Difference between revisions of "Foundations Lecture - Introduction to Human Development"

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{{Header}}
 
{{Header}}
 
==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
[[File:Foundsmall.jpg|left]] [[Image:Mark_Hill.jpg|thumb|Dr Mark Hill]]
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[[File:Foundsmall.jpg|left|link=Medicine#Foundations]] [[Image:Mark_Hill.jpg|thumb|150px|Dr Mark Hill]]
 
Human development is one of the most exciting topics to study not only as a medical student, but also for our fundamental understanding of the human body. Of all health issues in Medicine, fertility and reproduction is a topic that will affect everyone. This lecture is going to take you briefly through key biological concepts in human development, these will later be explored in more detail through the BGD course. I will be using simplified terms in the lecture slides (with developmental term in brackets).
 
Human development is one of the most exciting topics to study not only as a medical student, but also for our fundamental understanding of the human body. Of all health issues in Medicine, fertility and reproduction is a topic that will affect everyone. This lecture is going to take you briefly through key biological concepts in human development, these will later be explored in more detail through the BGD course. I will be using simplified terms in the lecture slides (with developmental term in brackets).
  
  
:''[[Australian Statistics]] 23 January 2014 at 03:02:40 PM (Canberra time), the resident population of Australia is projected to be: 23,360,679.''
+
[[File:Human_fertilization_01.gif|link=Human_Fertilization_Movie]]
::(Similar sized countries - Mozambique, Syria, Madagascar, Romania, Australia, Cote d'Ivoire, Sri Lanka)
 
  
The lecture will be followed by a practical class introducing online resources for independent study and working through similar embryology concepts.
 
  
 +
[[Media:2019 Foundations Lecture - Introduction to Human Development.pdf|2019 PDF]]
  
:'''Links:''' [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&printable=yes Printable Lecture Page] | [https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&oldid=164816 2014] | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&oldid=125526 2013] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&oldid=117829 2012] | [[Media:2014_Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development_-_Embryology.pdf|PDF version (1.3 MB, 19 pages)]]
+
<br>
 +
{{Australian Population Clock}}
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The lecture will be followed by a practical class introducing online resources for independent study and working through basic embryology concepts.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
:'''Links:''' [https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&oldid=334610 2018] | [[Media:2018 Foundations Lecture - Introduction to Human Development.pdf|2018 PDF]] | [https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&oldid=282720 2017] | [[:File:2017 Foundations Lecture - Introduction to Human Development - Embryology.pdf|2017 PDF]] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&printable=yes Printable Lecture Page] |  [https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&oldid=269990 2016] | [https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&printable=yes 2015] | [https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&oldid=164816 2014] | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&oldid=125526 2013] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development&oldid=117829 2012]
  
 
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
 
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
! Other Foundations links
+
! Other Foundations links &nbsp;
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[File:Foundsmall.jpg|left]] The following lecture, practical and practical support pages for Foundations can be found on this current site.
 
| [[File:Foundsmall.jpg|left]] The following lecture, practical and practical support pages for Foundations can be found on this current site.
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# Appreciate differences between the conceptus, embryo and fetus
 
# Appreciate differences between the conceptus, embryo and fetus
 
# General understanding of the term “critical periods” of development
 
# General understanding of the term “critical periods” of development
 +
  
 
'''Lecture Concepts:''' Embryology Education Support, Human Reproductive Cycle, First Trimester, Second and Third Trimester, Postnatal Development, Abnormal Development
 
'''Lecture Concepts:''' Embryology Education Support, Human Reproductive Cycle, First Trimester, Second and Third Trimester, Postnatal Development, Abnormal Development
  
 
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
 
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
! Lecture Content
+
! Lecture Content &nbsp;
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
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# '''Human Reproductive Cycle''' - Female. Male, Ovary, Ovulation, Trimesters
 
# '''Human Reproductive Cycle''' - Female. Male, Ovary, Ovulation, Trimesters
 
# '''First Trimester''' - Fertilization, Week 1, Week 2, Abnormal Implantation, Normal Implantation, Detect Pregnancy, Week 3, Gastrulation, Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm, Somitogenesis, Neuralation, Week 4, Week 4-8, Placenta
 
# '''First Trimester''' - Fertilization, Week 1, Week 2, Abnormal Implantation, Normal Implantation, Detect Pregnancy, Week 3, Gastrulation, Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm, Somitogenesis, Neuralation, Week 4, Week 4-8, Placenta
# '''Second and Third Trimester''' - Fetal
+
# '''Second and Third Trimester''' - Fetal, growth - weight and length
 
# '''Postnatal Development''' - Birth, Maternal Birth Stages, Neonatal, Childhood
 
# '''Postnatal Development''' - Birth, Maternal Birth Stages, Neonatal, Childhood
 
# '''Abnormal Development''' - Critical Periods of Development, Diagnosis
 
# '''Abnormal Development''' - Critical Periods of Development, Diagnosis
  
:'''Links:''' [[Foundations_Practical_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development|2015 Practical]] | [[Embryology Textbooks]]
+
:'''Links:''' [[Embryology Textbooks]] | [[Foundations_Practical_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development|Practical]]
 
|}
 
|}
|<mediaplayer width='320' height='260' image="http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/images/a/ad/Found2014part1.jpg">File:Found2014part1.mp4</mediaplayer>
+
|<html5media height="260" width="320">File:1 Min Embryo - Find Embryology.mp4</html5media>
 
|}
 
|}
 
===Four Basic Tissue Types===
 
===Four Basic Tissue Types===
[[File:Stomach_histology_001.jpg|thumb|Stomach Wall containing all 4 basic tissues.]]
+
[[File:Stomach_histology_001.jpg|thumb|200px|Stomach Wall containing all 4 basic tissues.]]
Tissues and organs of the body consist of combinations of 4 basic tissue organisations:
+
In histology you have heard that tissues and organs of the body consist of combinations of 4 basic tissue organisations:
  
 +
{|
 +
| width=350px|
 
# Epithelial  
 
# Epithelial  
 
# Connective
 
# Connective
 
# Muscular
 
# Muscular
 
# Nervous
 
# Nervous
 +
| width=350px valign=top|
 +
* What is the origin of these tissues?
 +
* How do they develop?
 +
* What are their relationships with each other?
 +
* What health issues relate to their normal/abnormal development?
 +
|}
  
  
* Where do they come from?
 
