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Latest revision as of 08:19, 29 September 2020

Embryology - 21 Oct 2020    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
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Introduction

The linked papers are intended to give some historic background to Embryology. Historically, say pre-20th century, Embryology was not easily separated from Medicine, Anatomy and Physiology and other biological sciences. At the turn of last century the detailed study and attempts to standardise development of human embryos began. Just a few key embryo collections formed the basis of many of the human published literature. The development of animals models were also standardised into developmental stages.


This page also links to full versions of some of these historic embryology papers. These papers are often included in the Historic links section of each system notes.


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


Historic Journals: Amer. J Anat. | Am J Pathol. | Anat. Rec. | J Morphol. | J Anat. | J Comp. Neurol. | Johns Hopkins Med. J | Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A | J Physiol. | Ref. Handb. Med. Sci. | J Exp. Zool. | Yale J Biol. Med. | Anat. Anz. | Memoirs of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology | Quart. Rev. Biol.


History Links: Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Embryology Textbooks | Embryologists | Historic Vignette | Historic Periods | Historic Terminology | Human Embryo Collections | Carnegie Contributions | 17-18th C Anatomies | Embryology Models | Category:Historic Embryology
Historic Papers: 1800's | 1900's | 1910's | 1920's | 1930's | 1940's | 1950's | 1960's | 1970's | 1980's


Embryologists: William Hunter | Wilhelm Roux | Caspar Wolff | Wilhelm His | Oscar Hertwig | Julius Kollmann | Hans Spemann | Francis Balfour | Charles Minot | Ambrosius Hubrecht | Charles Bardeen | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Florence Sabin | George Streeter | George Corner | James Hill | Jan Florian | Thomas Bryce | Thomas Morgan | Ernest Frazer | Francisco Orts-Llorca | José Doménech Mateu | Frederic Lewis | Arthur Meyer | Robert Meyer | Erich Blechschmidt | Klaus Hinrichsen | Hideo Nishimura | Arthur Hertig | John Rock | Viktor Hamburger | Mary Lyon | Nicole Le Douarin | Robert Winston | Fabiola Müller | Ronan O'Rahilly | Robert Edwards | John Gurdon | Shinya Yamanaka | Embryology History | Category:People
Related Histology Researchers  
Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Camillo Golgi
Mark Hill.jpg Students by definition are learning about a topic, so it would seem contrary to the function of an educational site to include information that may be either incorrect or inaccurate. On the other hand, I think it is also important to understand how we achieved our current understanding of embryology and the researchers, discoverers and educators who have made important contributions.

I therefore offer the following student study suggestions: Beginner | Intermediate | Advanced

Beginner students

You are just starting your studies and trying to understand basic embryology and development concepts.


Should probably avoid any content on the site labeled "Historic". The content may confuse or mislead your understanding of basic concepts in embryology and development. Begin with the notes pages linked from the image on the Main Page, or from the Site Map (excluding the history section of site).

Also be careful when viewing images and descriptions that appear as "additional images" or when using the "category" links at the bottom of pages.

Intermediate students

You have a general understanding of embryology and development concepts.


This means you have attended some lectures and practical classes, worked through some of the site notes pages, or studied an embryology textbook. I would still suggest caution when approaching historic material, be sure that you understand the current embryology theories. General observations of how long development takes and the appearance of the human and animal models embryos at different times will not have changed!

Historic images are generally more accurate than some of the accompanying notes pages where the images appear. Some of the labeled structures may have historic names that have been updated or changed in current descriptions, if in doubt use the Glossary. You may also note how many of the textbook images have been based upon some of these historic drawing.

Advanced students

You have a good understanding of embryology and development concepts.


This means that you not only understand, but can also explain clearly to others key developmental concepts. This also implies you understand the differences between recent findings, current controversies and research directions. Now is the time to confidently look back through the historic materials.

These historic materials will provide a context of how we arrived at our current understanding. Importantly, note the date on the page and consider what scientific techniques were available at that time and concurrent discoveries in biology and science.

