Difference between revisions of "Ferret Development"

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* '''Viral particles of endogenous betaretroviruses are released in the sheep uterus and infect the conceptus trophectoderm in a transspecies embryo transfer model'''{{#pmid:20610723|PMID20610723}}
 
* '''Viral particles of endogenous betaretroviruses are released in the sheep uterus and infect the conceptus trophectoderm in a transspecies embryo transfer model'''{{#pmid:20610723|PMID20610723}}
 
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==Ovary==
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The data below is from a 1970 study of ferret ovary development.{{#pmid:5528805|PMID5528805}}
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* the meiotic phase of the oocytes and the differentiation of the glandular interstitial tissue take place over about the same
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postnatal period.
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* 10 - 21 days - active {{meiosis}} occurred
 +
* 14 days onwards - degeneration and absorption of many oocytes, not all oocytes pass into the meiotic phase. Lipid-containing interstitial cells differentiate from medullary stroma.
 +
* at end of meiotic phase - cortex of the ovary is reduced (60-80%) of the original oocytes have disappeared.
 +
** degenerating oocytes present in the lumen of rete tubules, that originate in the ovarian medulla
 +
* 16 days - {{primordial follicle}}s with flattened surrounding cells (pregranulosa cells) form from the fibrous stromal tissue  among the oocytes and earlier oogonia.
 +
* 21 days - typical glandular interstitial tissue occupies most of the ovary.
  
  

Revision as of 15:15, 5 April 2020

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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Introduction

The ferret (Mustela putorius furo) has historically been used as a mammalian model of development with a gestation period of 42 days. More recently this animal model has been used to study neural cortex development.



Category:Ferret
Historic Embryology: 1904 Placenta | 1911 Ferret Embryology | 1917 Blood Vessel Development 1 | 1918 Blood Vessel Development 2 | 1932 zona granulosa, zona pellucida | 1936 Abnormal Pronuclei



Animal Development Time 

Animal Average Days
Bear (Black) 210
Bison 270
Budgerigar 18
Camel 410
cat 65
cow 281
chicken 21
Chimpanzee 236
Chinchilla 111
Coyote 63
deer (Mule) 200
dog 63
Donkey 365
Duck 28
Duck (Muscovy) 35
elephant 660
Elk, Wapiti 255
Ferret 42
Finch 14
Fox 52
Giraffe 425
goat 150
Goose 28
Gorilla 270
Guinea fowl 28
guinea pig 68
Hare 36
Hippopotamus 240
horse 338
Human 274
Leopard 95
Lion 108
Llama 350
Marmoset 150
Mink (European) 41
monkey (Macaque) 180
Moose 240
mouse 20
Muskox 255
Muskrat 29
Nutria, Coypu 130
opossum 12
Otter 285
Panther 90
Parrot 26
Pheasant 24
Pig 114
Pigeon 18
Porcupine 210
Pronghorn 230
Quail 16
rabbit 31
Raccoon 63
rat 21
Reindeer 225
Rhinoceros (African) 480
Seal 330
sheep 150
Shrew 20
Skunk 63
Squirrel (Gray) 40
Swan 35
Tapir 390
Tarsier 182
Tiger 103
Turkey 28
Walrus 450
whale (Sperm) 450
Wolf 63
Woodchuck 31
Animal Notes and Table Data Sources
  • Each animal species has different variations +/- the average values shown in the table.
  • Gestation is the carrying of an animal embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. Except in the case of human gestational age GA.
  • Incubation is the laying of an egg (birds, reptiles, monotremes) with development occurring outside the female animal.


See also - Timeline Comparisons

Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | horse | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | opossum | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


Additional Data Sources

  • Theiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development (1972, 1989) Springer-Verlag, NY. Online
  • Witschi E. Rat Development. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. (1962) Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
  • The Genetics of the Dog. E Ostrander, E. and Ruvinsky, A. ISBN: 9781845939403 (2012)
  • Merck Veterinary Manual. Aiello, S.E. and Moses, M.A. (ed) ISBN: 0911910506 (2013) Online
  • Witschi, E. (1962) Development: Rat. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. Altman, P. L. , and D. S. Dittmer, ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.