* How do they develop?
 
  
 
===Human Development Timeline===
 
===Human Development Timeline===
[[File:Human development timeline graph 02.jpg]]
+
[[File:Human development timeline graph 02.jpg|600px]]
  
 +
[[Media:Human_development_timeline_01.mp4|concepts animation]]
  
 
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
 
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
! Last Menstrual Period (LMP) today -> Birth Date - January 30, 2014
+
! Last Menstrual Period ({{LMP}}) first day was today -> Birth Date - January 6, 2020  &nbsp;
 
|-
 
|-
| Gestation Calculation
+
| Gestation Calculation (based upon a normal 28 day cycle)
 
* Historic - Franz Carl Naegele (1777-1851), first rule for estimating pregnancy length
 
* Historic - Franz Carl Naegele (1777-1851), first rule for estimating pregnancy length
 
* Current - Ultrasound, the most accurate staging method
 
* Current - Ultrasound, the most accurate staging method
 
* First pregnancy (primipara) 274 days, just over 39 weeks
 
* First pregnancy (primipara) 274 days, just over 39 weeks
 
* Subsequent pregnancies (multipara) 269 days, 38.4 weeks
 
* Subsequent pregnancies (multipara) 269 days, 38.4 weeks
 
+
* {{GA}} - gestational age
 
 
[http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Medicine/Flab14EmbryoCalc.htm Calculate a new Birth Date]
 
 
 
 
|}
 
|}
 
==Embryology Education Support==
 
==Embryology Education Support==
 +
 
===UNSW Embryology Online===
 
===UNSW Embryology Online===
  
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[[Image:Front-page-image.jpg|120px|link=http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/]]  
+
[[File:Front-page-image.jpg|120px|link=https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au]]  
  
| <mediaplayer width='360' height='410' image="http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/images/6/61/Human_development_001_icon.jpg">File:Human development 001.mp4</mediaplayer>
+
| width=380px|<html5media height="384" width="352">File:Human development 001.mp4</html5media>
 
| {{Human development movie 1}}
 
| {{Human development movie 1}}
  
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===Glossary Links===
 
===Glossary Links===
 +
 
:[[A|A]]  | [[B|B]] | [[C|C]] | [[D|D]] | [[E|E]] | [[F|F]] | [[G|G]] | [[H|H]] | [[I|I]] | [[J|J]] | [[K|K]] | [[L|L]] | [[M|M]] | [[N|N]] | [[O|O]] | [[P|P]] | [[Q|Q]] | [[R|R]] | [[S|S]] | [[T|T]] | [[U|U]] | [[V|V]] | [[W|W]] | [[X|X]] | [[Y|Y]] | [[Z|Z]] | [[Numbers|Numbers]] | [[Symbols|Symbols]]
 
:[[A|A]]  | [[B|B]] | [[C|C]] | [[D|D]] | [[E|E]] | [[F|F]] | [[G|G]] | [[H|H]] | [[I|I]] | [[J|J]] | [[K|K]] | [[L|L]] | [[M|M]] | [[N|N]] | [[O|O]] | [[P|P]] | [[Q|Q]] | [[R|R]] | [[S|S]] | [[T|T]] | [[U|U]] | [[V|V]] | [[W|W]] | [[X|X]] | [[Y|Y]] | [[Z|Z]] | [[Numbers|Numbers]] | [[Symbols|Symbols]]
 +
 +
'''Practical pages''' general have a list of brief definitions of terms that appear on the current page, or more complete collapsed tables of terms.
 +
 +
[[Term Link|Terms]] - highlighted text terms link to other content pages that relate to that specific term. Note that these linked pages do not generally form part of your examinable content, and are provided to aid your understanding of the concepts.
  
 
===Textbooks===
 
===Textbooks===
* There are many different excellent embryology textbooks
+
* There are many different excellent embryology textbooks.
* I have included below The Developing Human textbook accessible online through the UNSW Library that cover the clinical topics as well. [[Embryology_Textbooks|More Textbooks?]]
+
* I have included below embryology textbooks accessible online through the UNSW Library that cover the clinical topics as well.
 +
* As an introduction try the chapter in The Developing Human -  [http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.wwwproxy1.library.unsw.edu.au/lib/unsw/reader.action?docID=2074364&ppg=23 Introduction to the Developing Human]
 +
 
  
 
{{UNSW textbook - The Developing Human}}
 
{{UNSW textbook - The Developing Human}}
 +
{{UNSW textbook - Larsen's Human Embryology}}
 +
 +
{{Ebook - Kyoto Collection}}
  
:'''Links:''' [[Embryology_Textbooks|More Embryology Textbooks]]
+
:'''Links:''' [[Embryology Textbooks - UNSW]] | [[Embryology_Textbooks|More Embryology Textbooks]]
  
 
==Human Reproductive Cycle==
 
==Human Reproductive Cycle==
 
* Meiosis in gonad produces haploid gametes
 
* Meiosis in gonad produces haploid gametes
** testis the sperm (spermatozoa)
+
** testis the sperm ({{spermatozoa}})
** ovary the egg (oocyte)  
+
** ovary the egg ({{oocyte}})  
* there are several differences in when and how gametes are formed in the male and female gonad.
+
* there are '''key differences''' in when and how gametes are formed in the male and female gonad.
  
