Foundations Lecture - Introduction to Human Development

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Dr Mark Hill

Human development is one of the most exciting topics to study not only as a medical student, but also for our fundamental understanding of the human body. Of all health issues in Medicine, fertility and reproduction is a topic that will affect everyone. This lecture is going to take you briefly through key biological concepts in human development, these will later be explored in more detail through the BGD course. I will be using simplified terms in the lecture slides (with developmental term in brackets).

Human fertilization 01.gif

Australian Statistics On 2 January 2017, the resident population of Australia is projected to be 24,317,037 24,317,037 (2016 - 24,001,781).
(Similar sized countries - Mozambique, Syria, Madagascar, Romania, Australia, Cote d'Ivoire, Sri Lanka) World

The lecture will be followed by a practical class introducing online resources for independent study and working through similar embryology concepts.

Links: Printable Lecture Page | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012
Other Foundations links  
The following lecture, practical and practical support pages for Foundations can be found on this current site.


  1. Purpose of learning embryology
  2. Basic facts about early human development
  3. Appreciate differences between the conceptus, embryo and fetus
  4. General understanding of the term “critical periods” of development

Lecture Concepts: Embryology Education Support, Human Reproductive Cycle, First Trimester, Second and Third Trimester, Postnatal Development, Abnormal Development

Lecture Content  
  1. Embryology Education Support - UNSW Embryology Online, Glossary Links, Textbooks
  2. Human Reproductive Cycle - Female. Male, Ovary, Ovulation, Trimesters
  3. First Trimester - Fertilization, Week 1, Week 2, Abnormal Implantation, Normal Implantation, Detect Pregnancy, Week 3, Gastrulation, Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm, Somitogenesis, Neuralation, Week 4, Week 4-8, Placenta
  4. Second and Third Trimester - Fetal
  5. Postnatal Development - Birth, Maternal Birth Stages, Neonatal, Childhood
  6. Abnormal Development - Critical Periods of Development, Diagnosis
Links: 2015 Practical | Embryology Textbooks

Four Basic Tissue Types

Stomach Wall containing all 4 basic tissues.

In histology you have heard that tissues and organs of the body consist of combinations of 4 basic tissue organisations:

  1. Epithelial
  2. Connective
  3. Muscular
  4. Nervous

  • Where do they come from?
  • How do they develop?
  • What are their relationships with each other?

Human Development Timeline

Human development timeline graph 02.jpg

concepts animation

Last Menstrual Period (LMP) first day was today -> Birth Date - January 18, 2018  
Gestation Calculation (based upon a normal 28 day cycle)
  • Historic - Franz Carl Naegele (1777-1851), first rule for estimating pregnancy length
  • Current - Ultrasound, the most accurate staging method
  • First pregnancy (primipara) 274 days, just over 39 weeks
  • Subsequent pregnancies (multipara) 269 days, 38.4 weeks
  • GA - gestational age

Embryology Education Support

UNSW Embryology Online


Human development 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Human Development
Page | Play


Using these resources (online navigation, organization and printing) will be covered in the introduction to the associated Practical class.

Glossary Links

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols


  • There are many different excellent embryology textbooks
  • I have included below embryology textbooks accessible online through the UNSW Library that cover the clinical topics as well.
  • As an introduction try the chapter in The Developing Human - Introduction to the Developing Human

The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (10th edn) 
The Developing Human, 10th edn.jpg

UNSW Students have online access to the current 10th edn. through the UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).

APA Citation: Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Links: PermaLink | UNSW Embryology Textbooks | Embryology Textbooks | UNSW Library
  1. Introduction to the Developing Human
  2. First Week of Human Development
  3. Second Week of Human Development
  4. Third Week of Human Development
  5. Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development
  6. Fetal Period
  7. Placenta and Fetal Membranes
  8. Body Cavities and Diaphragm
  9. Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck
  10. Respiratory System
  11. Alimentary System
  12. Urogenital System
  13. Cardiovascular System
  14. Skeletal System
  15. Muscular System
  16. Development of Limbs
  17. Nervous System
  18. Development of Eyes and Ears
  19. Integumentary System
  20. Human Birth Defects
  21. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  22. Appendix : Discussion of Clinically Oriented Problems
Larsen's Human Embryology (5th edn) 
Larsen's human embryology 5th ed.jpg
UNSW students have full access to this textbook edition through UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).