How will I know that I am an advanced student? You should be able to identify concepts that remain and are applied today as well as those which have been updated or proved to be incorrect. Please also feel free to contact me with mistakes you have identified on this educational site.


Historic Paper Links: 13-14 Somites | 22 Somites | 23 Somites | 25 Somites | 27 Somites | Mall Human Embryo Collection | Embryology History | Carnegie stage 11 | Carnegie stage 12 | Journal of Anatomy | Embryonic Development | Category:Historic Embryology


Embryology History: 1600-1699 | 1700-1799 | 1800-1899 | 1900-1909 | 1910-1919 | 1920-1929 | 1930-1939 | 1940-1949 | 1950-1959 | 1960-1969 | 1970-1979 | 1980-1989 | 1990-1999 | Historic Papers | Embryologists

1800's

1880's

1890's

1897

1898

1899


Links: Category:1800's

1900's

1900

1901

1902

1903

1904


1905

1906

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1909


Links: Category:1900's

1910's

1910


1911

1912

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1915

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1918


1919


Links: Category:1910's

1920's

1920


1921

1922

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1927

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1929


Links: Category:1920's

1930's

1930


1931

1932


1933

1934

1935

1936


1937


1938

1939


Links: Category:1930's

1940's

1940

1941

1942

PMC1827298

Amer. J Anat. 71(3): 343-370.

1943


1944

1945

1946

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Links: Category:1940's

1950's

1950

1951

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1960's


1970's


1980's

PMID: 2610025

1990's

2000's


Historic by System

These historic references are contained in collapsible tables below and on the first topic page of each system.

Cardiovascular

Historic Embryology - Cardiovascular 
1902 Vena cava inferior | 1905 Brain Blood Vessels | 1909 Cervical Veins | 1909 Dorsal aorta and umbilical veins | 1912 Heart | 1912 Human Heart | 1914 Earliest Blood-Vessels | 1915 Congenital Cardiac Disease | 1915 Dura Venous Sinuses | 1916 Blood cell origin | 1916 Pars Membranacea Septi | 1919 Lower Limb Arteries | 1921 Human Brain Vascular | 1921 Spleen | 1922 Aortic-Arch System | 1922 Pig Forelimb Arteries | 1922 Chicken Pulmonary | 1923 Head Subcutaneous Plexus | 1923 Ductus Venosus | 1925 Venous Development | 1927 Stage 11 Heart | 1928 Heart Blood Flow | 1935 Aorta | 1935 Venous valves | 1938 Pars Membranacea Septi | 1938 Foramen Ovale | 1939 Atrio-Ventricular Valves | 1940 Vena cava inferior | 1940 Early Hematopoiesis | 1941 Blood Formation | 1942 Truncus and Conus Partitioning | Ziegler Heart Models | 1951 Heart Movie | 1954 Week 9 Heart | 1957 Cranial venous system | 1959 Brain Arterial Anastomoses | Historic Embryology Papers | 2012 ECHO Meeting | 2016 Cardiac Review | Historic Disclaimer

Endocrine

Historic Embryology - Endocrine  
1903 Islets of Langerhans | 1903 Pig Adrenal | 1904 interstitial Cells | 1908 Pancreas Different Species | 1908 Pituitary | 1908 Pituitary histology | 1911 Rathke's pouch | 1912 Suprarenal Bodies | 1914 Suprarenal Organs | 1915 Pharynx | 1916 Thyroid | 1918 Rabbit Hypophysis | 1920 Adrenal | 1935 Mammalian Hypophysis | 1926 Human Hypophysis | 1927 Adrenal | 1927 Hypophyseal fossa | 1930 Adrenal | 1932 Pineal Gland and Cysts | 1935 Hypophysis | 1935 Pineal | 1937 Pineal | 1935 Parathyroid | 1940 Adrenal | 1941 Thyroid | 1950 Thyroid Parathyroid Thymus | 1957 Adrenal