 
===Female===
 
===Female===
* [[Menstrual Cycle]] a regular cycle of reproduction (28 days)
+
* {{Menstrual cycle}} a regular cycle of reproduction (28 days)
* begins at puberty
+
* begins at {{puberty}}
 +
* all oocytes produced before birth
 
* release of 1 egg (oocyte) every cycle
 
* release of 1 egg (oocyte) every cycle
* Endocrine controlled (HPG axis)
+
* Endocrine controlled axis: Hypothalamus - Pituitary - Gonad (HPG axis)  
**Hypothalamus
 
**Pituitary
 
**Gonad
 
  
 
[[File:XXhpgaxis.jpg|300px]] [[File:Menstrual_cycle.png|500px]]
 
[[File:XXhpgaxis.jpg|300px]] [[File:Menstrual_cycle.png|500px]]
  
 
===Male===
 
===Male===
* begins at puberty
+
* begins at {{puberty}}
 
* continuous production of sperm (spermatozoa, human male 2,000/second)
 
* continuous production of sperm (spermatozoa, human male 2,000/second)
 
* release millions of spermatozoa (require activation, capacitation)
 
* release millions of spermatozoa (require activation, capacitation)
 +
{|
 +
|-
 +
! Testis Pre-Puberty
 +
! Testis Post-Puberty
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Testis histology 006.jpg|200px]]
 +
| [[File:Testis histology 007.jpg|200px]]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
 
===Ovary===
 
===Ovary===
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===Trimesters===
 
===Trimesters===
[[File:Human development timeline graph 02.jpg|300px|Trimesters]]
+
{|
 +
|
 
* Divide the pregnancy into 3 "blocks" of about 3 months (trimesters)
 
* Divide the pregnancy into 3 "blocks" of about 3 months (trimesters)
 
* First Trimester - embryonic period (organogenesis)
 
* First Trimester - embryonic period (organogenesis)
 
* Second and Trimester - fetal period (growth)
 
* Second and Trimester - fetal period (growth)
 +
| [[File:Human development timeline graph 02.jpg|300px|Trimesters]]
 +
|}
  
 
==First Trimester==
 
==First Trimester==
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[[File:Embryo stages 002 icon.jpg|120px|link=Embryonic Development]]
 
[[File:Embryo stages 002 icon.jpg|120px|link=Embryonic Development]]
 +
 
===Fertilization===
 
===Fertilization===
* the process of the 2 [[H#haploid|haploid]] [[G#gamete|gametes]] (egg and sperm) fusing and combining genetic material.
+
* the process of the 2 haploid gametes (egg and sperm) fusing and combining their genetic material.
* '''conceptus''' - the entire product of fertilization
+
* '''conceptus''' - the entire product of fertilisation.
  
[[File:Fertilization 001 icon.jpg|150px|link=Mouse_Fertilization_Movie]]
+
[[File:Human fertilization movie 2 frame 01.jpg|200px|link=Human Fertilization Detail Movie]] [[File:Fertilization 002 icon.jpg|150px|link=Fertilization_Movie]]
[[File:Fertilization 002 icon.jpg|150px|link=Fertilization_Movie]]
 
  
[[File:Early_zygote.jpg|link=File:Early_zygote_labelled.jpg]]
+
[[File:Early_zygote.jpg|200px|link=File:Early_zygote_labelled.jpg]]
  
 
===Week 1===
 
===Week 1===
* occurs freely floating in uterus
+
[[File:Human fertilization movie 1 frame 05.jpg|200px|link=Human Fertilization Movie]]
 
 
 
[[File:Week1 001 icon.jpg|90px|link=Week 1 Movie]]
 
[[File:Week1 001 icon.jpg|90px|link=Week 1 Movie]]
  
 +
* ({{GA}} week 3)
 +
* occurs freely floating in uterus
 
* occurs during [[Week_1|week 1]] following fertilization
 
* occurs during [[Week_1|week 1]] following fertilization
 
* last menstrual period (LMP) week 3
 
* last menstrual period (LMP) week 3
* mitosis to form solid ball of cells (morula), then hollow ball (blastocyst)
+
* mitosis to form solid ball of cells ({{morula}}), then hollow ball ({{blastocyst}})
 
 
[[File:Human-oocyte_to_blastocyst.jpg]]
 
 
 
  
 
[[File:Human_blastocyst_day_1-6.jpg|link=Blastocyst Day 3-6 Movie]]
 
[[File:Human_blastocyst_day_1-6.jpg|link=Blastocyst Day 3-6 Movie]]
  
 
[[File:Week1_summary.jpg]]
 
[[File:Week1_summary.jpg]]
 +
 
===Week 2===
 
===Week 2===
* Implantation - initial attachment to uterine wall, and then invasion of the uterine wall.
+
({{GA}} week 4)
 +
 
 +
* {{implantation}} - initial attachment to uterine wall, and then invasion of the uterine wall. Note - this is where the {{placenta}} will form.
  
 
[[File:Week2_001 icon.jpg|120px|link=Implantation Movie]]
 
[[File:Week2_001 icon.jpg|120px|link=Implantation Movie]]
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====Detect Pregnancy====
 
====Detect Pregnancy====
[[File:Pregnancy_test.gif|thumb|pregnancy test]]
 
[[File:Ovary_corpus_luteum.jpg|thumb|Ovary - corpus luteum secretes hormone to support pregnancy.]]
 
