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Trigeminal Artery

The most common persistent embryonic carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis is the trigeminal artery (TA), with a reported prevalence of about 0.2% (0.1%-0.6%) instances. A persistent trigeminal artery consists of a connection between the intracranial internal carotid artery and the basilar artery, usually in the basilar midsegment or distally near the origin of the superior cerebellar arteries.

Classified persistent TA types:

  1. joins the BA between the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), the caudal segment of the BA can be hypoplastic and it might show poor filling in angiogram.
  2. joins the BA above the origin of the SCA and it supplies most of the flow to the SCA. This type is usually accompanied by normal PCOMM supplying most of the PCA flow.
  3. can have an insertion above or below the SCA supplying the SCA and the contralateral PCA while the PCOMM supplies the ipsilateral PCA.

(Text Modified from original figure legend)

Links: Overview cartoon | Early vascular changes | Persistent trigeminal and hypoglossal arteries | Persistent trigeminal artery | Cardiovascular System Development | Neural - Cerebrum Development


Menshawi K, Mohr JP & Gutierrez J. (2015). A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply. J Stroke , 17, 144-58. PMID: 26060802 DOI.


© 2015 Korean Stroke Society (open-access, This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Jos-17-144-g005.jpg Panel A cropped, resized and labelled from fig. 5.

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, May 28) Embryology Trigeminal artery 02.jpg. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G

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