Gastrointestinal Tract

Historic Embryology - Gastrointestinal Tract  
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1884 Great omentum and transverse mesocolon | 1902 Meckel's diverticulum | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1903 Submaxillary Gland | 1906 Liver | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1908 Liver | 1908 Liver and Vascular | 1910 Mucous membrane Oesophagus to Small Intestine | 1910 Large intestine and Vermiform process | 1911-13 Intestine and Peritoneum - Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 5 | Part 6 | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1912 Stomach | 1914 Digestive Tract | 1914 Intestines | 1914 Rectum | 1915 Pharynx | 1915 Intestinal Rotation | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 1932 Gall Bladder | 1939 Alimentary Canal Looping | 1940 Duodenum anomalies | 2008 Liver | 2016 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1921 Liver Suspensory Ligament | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog

Genital

Historic Embryology - Genital 
General: 1901 Urinogenital Tract | 1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 External Genitalia | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1942 Sex Cords | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer
Female: 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Hymen | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 External Genitalia | 1914 Female | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1927 Vagina | 1932 Postnatal Ovary
Male: 1887-88 Testis | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1906 Testis vascular | 1909 Prostate | 1912 Prostate | 1914 External Genitalia | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1920 Wolffian tubules | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Head

Historic Head Embryology  
1910 Skull | 1910 Skull Images | 1912 Nasolacrimal Duct | 1921 Human Brain Vascular | 1923 Head Subcutaneous Plexus | 1919 21mm Embryo Skull | 1920 Human Embryo Head Size | 1921 43 mm Fetal Skull | Historic Disclaimer

Integumentary

Historic Embryology - Integumentary  
1906 Papillary ridges | 1910 Manual of Human Embryology | 1914 Integumentary | 1923 Head Subcutaneous Plexus | 1921 Text-Book of Embryology | 1924 Developmental Anatomy | 1941 Skin Sensory | Historic Disclaimer

Musculoskeletal

Historic Embryology - Musculoskeletal  
1853 Bone | 1885 Sphenoid | 1902 - Pubo-femoral Region | Spinal Column and Back | Body Segmentation | Cranium | Body Wall, Ribs, and Sternum | Limbs | 1901 - Limbs | 1902 - Arm Development | 1906 Human Embryo Ossification | 1906 Lower limb Nerves and Muscle | 1907 - Muscular System | Skeleton and Limbs | 1908 Vertebra | 1908 Cervical Vertebra | 1909 Mandible | 1910 - Skeleton and Connective Tissues | Muscular System | Coelom and Diaphragm | 1913 Clavicle | 1920 Clavicle | 1921 - External body form | Connective tissues and skeletal | Muscular | Diaphragm | 1929 Rat Somite | 1932 Pelvis | 1940 Synovial Joints | 1943 Human Embryonic, Fetal and Circumnatal Skeleton | 1947 Joints | 1949 Cartilage and Bone | 1957 Chondrification Hands and Feet | 1968 Knee

Neural

Historic Embryology - Neural 
1883 Nervous System | 1893 Brain Structure | 1892 Nervous System Development | 1900 fourth ventricle | 1905 Brain Blood-Vessels | 1909 corpus ponto-bulbare | 1912 nuclei pontis - nucleus arcuatus | 1912 Diencephalon | 1921 Neural Development | 1921 Anencephaly | 1921 Brain Weight | 1921 Brain Vascular System | 1921 Cerebellum | 1922 Brain Plan | 1923 Neural Folds | 1904 Brain and Mind | 1904 Brain Structure | 1909 Forebrain Vesicle | 1922 Hippocampal Fissure | 1923 Forebrain | 1927 Anencephaly | 1934 Anencephaly | 1937 Anencephaly | 1945 Spinal Cord | 1945 cerebral cortex | Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Ziegler Neural Models | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Neural Crest