 
* Clinically can be detected following implantation (week 2)
 
* Clinically can be detected following implantation (week 2)
* Last Menstrual Period (LMP) - today ? ....... Birth Date - January 30, 2014
+
* Last Menstrual Period (LMP) - today ? ....... Birth Date - [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_6 January 6], 2020
 +
{|
 +
| [[File:Pregnancy_test.gif|300px]]
 +
| [[File:Ovary_corpus_luteum.jpg|300px]]
 +
|-
 +
| Pregnancy test (maternal urine)
 +
| Ovary - corpus luteum secretes hormone ({{hCG}}) to support pregnancy
 +
|}
  
 
===Week 3===
 
===Week 3===
 
[[File:Stage7-sem4.jpg|right|300px]]
 
[[File:Stage7-sem4.jpg|right|300px]]
* 3 Key processes commence
+
* ({{GA}} week 5)
 +
* 4 Key processes commence
  
 
====1. Gastrulation====
 
====1. Gastrulation====
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* the formation of the 3 layer embryo (trilaminar embryo)
 
* the formation of the 3 layer embryo (trilaminar embryo)
 
** All tissues of the body are formed from these 3 embryonic tissue layers (germ layers)
 
** All tissues of the body are formed from these 3 embryonic tissue layers (germ layers)
# '''Ectoderm''' (epithelium) - forms the central and peripheral nervous system and epithelium of the skin
+
# '''{{Ectoderm}}''' (epithelium) - forms the central and peripheral nervous system and epithelium of the skin
# '''Mesoderm''' (connective tissue) -  forms the body connective tissues: blood, bone, muscle, connective tissue skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
+
# '''{{Mesoderm}}''' (connective tissue) -  forms the body connective tissues: blood, bone, muscle, connective tissue skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
# '''Endoderm''' (epithelium) - forms gastrointestinal tract organs and the epithelium of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
+
# '''{{Endoderm}}''' (epithelium) - forms epithelium of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, gastrointestinal tract and endocrine organs
  
 
{|
 
{|
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[[File:Week3_folding icon.jpg|90px|link=Week 3 Development Movie]]
 
[[File:Week3_folding icon.jpg|90px|link=Week 3 Development Movie]]
 +
 +
 +
====4. Folding====
 +
* folding of the whole embryonic disc
 +
* all edges of the disc fold ventrally
 +
** left and right of the disc come together to form a "tube" of the 3 layers
 +
** top and bottom of the disc bend to form a "C" shaped embryo.
  
 
===Week 4===
 
===Week 4===
* heart formation (cardiogenesis)
+
{|
* first functioning organ
+
| {{SlideStage13bf04}}
 +
|
 +
* heart formation (cardiogenesis) first functioning organ
 +
* extra-embryonic cavities develop
 
[[File:Amnion 001 icon.jpg|120px|link=Amniotic Cavity Development Movie]]
 
[[File:Amnion 001 icon.jpg|120px|link=Amniotic Cavity Development Movie]]
 
[[File:Chick_Heart_001-icon.jpg|120px|link=Movie_-_Normal Chick Heart]]
 
[[File:Chick_Heart_001-icon.jpg|120px|link=Movie_-_Normal Chick Heart]]
[[File:Mouse_CT_E11.5_movie-icon.jpg|120px|link=Mouse E11.5 microCT Movie]]
+
|}
 
+
{|
===Week 4-8===
+
| valign="bottom"|{{Stage 13 MRI movie 3}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Stage 13 MRI movie 2}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Stage 13 MRI movie 1}}
 +
|}
 +
===Week 5 to 8===
 
* early development of the other organs, tissues and limbs
 
* early development of the other organs, tissues and limbs
 
{|
 
{|
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| valign=bottom|{{SlideStage14bf18}}
 
| valign=bottom|{{SlideStage14bf18}}
 
| valign=bottom|{{SlideStage21bf11}}
 
| valign=bottom|{{SlideStage21bf11}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Stage 23 MRI movie 5}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Stage 23 MRI movie 6}}
 +
| valign="bottom"|{{Stage 23 MRI movie 2}}
 
|}
 
|}
 
 
===Placenta===
 
===Placenta===
 
* Materno/fetal organ
 
* Materno/fetal organ
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==Postnatal Development==
 
==Postnatal Development==
 +
 
===Birth===
 
===Birth===
 
[[File:Galletti1770_birth.jpg|thumb|Historic teaching model of birth]]
 
[[File:Galletti1770_birth.jpg|thumb|Historic teaching model of birth]]
 
[[File:Birth-_Magnetic_Resonance_Imaging_02.jpg|thumb|MRI Birth]]
 
[[File:Birth-_Magnetic_Resonance_Imaging_02.jpg|thumb|MRI Birth]]
* birth (parturition) is a complex physiological process between the fetus and mother
+
* {{birth}} (parturition) is a complex physiological process between the fetus and mother
 
* thought to be initiated by the fetus
 
* thought to be initiated by the fetus
 +
 
===Maternal Birth Stages===
 
===Maternal Birth Stages===
  
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===Newborn===
 
===Newborn===
 
[[File:Newborn.jpg|thumb|Newborn infant (perinatal period)]]
 
[[File:Newborn.jpg|thumb|Newborn infant (perinatal period)]]
Newborn ([[P#perinatal|perinatal]]) needs to activate many systems and establish independent regulation ([[H#homeostasis|homeostasis]])
+
Newborn (perinatal) needs to activate many systems and establish independent regulation (homeostasis)
* '''Lung function''' - Fluid drainage, Gas exchange, muscular activity
+
 
 +
* '''Lung function''' - Fluid drainage, Gas exchange, muscular activity, continued development
 
* '''Circulatory changes''' - Closure of 3 vascular shunts
 
* '''Circulatory changes''' - Closure of 3 vascular shunts
 
* '''Thermoregulation''' - metabolic rate, fat metabolism
 
* '''Thermoregulation''' - metabolic rate, fat metabolism
* '''Nutrition''' - gastrointestinal tract function, peristalsis
+
* '''Nutrition''' - gastrointestinal tract function, peristalsis, continued development
* '''Waste''' - kidney function
+
* '''Waste''' - kidney function, continued development
* '''Endocrine function''' - loss of placenta, maternal hormones
+
* '''Endocrine function''' - loss of placenta, maternal hormones, continued development
  
 
==Abnormal Development==
 
==Abnormal Development==
 +
 
===Critical Periods of Development===
 
===Critical Periods of Development===
[[File:Human-critical_periods_of_development.jpg|thumb|Human critical periods of development]]
 
 
Three main causes:
 
Three main causes:
 
# Genetic
 
# Genetic
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* First trimester most critical
 
* First trimester most critical
 
* Different effect depending on time of insult (teratogen)
 
