skeletal muscle cell (fast)
  • Intermediate skeletal muscle cell nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle
  • Satellite cell (stem cell)
  • Heart muscle cells
  • Ordinary heart muscle cell
  • Nodal heart muscle cell
  • Purkinje fiber cell
  • Smooth muscle cell (various types)
  • Myoepithelial cell of iris
  • Myoepithelial cell of exocrine glands
Blood and immune system cells
  • Erythrocyte (red blood cell)
  • Megakaryocyte (platelet precursor)
  • Monocyte Connective tissue macrophage (various types)
  • Epidermal Langerhans cell
  • Osteoclast (in bone)
  • Dendritic cell (in lymphoid tissues)
  • Microglial cell (in central nervous system)
  • Neutrophil granulocyte
  • Eosinophil granulocyte
  • Basophil granulocyte
  • Mast cell Helper
  • T cell Suppressor
  • T cell Cytotoxic
  • T cell Natural
  • Killer T cell
  • B cell
  • Natural killer cell
  • Reticulocyte
  • Stem cells and committed progenitors for the blood and immune system (various types)
Nervous system Sensory transducer cells
  • Auditory inner hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Auditory outer hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Basal cell of olfactory epithelium (stem cell for olfactory neurons)
  • Cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Heat-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Merkel cell of epidermis (touch sensor)
  • Olfactory receptor neuron
  • Pain-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Photoreceptor cells of retina in eye:
  • Photoreceptor rod cells
  • Photoreceptor blue-sensitive cone cell of eye
  • Photoreceptor green-sensitive cone cell of eye
  • Photoreceptor red-sensitive cone cell of eye
  • Proprioceptive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Touch-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Type I carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type II carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type I hair cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type II hair cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type I taste bud cell
Autonomic neuron cells
  • Cholinergic neural cell (various types)
  • Adrenergic neural cell (various types)
  • Peptidergic neural cell (various types)
Sense organ and peripheral neuron supporting cells
  • Inner pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Inner phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Border cell of organ of Corti
  • Hensen cell of organ of Corti
  • Vestibular apparatus supporting cell
  • Type I taste bud supporting cell
  • Olfactory epithelium supporting cell Schwann cell
  • Satellite cell (encapsulating peripheral nerve cell bodies)
  • Enteric glial cell
Central nervous system neurons and glial cells
  • Neuron cells (large variety of types, still poorly classified)
  • Spindle neuron
  • Astrocyte (various types)
  • Oligodendrocyte
Lens cells
  • Anterior lens epithelial cell
  • Crystallin-containing lens fiber cell
Pigment cells
  • Melanocyte Retinal pigmented epithelial cell
Germ cells
  • Oogonium/Oocyte
  • Spermatid Spermatocyte Spermatogonium cell (stem cell for spermatocyte) Spermatozoon
Nurse cells
  • Ovarian follicle cell Sertoli cell (in testis) Thymus epithelial cell
Interstitial cells
  • Interstitial kidney cells
Table based on MBoC - "There are about 210 known distinct human cell types.
Links: Adult Human Cell Types | Ectoderm Cell Types | Mesoderm Cell Types | Endoderm Cell Types | | ectoderm | mesoderm | endoderm | stem cells

Ectoderm Cell Types

Ectoderm Derived Cell Types  
Ectoderm Derived Cell Types
integumentary
Keratinizing epithelial cells
  • Epidermal keratinocyte (differentiating Epidermis (skin)|epidermal cell)
  • Epidermal basal cell (stem cell)
  • Keratinocyte of fingernails and toenails
  • Nail bed basal cell (stem cell)
  • Medullary hair shaft cell
  • Cortical hair shaft cell
  • Cuticular hair shaft cell
  • Cuticular hair root sheath cell
  • Hair root sheath cell of Huxley's layer
  • Hair root sheath cell of Henle's layer
  • External hair root sheath cell
  • Hair matrix cell (stem cell)