Historic Embryology - Neural Crest  
1879 Olfactory Organ | 1905 Cranial and Spinal Nerves | 1908 10 mm Peripheral | 1910 Mammal Sympathetic | 1920 Human Sympathetic | 1928 Cranial ganglia | 1939 10 Somite Embryo | 1942 Origin | 1957 Adrenal

Placenta

Historic Embryology - Placenta 
1883 Embryonic Membranes | 1907 Development Atlas | 1909 | 1910 Textbook | 1917 Textbook | 1921 Textbook | 1921 Foetal Membranes |1921 human | 1921 Pig implantation | 1922 Single placental artery | 1923 Placenta Review | 1939 umbilical cord | 1943 human and monkey | 1944 chorionic villus and decidua parietalis | 1946 placenta ageing | 1960 first trimester placenta | 1960 monkey | 1972 Placental circulation | Historic Disclaimer

Renal

Historic Embryology - Renal  
1905 Uriniferous Tubule Development | 1907 Urogenital images | 1911 Cloaca | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1915 Renal Artery | 1917 Urogenital System | 1925 Horseshoe Kidney | 1926 Embryo 22 Somites | 1930 Mesonephros 10 to 12 weeks | 1931 Horseshoe Kidney | 1932 Renal Absence | 1939 Ureteric Bud Agenesis | 1943 Renal Position

Respiratory

Historic Embryology - Respiratory 
1902 The Nasal Cavities and Olfactory Structures | 1906 Lung | 1912 Upper Respiratory Tract | 1912 Respiratory | 1913 Prenatal and Neonatal Lung | 1914 Phrenic Nerve | 1918 Respiratory images | 1921 Respiratory | 1922 Chick Pulmonary Vessels | 1934 Right Fetal Lung | 1936 Early Human Lung | 1937 Terminal Air Passages | 1938 Human Histology

Sensory

Historic Embryology - Hearing 
Historic Embryology: 1880 Platypus cochlea | 1892 Vertebrate Ear | 1902 Development of Hearing | 1906 Membranous Labyrinth | 1910 Auditory Nerve | 1913 Tectorial Membrane | 1918 Human Embryo Otic Capsule | 1918 Cochlea | 1918 Grays Anatomy | 1922 Human Auricle | 1922 Otic Primordia | 1931 Internal Ear Scalae | 1932 Otic Capsule 1 | 1933 Otic Capsule 2 | 1936 Otic Capsule 3 | 1933 Endolymphatic Sac | 1934 Otic Vesicle | 1934 Membranous Labyrinth | 1934 External Ear | 1938 Stapes - 7 to 21 weeks | 1938 Stapes - Term to Adult | 1940 Stapes | 1942 Stapes - Embryo 6.7 to 50 mm | 1943 Stapes - Fetus 75 to 150 mm | 1946 Aquaductus cochleae and periotic (perilymphatic) duct | 1946 aquaeductus cochleae | 1948 Fissula ante fenestram | 1948 Stapes - Fetus 160 mm to term | 1959 Auditory Ossicles | 1963 Human Otocyst | Historic Disclaimer
Historic Embryology - Smell 
Historic Embryology: 1902 Olfactory Structures | 1910 cavum nasi | 1940 Olfactory and Accessory Olfactory Formations | 1941 Olfactory nerve | 1944 Jacobson’s organ | 1980 Staged embryos
Historic Taste 
Historic Embryology: 1888 human infant papilla foliata | 1889 man taste-organs | Paper - Further observations on the development of the taste-organs of man|1889 further man taste-organs]]
Historic Embryology - Vision 
Historic Embryology: 1906 Eye Embryology | 1907 Development Atlas | 1912 Eye Development | 1912 Nasolacrimal Duct | 1917 Extraocular Muscle | 1918 Grays Anatomy | 1921 Eye Development | 1922 Optic Primordia | 1925 Eyeball and optic nerve | 1925 Iris | 1927 Oculomotor | 1928 Human Retina | 1928 Retina | 1928 Hyaloid Canal | Historic Disclaimer

References


Articles

Alexandre H. (2001). A history of mammalian embryological research. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 45, 457-67. PMID: 11417885

Spradling AC. (1997). The Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Embryology. Mol. Med. , 3, 417-9. PMID: 9260153

Hamburger V. (1996). Introduction: Johannes Holtfreter, pioneer in experimental embryology. Dev. Dyn. , 205, 214-6. PMID: 8850558 <214::AID-AJA2>3.0.CO;2-L DOI.