* Different effect depending on time of insult (teratogen)
 +
<br>
 
[[File:Human-critical periods of development.jpg]]
 
[[File:Human-critical periods of development.jpg]]
  
 
===Diagnosis===
 
===Diagnosis===
 +
* Maternal diagnosis - often pregnancy will expose maternal health problems
 
* Prenatal diagnosis - number of different techniques (non-invasive, invasive) for determining normal development
 
* Prenatal diagnosis - number of different techniques (non-invasive, invasive) for determining normal development
* Neonatal diagnosis ([[A#APGAR|APGAR test]], [[G#Guthrie test|Guthrie test]])
+
* Neonatal diagnosis - ({{Apgar test}}, {{Guthrie test}}), {{Hearing test}}
* Maternal diagnosis - often pregnancy will expose maternal health problems
+
 
  
<gallery>
+
<gallery caption="Prenatal Diagnosis">
File:Amniocentesis.jpg|Amniocentesis
+
File:Amniocentesis.jpg|link=Amniocentesis|Amniocentesis
File:Cvs.jpg|Chorionic Villus Sampling
+
File:Cvs.jpg|link=Chorionic Villus Sampling|Chorionic Villus Sampling
File:Ultrasound12wk_3D.jpg|Ultrasound
+
File:Ultrasound12wk_3D.jpg|link=Ultrasound|Ultrasound
File:Apgar.jpg|Apgar scoresheet
+
</gallery>
File:Gutherie_card_icon.jpg|Gutherie card
+
<gallery caption="Postnatal Diagnosis">
File:Congenital dislocation hip.jpg|Xray congenital dislocation hip
+
File:Apgar.jpg|link=Apgar test|Apgar scoresheet
File:Newborn hearing test.jpg|Newborn hearing test
+
File:Guthrie test icon.jpg|Gutherie test|Gutherie card
 +
File:Congenital dislocation hip.jpg|link=X-ray|Xray congenital dislocation hip
 +
File:Newborn hearing test.jpg|link=Hearing_test|Newborn hearing test
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
  
[[:Media:Dancing_baby.mov|Finished!]]
+
[[:Media:Dancing_baby.mp4|Finished! Now lets get ready for the Foundations Practical!]]
 +
 
  
 
==Additional Information==
 
==Additional Information==
 
{{Med Prac additional Information}}
 
{{Med Prac additional Information}}
 +
 
===Revision Notes===
 
===Revision Notes===
 
[[File:Human_development_timeline_graph_01.jpg|thumb|400px|Human development timeline]]
 
[[File:Human_development_timeline_graph_01.jpg|thumb|400px|Human development timeline]]
 
* You don't need to know everything today, this is an introduction.
 
* You don't need to know everything today, this is an introduction.
 
* Use the glossary to help understand new terms.
 
* Use the glossary to help understand new terms.
* Don't confuse "germ cell layers" (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) with "germ cells" (egg, spermatazoa).
+
* Don't confuse "germ cell layers" ({{ectoderm}}, {{mesoderm}}, {{endoderm}}) with the "germ cells" (oocyte, spermatazoa).
 
* Remember the difference between "clinical weeks" (last menstral period) and "embryonic weeks" (from ovulation/fertilisation, 2 weeks later).
 
* Remember the difference between "clinical weeks" (last menstral period) and "embryonic weeks" (from ovulation/fertilisation, 2 weeks later).
 
* With abnormalities
 
* With abnormalities
 
** think about the types of prenatal dianostic techniques that are now available
 
** think about the types of prenatal dianostic techniques that are now available
** the 2 major types (genetic and environmental)
+
** the 2 major types (genetic and environmental) and the unknown??
 
** the effect of maternal age/health/lifestyle.
 
** the effect of maternal age/health/lifestyle.
  
Line 358: Line 423:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[File:Logo.png|80px]]
 
| [[File:Logo.png|80px]]
| Hill, M.A. (2013) <i>UNSW Embryology</i> (13<sup>th</sup> ed.). Sydney:UNSW.
+
| {{Embryo citation}}
[[Menstrual Cycle|Menstrual Cycle]] | [[Oocyte]] | [[Spermatozoa]] | [[Cell Division - Meiosis|Meiosis]] | [[Cell Division - Mitosis|Mitosis]]
+
{{Menstrual cycle}} | {{Oocyte}} | {{Spermatozoa]] | {{Meiosis}} | {{Mitosis}}
* [[Fertilization]] | [[Zygote]] | [[Morula]] | [[Blastocyst]] | [[Implantation]]
+
* {{Fertilization}} | {{Zygote}} | {{Morula}} | {{Blastocyst}} | {{Implantation}}
 
* [[Week 1]] | [[Week 2]] | [[Week 3]]
 
* [[Week 1]] | [[Week 2]] | [[Week 3]]
 
* Science [[Lecture - Fertilization]] | [[Lecture_-_Week_1_and_2_Development|Lecture - Week 1 and 2]]
 
* Science [[Lecture - Fertilization]] | [[Lecture_-_Week_1_and_2_Development|Lecture - Week 1 and 2]]
 +
* [[Australian Statistics]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[File:The Developing Human, 9th edn.jpg|80px]]
+
| [[File:The Developing Human, 10th edn.jpg|80px]]
| Keith L. Moore, T.V.N. Persaud, Mark G. Torchia. (2011). <i>The Developing Human: clinically oriented embryology</i> (9<sup>th</sup> ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
+
| '''Citation:''' {{MPT2015APAcitation}}
  
* [http://er.library.unsw.edu.au/er/cgi-bin/eraccess.cgi?url=http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-2002-0..00001-1&isbn=978-1-4377-2002-0&uniqId=330028653-2#4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-2002-0..00001-1 Chapter 1 - Introduction to the Developing Human]
+
UNSW Students have online access to the current 10th edn. through the [http://www.unsw.eblib.com.wwwproxy0.library.unsw.edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=2074364 UNSW Library subscription].
 +
 