APA Citation: Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Links: PermaLink | UNSW Embryology Textbooks | Embryology Textbooks | UNSW Library
  1. Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
  2. Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
  3. Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
  4. Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
  5. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  6. Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
  7. Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
  8. Development of the Musculoskeletal System
  9. Development of the Central Nervous System
  10. Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
  11. Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
  12. Development of the Heart
  13. Development of the Vasculature
  14. Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
  15. Development of the Urinary System
  16. Development of the Reproductive System
  17. Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
  18. Development of the Ears
  19. Development of the Eyes
  20. Development of the Limbs
Links: Embryology Textbooks - UNSW | More Embryology Textbooks

Human Reproductive Cycle

  • Meiosis in gonad produces haploid gametes
    • testis the sperm (spermatozoa)
    • ovary the egg (oocyte)
  • there are several differences in when and how gametes are formed in the male and female gonad.


  • Menstrual Cycle a regular cycle of reproduction (28 days)
  • begins at puberty
  • release of 1 egg (oocyte) every cycle
  • Endocrine controlled (HPG axis)
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pituitary
    • Gonad

XXhpgaxis.jpg Menstrual cycle.png


  • begins at puberty
  • continuous production of sperm (spermatozoa, human male 2,000/second)
  • release millions of spermatozoa (require activation, capacitation)


  • Paired organs
  • lying in the peritoneal cavity

Human right ovary and tube 1.jpg Ovary10x.jpg


Human Menstrual Cycle

Human ovulation 01.jpg

Human ovulation

Ovulation icon.jpg Follicle 001 icon.jpg



  • Divide the pregnancy into 3 "blocks" of about 3 months (trimesters)
  • First Trimester - embryonic period (organogenesis)
  • Second and Trimester - fetal period (growth)

First Trimester

  • Embryonic Period - Week 1 to 8 (first trimester)
  • Establish the basic structure of organs and tissues (Organogenesis)
  • development and growth of the placenta (Placentation)

Human Carnegie stage 1-23.jpg

Embryo stages 002 icon.jpg


  • the process of the 2 haploid gametes (egg and sperm) fusing and combining genetic material.
  • conceptus - the entire product of fertilisation

Human fertilization movie 2 frame 01.jpg Fertilization 002 icon.jpg

Early zygote.jpg

Week 1

Human fertilization movie 1 frame 05.jpg Week1 001 icon.jpg

  • occurs freely floating in uterus
  • occurs during week 1 following fertilization
  • last menstrual period (LMP) week 3
  • mitosis to form solid ball of cells (morula), then hollow ball (blastocyst)

Human-oocyte to blastocyst.jpg

Human blastocyst day 1-6.jpg

Week1 summary.jpg

Week 2

  • Implantation - initial attachment to uterine wall, and then invasion of the uterine wall.

Week2 001 icon.jpg Chorion 001 icon.jpg

Normal Implantation

  • Uterine body
    • posterior, anterior, superior, lateral (most common posterior)
    • inferior implantation - placenta overlies internal os of uterus Placenta Previa

Abnormal Implantation

Tubal pregnancy.gif
  • Ectopic Sites
    • external surface of uterus, ovary, bowel, gastrointestinal tract, mesentery, peritoneal wall
    • If not spontaneous then, embryo has to be removed surgically
  • Uterine - tubal pregnancy (most common ectopic)

Detect Pregnancy

pregnancy test
Ovary - corpus luteum secretes hormone to support pregnancy.
  • Clinically can be detected following implantation (week 2)
  • Last Menstrual Period (LMP) - today ? ....... Birth Date - January 30, 2014

Week 3

  • 3 Key processes commence

1. Gastrulation

  • the formation of the 3 layer embryo (trilaminar embryo)
    • All tissues of the body are formed from these 3 embryonic tissue layers (germ layers)
  1. Ectoderm (epithelium) - forms the central and peripheral nervous system and epithelium of the skin
  2. Mesoderm (connective tissue) - forms the body connective tissues: blood, bone, muscle, connective tissue skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
  3. Endoderm (epithelium) - forms gastrointestinal tract organs and the epithelium of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
Trilaminar embryo.jpg Inner cell mass cartoon.jpg