Steinbeisser H. (1996). The impact of Spemann's concepts on molecular embryology. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 40, 63-8. PMID: 8735912

Noe A. (1996). Serial sections and human embryology: a new research initiative. Comput Med Imaging Graph , 20, 415-22. PMID: 9007209

Gilbert SF. (1998). Bearing crosses: a historiography of genetics and embryology. Am. J. Med. Genet. , 76, 168-82. PMID: 9511981

Leperchey F & Barbet JP. (1998). [The origins of embryology. Epistemologic and cultural viewpoints]. Morphologie , 82, 19-28. PMID: 9949997

Sapp J. (1997). Jean Brachet, l'hérédité générale and the origins of molecular embryology. Hist Philos Life Sci , 19, 69-87. PMID: 9284643

Diczfalusy E & Crosignani PG. (1996). Introduction: from reproductive endocrinology to reproductive health. The short history of a new departure by ESHRE. European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology. Hum. Reprod. , 11, 1776-7. PMID: 8921131

Tiedemann H. (1996). The long road to chemical and molecular embryology. What amphibians can teach us on differentiation. An interview with Professor Heinz Tiedemann. Interview by Horst Grunz. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 40, 113-22. PMID: 8735920

Czihak G. (1996). Sea urchin embryology in the sixties. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 40, 97-101. PMID: 8735918

Fässler PE. (1996). Hans Spemann (1869-1941) and the Freiburg School of Embryology. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 40, 49-57. PMID: 8735910

Beetschen JC. (1995). Louis Sébastien Tredern de Lézérec (1780-18?), a forgotten pioneer of chick embryology. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 39, 299-308. PMID: 7669542

Jeziorski KG. (1995). Evolutionism and embryology in the Warsaw physicians' milieu in the years 1859-1939. Clio Med , 33, 213-21. PMID: 9061232

Nakamura O. (1994). A view of amphibian embryology research in Japan through the scientific biography of Professor Osamu Nakamura. Interview by Makoto Asashima. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 38, 155-65. PMID: 7981025

Okada TS. (1994). Experimental embryology in Japan, 1930-1960. A historical background of developmental biology in Japan. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 38, 135-54. PMID: 7981024

Allen GE. (1993). Inducers and 'organizers': Hans Spemann and experimental embryology. Hist Philos Life Sci , 15, 229-36. PMID: 8153264

Kohl F. (1992). [Karl Ernst von Baer: 1792-1876. On the 200th birthday of the "father of embryology"]. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. , 117, 1976-9. PMID: 1478173 DOI.

Alexandre H. (1992). A pioneer of experimental mammalian embryology: Jacques Mulnard. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 36, 25-7. PMID: 1627471

Mulnard JG. (1992). The Brussels School of Embryology. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 36, 17-24. PMID: 1627468

Schröder H. (1992). Classics revisited: Joseph Needham: 'Chemical Embryology'--Cambridge 1931. Placenta , 13, 91-4. PMID: 1502140

Fischer JL. (1991). Laurent Chabry and the beginnings of experimental embryology in France. Dev. Biol. (NY) , 7, 31-41. PMID: 1804216

Burian RM, Gayon J & Zallen DT. (1991). Boris Ephrussi and the synthesis of genetics and embryology. Dev. Biol. (NY) , 7, 207-27. PMID: 1804214

Abir-Am PG. (1991). The philosophical background of Joseph Needham's work in chemical embryology. Dev. Biol. (NY) , 7, 159-80. PMID: 1804212


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, October 21) Embryology Historic Embryology Papers. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Historic_Embryology_Papers

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G