 +
Links: [http://www.unsw.eblib.com.wwwproxy0.library.unsw.edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=2074364 UNSW Library] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101649439 NLM ID: 101649439]
 +
 
 +
Chapter 1 - Introduction to the Developing Human
 
|-
 
|-
| [[File:Larsen's human embryology 4th edn.jpg|80px]]
+
| [[File:Larsen's human embryology 5th ed.jpg|80px]]
| Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R. and Francis-West, P.H. (2009). <i>Larsen’s Human Embryology</i>  (4<sup>th</sup> ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
+
| {{SBBF2015APAcitation}}
  
The following chapter links only work with a UNSW connection and can also be accessed through this [http://searchfirst.library.unsw.edu.au/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?vid=UNSW&fn=search&vl(freeText0)=UNSW_SFX14190000000047996 UNSW Library connection].
+
UNSW students have full access to this textbook edition through [http://er.library.unsw.edu.au/er/cgi-bin/eraccess.cgi?url=http://www.unsw.eblib.com.wwwproxy0.library.unsw.edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=2074524 UNSW Library subscription] (with student Zpass log-in).
* [http://www.mdconsult.com/books/linkTo?type=bookPage&isbn=978-0-443-06811-9&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-443-06811-9..10001-6 Chapter 1 - Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week]
 
  
 +
Read the introduction before Chapter 1.
 
|}
 
|}
  
  
----
 
  
 
[[File:Foundsmall.jpg|40px]] [[Foundations Practical - Introduction to Human Development]]
 
[[File:Foundsmall.jpg|40px]] [[Foundations Practical - Introduction to Human Development]]
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{{Footer}}
 
{{Footer}}
 
+
[[Category:Medicine]] [[Category:Foundations]] [[Category:2019]]
[[Category:Medicine]] [[Category:Foundations]] [[Category:2014]]
 

Latest revision as of 08:49, 1 April 2019

Embryology - 18 Nov 2019    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
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Introduction

Foundsmall.jpg
Dr Mark Hill

Human development is one of the most exciting topics to study not only as a medical student, but also for our fundamental understanding of the human body. Of all health issues in Medicine, fertility and reproduction is a topic that will affect everyone. This lecture is going to take you briefly through key biological concepts in human development, these will later be explored in more detail through the BGD course. I will be using simplified terms in the lecture slides (with developmental term in brackets).


Human fertilization 01.gif


2019 PDF


Australian Population Clock - 25,278,727  
On 5 March 2019 at 10:36:24 AM (Canberra time), the resident population of Australia is projected to be:


25,278,727


This projection is based on the estimated resident population at 31 December 2017 and assumes growth since then of:

  • one birth every 1 minute and 40 seconds,
  • one death every 3 minutes and 16 seconds,
  • one person arriving to live in Australia every 57 second,
  • one Australian resident leaving Australia to live overseas every 1 minute and 49 seconds, leading to
  • an overall total population increase of one person every 1 minute and 15 seconds.



These assumptions are consistent with figures released in Australian Demographic Statistics, December Quarter 2017 (cat. no. 3101.0).
Australia and the World...

Australia and world population growth graph.jpg


Australian Bureau of Statistics Population Clock

Australia and the World (2010)

  Population Growth Rate | Fertility Rate | AUS, CHN, IND, IDN, USA | World Growth




The lecture will be followed by a practical class introducing online resources for independent study and working through basic embryology concepts.


Links: 2018 | 2018 PDF | 2017 | 2017 PDF | Printable Lecture Page | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012
Other Foundations links  
Foundsmall.jpg
The following lecture, practical and practical support pages for Foundations can be found on this current site.


Aims

  1. Purpose of learning embryology
  2. Basic facts about early human development
  3. Appreciate differences between the conceptus, embryo and fetus
  4. General understanding of the term “critical periods” of development


Lecture Concepts: Embryology Education Support, Human Reproductive Cycle, First Trimester, Second and Third Trimester, Postnatal Development, Abnormal Development

Lecture Content  
  1. Embryology Education Support - UNSW Embryology Online, Glossary Links, Textbooks
  2. Human Reproductive Cycle - Female. Male, Ovary, Ovulation, Trimesters
  3. First Trimester - Fertilization, Week 1, Week 2, Abnormal Implantation, Normal Implantation, Detect Pregnancy, Week 3, Gastrulation, Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm, Somitogenesis, Neuralation, Week 4, Week 4-8, Placenta
  4. Second and Third Trimester - Fetal, growth - weight and length
  5. Postnatal Development - Birth, Maternal Birth Stages, Neonatal, Childhood
  6. Abnormal Development - Critical Periods of Development, Diagnosis
Links: Embryology Textbooks | Practical

Four Basic Tissue Types

Stomach Wall containing all 4 basic tissues.

In histology you have heard that tissues and organs of the body consist of combinations of 4 basic tissue organisations:

  1. Epithelial
  2. Connective
  3. Muscular
  4. Nervous
  • What is the origin of these tissues?
  • How do they develop?
  • What are their relationships with each other?
  • What health issues relate to their normal/abnormal development?


Human Development Timeline

Human development timeline graph 02.jpg

concepts animation

Last Menstrual Period (LMP) first day was today -> Birth Date - January 6, 2020  
Gestation Calculation (based upon a normal 28 day cycle)
  • Historic - Franz Carl Naegele (1777-1851), first rule for estimating pregnancy length
  • Current - Ultrasound, the most accurate staging method
  • First pregnancy (primipara) 274 days, just over 39 weeks
  • Subsequent pregnancies (multipara) 269 days, 38.4 weeks
  • GA - gestational age

Embryology Education Support

UNSW Embryology Online


Front-page-image.jpg

Human development 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Human Development
Page | Play

Movies

Using these resources (online navigation, organization and printing) will be covered in the introduction to the associated Practical class.

Glossary Links

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols

Practical pages general have a list of brief definitions of terms that appear on the current page, or more complete collapsed tables of terms.