Wet stratified barrier epithelial cells

  • Surface epithelial cell of stratified squamous epithelium of cornea, tongue, human oral cavity|oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina
  • basal cell (stem cell) of epithelia of cornea, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina
  • Urinary epithelium cell (lining urinary bladder and urinary ducts)
sensory
Sensory transducer cells
  • Hair cell - Auditory inner hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Hair cell - Auditory outer hair cell of organ of Corti
  • smell olfactory epithelium basal cell (stem cell for olfactory neurons)
  • Cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Heat-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Merkel cell of epidermis (touch sensor)
  • Olfactory receptor neuron
  • Pain-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • retina photoreceptors
    • Photoreceptor rod cells
    • Photoreceptor blue-sensitive cone cell of eye
    • Photoreceptor green-sensitive cone cell of eye
    • Photoreceptor red-sensitive cone cell of eye
  • Proprioceptive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • touch-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Type I carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type II carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type I hair cell of vestibular system of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type II hair cell of vestibular system of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type I taste bud|taste bud cell
Peripheral Nervous System
  • Cholinergic neural cell (various types)
  • Adrenergic neural cell (various types)
  • Peptidergic neural cell (various types)
sensory and peripheral neuron supporting cells
  • Inner pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Inner phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Border cell of organ of Corti
  • Hensen cell of organ of Corti
  • Vestibular apparatus supporting cell
  • Taste bud supporting cell
  • Olfactory epithelium supporting cell
  • Schwann cell
  • Satellite glial cell (encapsulating peripheral nerve cell bodies)
  • Enteric glial cell
neural
  • Neuron cells (large variety of types, still poorly classified)
    • Interneurons
      • Basket cells
      • Stellate cells
      • Golgi cells
      • Granule cells
      • Lugaro cells
      • Unipolar brush cells
      • Martinotti cells
      • Chandelier cells
      • Medium spiny neurons
      • Cajal–Retzius cells
      • Double-bouquet cells
      • Neurogliaform cells
      • Spinal interneuron
        • Renshaw cells
    • Principal cells
      • Spindle neuron
      • Pyramidal cells
        • Place cells
        • Grid cells
        • Speed cells
        • Head direction cells
        • Betz cells
      • Stellate cells
        • Boundary cells
  • astroglia (various types)
  • oligodendroglia
  • Ependymal cells
    • Tanycytes
lens cells
  • Anterior lens epithelial cell
  • Crystallin-containing lens fiber cell
Links: ectoderm | Adult Human Cell Types | Ectoderm Cell Types | Mesoderm Cell Types | Endoderm Cell Types | stem cells

Mesoderm Cell Types

Mesoderm Derived Cell Types  
mesoderm Derived Cell Types
Metabolism and storage cells
Barrier function cells

(respiratory, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract)

renal
  • Kidney parietal cell
  • Kidney glomerulus podocyte
  • Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell
  • Loop of Henle thin segment cell
  • Kidney distal tubule cell
  • Kidney collecting duct cell
    • Principal cells
    • Intercalated cells
Other
  • Type I pneumocyte (lining air space of lung cell)
  • Pancreatic duct cell (centroacinar cell)
  • Non-striated duct cell (of sweat gland, salivary gland, mammary gland, etc.)
    • Principal cell
    • Intercalated cell
  • Duct cell (of seminal vesicle, prostate gland, etc.)
  • Intestinal brush border cell (with microvilli)
  • Exocrine gland striated duct cell
  • Gall bladder epithelial cell
  • Ductulus efferens non-ciliated cell
  • Epididymal principal cell
  • Epididymal basal cell
  • Endothelial cells
Extracellular matrix cells
  • Ameloblast epithelial cell (tooth enamel secretion)
  • Planum semilunatum epithelial cell of vestibular system of ear (proteoglycan secretion)
  • Organ of Corti interdental epithelial cell (secreting tectorial membrane covering hair cells)
  • Loose connective tissue fibroblasts
  • Corneal fibroblasts (corneal keratocytes)
  • Tendon fibroblasts
  • Bone marrow reticular tissue fibroblasts
  • Other nonepithelial fibroblasts
  • Pericyte
  • Nucleus pulposus cell of intervertebral disc
  • Cementoblast/cementocyte (tooth root bone-like ewan cell secretion)
  • Odontoblast/odontocyte (tooth dentin secretion)
  • Hyaline cartilage chondrocyte
  • Fibrocartilage chondrocyte
  • Elastic cartilage chondrocyte
  • Osteoblast/osteocyte
  • Osteoblast (osteoprogenitor cell, stem cell of osteoblasts)
  • Hyalocyte of vitreous body of eye
  • Stellate cell of perilymphatic space of ear
  • Hepatic stellate cell (Ito cell)
  • Pancreatic stelle cell
Contractile cells
  • Skeletal muscle cell
    • Red skeletal muscle cell (slow)
    • White skeletal muscle cell (fast)
    • Intermediate skeletal muscle cell
    • Nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle
    • Nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle
  • Satellite cell (stem cell)
  • Heart muscle cells
    • Ordinary Myocardiocyte
    • Nodal heart muscle cell
    • Purkinje fiber cell
  • Smooth muscle cell (various types)
  • Myoepithelial cell of Iris
  • Myoepithelial cell of exocrine glands
Blood and immune system cells
  • Erythrocyte (red blood cell)
  • Megakaryocyte (platelet precursor)
  • Monocyte (white blood cell )
  • Connective tissue macrophage (various types)
  • Epidermal Langerhans cell
  • Osteoclast (in bone)
  • Dendritic cell (in lymphoid tissues)
  • Microglial cell (in central nervous system)
  • Neutrophil granulocyte
  • Eosinophil granulocyte
  • Basophil granulocyte
  • Hybridoma cell (man-made)
  • Mast cell
  • Helper T cell
  • Suppressor T cell
  • Cytotoxic T cell
  • Natural killer T cell
  • B cell
  • Natural killer cell
  • Reticulocyte
  • Stem cells and Progenitor cells (committed progenitors for the blood and immune system, various types)
Germ cells
Nurse cell
  • Ovarian follicle cell
  • Sertoli cell (in testis)
  • Thymus epithelial cell
Interstitial cells
  • Interstitial kidney cells
Links: mesoderm | Adult Human Cell Types | Ectoderm Cell Types | Mesoderm Cell Types | Endoderm Cell Types | stem cells

