Gastrointestinal Tract - Stomach Development

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Introduction

This section of notes gives an overview of how the stomach and duodenum develops. The GIT is best imagined as a simple tube, the upper part being the foregut diverticulum, which is further divided into oesophagus and stomach.

During week 4 at the level where the stomach will form the tube begins to dilate, forming an enlarged lumen. The dorsal border grows more rapidly than ventral, which establishes the greater curvature of the stomach. A second rotation (of 90 degrees) occurs on the longitudinal axis establishing the adult orientation of the stomach.

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Historic Embryology - Gastrointestinal Tract  
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1884 Great omentum and transverse mesocolon | 1902 Meckel's diverticulum | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1903 Submaxillary Gland | 1906 Liver | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1908 Liver | 1908 Liver and Vascular | 1910 Mucous membrane Oesophagus to Small Intestine | 1910 Large intestine and Vermiform process | 1911-13 Intestine and Peritoneum - Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 5 | Part 6 | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1912 Stomach | 1914 Digestive Tract | 1914 Intestines | 1914 Rectum | 1915 Pharynx | 1915 Intestinal Rotation | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 1932 Gall Bladder | 1939 Alimentary Canal Looping | 1940 Duodenum anomalies | 2008 Liver | 2016 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1921 Liver Suspensory Ligament | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog

Some Recent Findings

Components of Stomach Formation

Developing stomach mid embryonic period (stage 13)

primitive endoderm

  • foregut diverticulum (pocket)
    • pharyngeal region of foregut
      • laryngo-tracheal groove (see respiratory tract)
      • oesophageal region of foregut
        • oesophagus
          • stomach
            • glandular/proventricular/pyloric stenosis
              • fundus/pyloric antrum
                • pyloric sphincter
            • dorsal mesogastrium
              • lieno-renal ligament
                • splenic primordium
                  • spleen
                • gastro-splenic ligament
                • duodenum (rostral half)
  • foregut-midgut junction
  • midgut region
  • hindgut diverticulum (pocket)

Modified from [1]

Greater Omentum

Greater-omentum.jpg The greater omentum hangs like an apron over the small intestine and transverse colon. It begins attacted to the inferior end of the stomach as a fold of the dorsal mesogastrium which later fuses to form the structure we recognise anatomically. The figure below shows a lateral view of this process comparing the early second trimester arrangement with the newborn structure.

Duodenum/Pancreas Rotation

Pancreas rotation cartoon

After the stomach the initial portion of the gastrointestinal tract tube is the duodenum which initially lies in the midline within the peritoneal cavity.

This region, along with the attached pancreas, undergoes rotation to become a retroperitoneal structure.

This diagram shows the rotation with spinal cord at the top, vertebral body then dorsal aorta then pertioneal wall and cavity.

Stomach Hormonal Development

The gastrointestinal tract has its own complex entero-endocrine system (enterohormones) that regulates many regional tract functions.

Cells within the stomach express a range of peptide hormones known to regulate a range of gastric functions including secretion of digestive enzymes, mucous and the movement of the luminal contents. The list below shows the earliest detectible presence of specific hormone-containing cells in regions of the developing human stomach.

Hormonal Timecourse

8 weeks - Gastrin containing cells in stomach antrum. Somatostatin cells in both the antrum and the fundus.

10 weeks - Glucagon containing cells in stomach fundus.

11 weeks - Serotonin containing cells in both the antrum and the fundus.

Expression data based upon[2]

Other Gut Peptides

  • Cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (increase satiety and decrease food intake) and ghrelin

References

  1. Kaufman & Bard, The Anatomical Basis of Mouse Development, 1999 Academic Press
  2. <pubmed>6136542</pubmed>


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Images

Stage14 stomach.jpg

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, April 10) Embryology Gastrointestinal Tract - Stomach Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Stomach_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G