Terms - highlighted text terms link to other content pages that relate to that specific term. Note that these linked pages do not generally form part of your examinable content, and are provided to aid your understanding of the concepts.

Textbooks

  • There are many different excellent embryology textbooks.
  • I have included below embryology textbooks accessible online through the UNSW Library that cover the clinical topics as well.
  • As an introduction try the chapter in The Developing Human - Introduction to the Developing Human


The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (10th edn) 
The Developing Human, 10th edn.jpg

UNSW Students have online access to the current 10th edn. through the UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).


APA Citation: Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Links: PermaLink | UNSW Embryology Textbooks | Embryology Textbooks | UNSW Library
  1. Introduction to the Developing Human
  2. First Week of Human Development
  3. Second Week of Human Development
  4. Third Week of Human Development
  5. Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development
  6. Fetal Period
  7. Placenta and Fetal Membranes
  8. Body Cavities and Diaphragm
  9. Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck
  10. Respiratory System
  11. Alimentary System
  12. Urogenital System
  13. Cardiovascular System
  14. Skeletal System
  15. Muscular System
  16. Development of Limbs
  17. Nervous System
  18. Development of Eyes and Ears
  19. Integumentary System
  20. Human Birth Defects
  21. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  22. Appendix : Discussion of Clinically Oriented Problems
Larsen's Human Embryology (5th edn) 
Larsen's human embryology 5th ed.jpg
UNSW students have full access to this textbook edition through UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).


APA Citation: Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Links: PermaLink | UNSW Embryology Textbooks | Embryology Textbooks | UNSW Library
  1. Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
  2. Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
  3. Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
  4. Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
  5. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  6. Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
  7. Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
  8. Development of the Musculoskeletal System
  9. Development of the Central Nervous System
  10. Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
  11. Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
  12. Development of the Heart
  13. Development of the Vasculature
  14. Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
  15. Development of the Urinary System
  16. Development of the Reproductive System
  17. Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
  18. Development of the Ears
  19. Development of the Eyes
  20. Development of the Limbs
Ebook - Kyoto Collection (1st edn) 
Kyoto Embryo Collection - cover.jpg UNSW students can download this free iBook that describes embryos from the first 8 weeks of development showing whole embryos, histological features, movies and high resolution 3D scans. The iBook also contains a linked glossary with descriptions of embryology terminology, and related terms.

Note - Only available for the Apple iPhone, iPad and laptop and desktop computers. No PC version currently available.


APA Citation: Hill MA. Shiota K. Yamada S. and Ho C. Kyoto Embryology Collection. (2016) Apple iTunes. Retrieved from: https://itunes.apple.com/book/id1143922693

Links: iTunes link | Kyoto Collection | Embryology iBooks | UNSW Embryology Textbooks | Embryology Textbooks | UNSW Library
Links: Embryology Textbooks - UNSW | More Embryology Textbooks

Human Reproductive Cycle

  • Meiosis in gonad produces haploid gametes
  • there are key differences in when and how gametes are formed in the male and female gonad.

Female

  • menstrual cycle a regular cycle of reproduction (28 days)
  • begins at puberty
  • all oocytes produced before birth
  • release of 1 egg (oocyte) every cycle
  • Endocrine controlled axis: Hypothalamus - Pituitary - Gonad (HPG axis)

XXhpgaxis.jpg Menstrual cycle.png

Male

  • begins at puberty
  • continuous production of sperm (spermatozoa, human male 2,000/second)
  • release millions of spermatozoa (require activation, capacitation)
Testis Pre-Puberty Testis Post-Puberty
Testis histology 006.jpg Testis histology 007.jpg

Ovary

  • Paired organs
  • lying in the peritoneal cavity

Human right ovary and tube 1.jpg Ovary10x.jpg

Ovulation

Human Menstrual Cycle

Human ovulation 01.jpg

Human ovulation


Ovulation icon.jpg Follicle 001 icon.jpg

Trimesters

  • Divide the pregnancy into 3 "blocks" of about 3 months (trimesters)
  • First Trimester - embryonic period (organogenesis)
  • Second and Trimester - fetal period (growth)
Trimesters

First Trimester

  • Embryonic Period - Week 1 to 8 (first trimester)
  • Establish the basic structure of organs and tissues (Organogenesis)
  • development and growth of the placenta (Placentation)

Human Carnegie stage 1-23.jpg

Embryo stages 002 icon.jpg

Fertilization

  • the process of the 2 haploid gametes (egg and sperm) fusing and combining their genetic material.
  • conceptus - the entire product of fertilisation.

Human fertilization movie 2 frame 01.jpg Fertilization 002 icon.jpg

Early zygote.jpg

Week 1

Human fertilization movie 1 frame 05.jpg Week1 001 icon.jpg

  • (GA week 3)
  • occurs freely floating in uterus
  • occurs during week 1 following fertilization
  • last menstrual period (LMP) week 3
  • mitosis to form solid ball of cells (morula), then hollow ball (blastocyst)

Human blastocyst day 1-6.jpg

Week1 summary.jpg

Week 2

(GA week 4)

  • implantation - initial attachment to uterine wall, and then invasion of the uterine wall. Note - this is where the placenta will form.