Endoderm Cell Types

Endoderm Derived Cell Types  
Endoderm Derived Cell Types
Exocrine secretory epithelial cells
  • Salivary gland mucous cell (polysaccharide-rich secretion)
  • Salivary gland number 1 (glycoprotein enzyme-rich secretion)
  • Von Ebner's gland cell in tongue (washes taste buds)
  • Bowman's gland cell (washes olfactory epithelium)
  • Brunner's gland cell in duodenum (enzymes and alkaline mucus)
  • Seminal vesicle cell (secretes seminal fluid components, including fructose for swimming Spermatozoon|sperm)
  • Prostate gland cell (secretes seminal fluid components)
  • Bulbourethral gland cell (mucus secretion)
  • Bartholin's gland cell (vaginal lubricant secretion)
  • Urethral gland|Gland of Littre cell (mucus secretion)
  • Uterus endometrium cell (carbohydrate secretion)
  • Insolated goblet cell of respiratory tract|respiratory and Gastrointestinal tract|digestive tracts (mucus secretion)
  • Stomach lining mucous cell (mucus secretion)
  • Gastric chief cell|Gastric gland zymogenic cell (pepsinogen secretion)
  • Parietal cell - Gastric gland oxyntic cell (hydrochloric acid secretion)
  • Pancreatic acinar cell (bicarbonate and digestive enzyme secretion
  • Paneth cell of small intestine (lysozyme secretion)
  • Type II pneumocyte of human lung (surfactant secretion)
  • Club cell of lung
Hormone-secreting cells
  • anterior pituitary cells
    • Somatotropes
    • Lactotropes
    • Thyrotropes
    • Gonadotropes
    • Corticotropes
  • Intermediate pituitary cell, secreting melanocyte-stimulating hormone
  • Magnocellular neurosecretory cells
    • nonsecreting oxytocin
    • secreting vasopressin
  • Gut and respiratory tract cells
    • secreting serotonin
    • secreting endorphin
    • secreting somatostatin
    • secreting gastrin
    • secreting secretin
    • nonsecreting cholecystokinin
    • secreting insulin
    • secreting glucagon
    • nonsecreting bombesin
  • thyroid gland cells
    • thyroid epithelial cell
    • Parafollicular cell
  • Parathyroid gland cells
    • Parathyroid chief cell
    • Oxyphil cell (parathyroid)|Oxyphil cell
  • Template:Adrenal gland cells
    • secreting steroid hormones (mineralocorticoids and gluco corticoids)
  • Leydig cell of testes secreting testosterone
  • Theca interna cell of ovarian follicle secreting estrogen
  • corpus luteum cell of ruptured ovarian follicle secreting progesterone
    • Granulosa lutein cells
    • Theca lutein cells
  • Juxtaglomerular cell (renin secretion)
  • Macula densa cell of kidney
  • Peripolar cell of kidney
  • Mesangial cell of kidney
  • Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
    • Alpha cells (secreting glucagon)
    • Beta cells (secreting insulin and amylin)
    • Delta cells (secreting somatostatin)
    • PP cells (gamma cells) (secreting pancreatic polypeptide)
    • Epsilon cells (secreting ghrelin)
Links: endoderm | Adult Human Cell Types | Ectoderm Cell Types | Mesoderm Cell Types | Endoderm Cell Types | stem cells


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 14) Embryology Human System Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Human_System_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G