2. Somitogenesis

  • segmentation of the mesoderm into somites
  • forms the axial body plan

3. Neuralation

  • segmentation of the ectoderm
  • separates the neural tissue from the skin (epidermis)

Week3 folding icon.jpg

Week 4

  • heart formation (cardiogenesis)
  • first functioning organ

Amnion 001 icon.jpg Chick Heart 001-icon.jpg Mouse CT E11.5 movie-icon.jpg

Week 4-8

  • early development of the other organs, tissues and limbs
Week 5 Week 8
Stage 14 - Lateral View

Stage14 bf18.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 14 | Embryo Slides
Stage 21 - Left Lateral

Stage21 bf11.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 21 | Embryo Slides


  • Materno/fetal organ
  • No exchange of blood
  • Many different roles
    • can be "sampled" as part of a prenatal diagnostic test
  • interaction between implanting conceptus and uterine wall (endometrium)
  • The uterine lining following implantation (Decidua)
    • forms 3 distinct regions, at approx 3 weeks
    • Decidua Basalis - implantation site
    • Decidua Capsularis - enclosing the conceptus
    • Decidua Parietalis - remainder of uterus
  • uterine cavity is lost by 12 weeks

Placenta term anatomy 01.jpg

Second and Third Trimester

  • Week 9 to 37 - Fetal Development
  • Continuing growth and differentiation of organs formed in embryonic period
    • some organs have a later development - neural, genital, respiratory, bones
    • some continue to develop after birth - neural, genital, respiratory, bones
  • growth in size, length (Second Trimester)
  • growth in weight (Third Trimester)

Fetal growth icon.jpg Ultrasound12wk 3D image2.jpg 19weeklabel1.jpg

Postnatal Development


Historic teaching model of birth
MRI Birth
  • birth (parturition) is a complex physiological process between the fetus and mother
  • thought to be initiated by the fetus

Maternal Birth Stages

  1. Dilatation
  2. Expulsion
  3. Placental
  4. Recovery

Australian Birth Rate 1998-2007


Newborn infant (perinatal period)

Newborn (perinatal) needs to activate many systems and establish independent regulation (homeostasis)

  • Lung function - Fluid drainage, Gas exchange, muscular activity
  • Circulatory changes - Closure of 3 vascular shunts
  • Thermoregulation - metabolic rate, fat metabolism
  • Nutrition - gastrointestinal tract function, peristalsis
  • Waste - kidney function
  • Endocrine function - loss of placenta, maternal hormones

Abnormal Development

Critical Periods of Development

Human critical periods of development

Three main causes:

  1. Genetic
  2. Environmental
  3. Unknown
  • First trimester most critical
  • Different effect depending on time of insult (teratogen)

Human-critical periods of development.jpg


  • Prenatal diagnosis - number of different techniques (non-invasive, invasive) for determining normal development
  • Neonatal diagnosis (APGAR test, Guthrie test)
  • Maternal diagnosis - often pregnancy will expose maternal health problems


Additional Information

Additional Information - Content shown under this heading is not part of the material covered in this class. It is provided for those students who would like to know about some concepts or current research in topics related to the current class page.

Revision Notes

Human development timeline
  • You don't need to know everything today, this is an introduction.
  • Use the glossary to help understand new terms.
  • Don't confuse "germ cell layers" (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) with "germ cells" (egg, spermatazoa).
  • Remember the difference between "clinical weeks" (last menstral period) and "embryonic weeks" (from ovulation/fertilisation, 2 weeks later).
  • With abnormalities
    • think about the types of prenatal dianostic techniques that are now available
    • the 2 major types (genetic and environmental)
    • the effect of maternal age/health/lifestyle.


Logo.png Hill, M.A. (2019). UNSW Embryology (19th ed.) Retrieved September 21, 2019, from
The Developing Human, 10th edn.jpg Citation: Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

UNSW Students have online access to the current 10th edn. through the UNSW Library subscription.

Links: UNSW Library | NLM ID: 101649439

Chapter 1 - Introduction to the Developing Human

Larsen's human embryology 5th ed.jpg Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

UNSW students have full access to this textbook edition through UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).

Read the introduction before Chapter 1.

Foundsmall.jpg Foundations Practical - Introduction to Human Development

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, September 21) Embryology Foundations Lecture - Introduction to Human Development. Retrieved from

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G