Week2 001 icon.jpg Chorion 001 icon.jpg

Normal Implantation

  • Uterine body
    • posterior, anterior, superior, lateral (most common posterior)
    • inferior implantation - placenta overlies internal os of uterus Placenta Previa

Abnormal Implantation

Tubal pregnancy.gif
  • Ectopic Sites
    • external surface of uterus, ovary, bowel, gastrointestinal tract, mesentery, peritoneal wall
    • If not spontaneous then, embryo has to be removed surgically
  • Uterine - tubal pregnancy (most common ectopic)

Detect Pregnancy

  • Clinically can be detected following implantation (week 2)
  • Last Menstrual Period (LMP) - today ? ....... Birth Date - January 6, 2020
Pregnancy test.gif Ovary corpus luteum.jpg
Pregnancy test (maternal urine) Ovary - corpus luteum secretes hormone (hCG) to support pregnancy

Week 3

Stage7-sem4.jpg
  • (GA week 5)
  • 4 Key processes commence

1. Gastrulation

  • the formation of the 3 layer embryo (trilaminar embryo)
    • All tissues of the body are formed from these 3 embryonic tissue layers (germ layers)
  1. ectoderm (epithelium) - forms the central and peripheral nervous system and epithelium of the skin
  2. mesoderm (connective tissue) - forms the body connective tissues: blood, bone, muscle, connective tissue skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
  3. endoderm (epithelium) - forms epithelium of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, gastrointestinal tract and endocrine organs
Trilaminar embryo.jpg Inner cell mass cartoon.jpg

2. Somitogenesis

  • segmentation of the mesoderm into somites
  • forms the axial body plan

3. Neuralation

  • segmentation of the ectoderm
  • separates the neural tissue from the skin (epidermis)

Week3 folding icon.jpg


4. Folding

  • folding of the whole embryonic disc
  • all edges of the disc fold ventrally
    • left and right of the disc come together to form a "tube" of the 3 layers
    • top and bottom of the disc bend to form a "C" shaped embryo.

Week 4

Stage 13 - Left Ventrolateral View

Stage13 bf4.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 13 | Embryo Slides
  • heart formation (cardiogenesis) first functioning organ
  • extra-embryonic cavities develop

Amnion 001 icon.jpg Chick Heart 001-icon.jpg

Stage13 MRI 3D03 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Stage 13
Page | Play
Stage13 MRI 3D02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo CNS
Page | Play
Stage 13 MRI S01.jpg
 ‎‎Heart Sag MRI
Page | Play

Week 5 to 8

  • early development of the other organs, tissues and limbs
Week 5 Week 8
Stage 14 - Lateral View

Stage14 bf18.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 14 | Embryo Slides
Stage 21 - Left Lateral

Stage21 bf11.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 21 | Embryo Slides
Stage23 MRI 3D01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Surface
Page | Play
Stage23 MRI 3D02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo CNS
Page | Play
Stage23 MRI S02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Sagittal Embryo
Page | Play

Placenta

  • Materno/fetal organ
  • No exchange of blood
  • Many different roles
    • can be "sampled" as part of a prenatal diagnostic test
  • interaction between implanting conceptus and uterine wall (endometrium)
  • The uterine lining following implantation (Decidua)
    • forms 3 distinct regions, at approx 3 weeks
    • Decidua Basalis - implantation site
    • Decidua Capsularis - enclosing the conceptus
    • Decidua Parietalis - remainder of uterus
  • uterine cavity is lost by 12 weeks

Placenta term anatomy 01.jpg

Second and Third Trimester

  • Week 9 to 37 - Fetal Development
  • Continuing growth and differentiation of organs formed in embryonic period
    • some organs have a later development - neural, genital, respiratory, bones
    • some continue to develop after birth - neural, genital, respiratory, bones
  • growth in size, length (Second Trimester)
  • growth in weight (Third Trimester)

Fetal growth icon.jpg Ultrasound12wk 3D image2.jpg 19weeklabel1.jpg

Postnatal Development

Birth

Historic teaching model of birth
MRI Birth
  • birth (parturition) is a complex physiological process between the fetus and mother
  • thought to be initiated by the fetus

Maternal Birth Stages

  1. Dilatation
  2. Expulsion
  3. Placental
  4. Recovery

Australian Birth Rate 1998-2007

Newborn

Newborn infant (perinatal period)

Newborn (perinatal) needs to activate many systems and establish independent regulation (homeostasis)

  • Lung function - Fluid drainage, Gas exchange, muscular activity, continued development
  • Circulatory changes - Closure of 3 vascular shunts
  • Thermoregulation - metabolic rate, fat metabolism
  • Nutrition - gastrointestinal tract function, peristalsis, continued development
  • Waste - kidney function, continued development
  • Endocrine function - loss of placenta, maternal hormones, continued development

Abnormal Development

Critical Periods of Development

Three main causes:

  1. Genetic
  2. Environmental
  3. Unknown
  • First trimester most critical
  • Different effect depending on time of insult (teratogen)


Human-critical periods of development.jpg

Diagnosis

  • Maternal diagnosis - often pregnancy will expose maternal health problems
  • Prenatal diagnosis - number of different techniques (non-invasive, invasive) for determining normal development
  • Neonatal diagnosis - (Apgar test, Guthrie test), hearing test



Finished! Now lets get ready for the Foundations Practical!


Additional Information

Additional Information - Content shown under this heading is not part of the material covered in this class. It is provided for those students who would like to know about some concepts or current research in topics related to the current class page.

Revision Notes

Human development timeline
  • You don't need to know everything today, this is an introduction.
  • Use the glossary to help understand new terms.
  • Don't confuse "germ cell layers" (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) with the "germ cells" (oocyte, spermatazoa).
  • Remember the difference between "clinical weeks" (last menstral period) and "embryonic weeks" (from ovulation/fertilisation, 2 weeks later).
  • With abnormalities
    • think about the types of prenatal dianostic techniques that are now available
    • the 2 major types (genetic and environmental) and the unknown??
    • the effect of maternal age/health/lifestyle.

Textbooks

Logo.png Hill, M.A. (2019). UNSW Embryology (19th ed.) Retrieved November 18, 2019, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au
The Developing Human, 10th edn.jpg Citation: Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

UNSW Students have online access to the current 10th edn. through the UNSW Library subscription.

Links: UNSW Library | NLM ID: 101649439

Chapter 1 - Introduction to the Developing Human

Larsen's human embryology 5th ed.jpg Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

UNSW students have full access to this textbook edition through UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).

Read the introduction before Chapter 1.


Foundsmall.jpg Foundations Practical - Introduction to Human Development


Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, November 18) Embryology Foundations Lecture - Introduction to Human Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Foundations_Lecture_-_Introduction_to_Human_Development

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G