Some Recent Findings

  • Gyrification of the cerebral cortex requires FGF signaling in the mammalian brain[1] "Although it has been believed that the evolution of cortical folds was a milestone, allowing for an increase in the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex, the mechanisms underlying the formation of cortical folds are largely unknown. Here we show regional differences in the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in the developing cerebral cortex of ferrets even before cortical folds are formed. By taking the advantage of our in utero electroporation technique for ferrets, we found that cortical folding was impaired in the ferret cerebral cortex when FGF signaling was inhibited. We also found that FGF signaling was crucial for producing Pax6-positive neural progenitors in the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) of the developing cerebral cortex. Furthermore, we found that upper layers of the cerebral cortex were preferentially reduced by inhibiting FGF signaling. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of cortical folding in gyrencephalic mammalian brains."
  • Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets[2] "Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common." axial skeleton
More recent papers  
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This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

  • This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled.
  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.


References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References

Search term: Ferret Development | Ferret Embryology | Mustela putorius furo Development

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

  • ventricular septal defect in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo)[3] "A four-year-old, castrated male ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was evaluated because of a one-year history of sporadic cough. On physical examination a grade 5 of 6 holosystolic murmur was audible over the right apex of the heart. Radiographic findings included the presence of air bronchograms in apical lobes accompanied by pulmonary venous congestion. Colour Doppler echocardiography revealed a left-to-right shunting compatible with a ventricular septal defect. Medical therapy was initiated at the time of the diagnosis. The ferret was presented again 2 months after the initial examination for coughing and respiratory distress. Echocardiographic findings included tricuspid regurgitation, relative enlargement of left-atrial diameter and decreased systolic function, with presence of pleural effusion. Thoracocentesis was performed and the therapeutic plan was revised. In the following months the symptoms did not recur. In the authors' opinion this is the first report to describe the clinical findings of isolated ventricular septal defect in the ferret. Congenital heart defects are rare in this species, the present ferret being only the second case described."
  • Viral particles of endogenous betaretroviruses are released in the sheep uterus and infect the conceptus trophectoderm in a transspecies embryo transfer model[4]


Ovary

The data below is from a 1970 study of ferret ovary development.[5]

  • the meiotic phase of the oocytes and the differentiation of the glandular interstitial tissue take place over about the same

postnatal period.

  • 10 - 21 days - active meiosis occurred
  • 14 days onwards - degeneration and absorption of many oocytes, not all oocytes pass into the meiotic phase. Lipid-containing interstitial cells differentiate from medullary stroma.
  • at end of meiotic phase - cortex of the ovary is reduced (60-80%) of the original oocytes have disappeared.
    • degenerating oocytes present in the lumen of rete tubules, that originate in the ovarian medulla
  • 16 days - primordial follicles with flattened surrounding cells (pregranulosa cells) form from the fibrous stromal tissue among the oocytes and earlier oogonia.
  • 21 days - typical glandular interstitial tissue occupies most of the ovary.


References

  1. Matsumoto N, Shinmyo Y, Ichikawa Y & Kawasaki H. (2017). Gyrification of the cerebral cortex requires FGF signaling in the mammalian brain. Elife , 6, . PMID: 29132503 DOI.
  2. Proks P, Stehlik L, Paninarova M, Irova K, Hauptman K & Jekl V. (2015). Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets. Vet Radiol Ultrasound , 56, 117-23. PMID: 25124147 DOI.
  3. Di Girolamo N, Critelli M, Zeyen U & Selleri P. (2012). Ventricular septal defect in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Small Anim Pract , 53, 549-53. PMID: 22861049 DOI.
  4. Black SG, Arnaud F, Burghardt RC, Satterfield MC, Fleming JA, Long CR, Hanna C, Murphy L, Biek R, Palmarini M & Spencer TE. (2010). Viral particles of endogenous betaretroviruses are released in the sheep uterus and infect the conceptus trophectoderm in a transspecies embryo transfer model. J. Virol. , 84, 9078-85. PMID: 20610723 DOI.
  5. Deanesly R. (1970). Oögenesis and the development of the ovarian interstitial tissue in the ferret. J. Anat. , 107, 165-78. PMID: 5528805


Reviews

Kawasaki H. (2018). Molecular Investigations of the Development and Diseases of Cerebral Cortex Folding using Gyrencephalic Mammal Ferrets. Biol. Pharm. Bull. , 41, 1324-1329. PMID: 30175769 DOI.

Kawasaki H. (2017). Molecular investigations of development and diseases of the brain of higher mammals using the ferret. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. , 93, 259-269. PMID: 28496051 DOI.

Brunso-Bechtold JK & Henkel CK. (1996). Axon decussation and midline glia in the developing ferret auditory hindbrain. Prog. Brain Res. , 108, 165-81. PMID: 8979801 DOI.

Rabe A, Haddad R & Dumas R. (1985). Behavior and neurobehavioral teratology using the ferret. Lab. Anim. Sci. , 35, 256-67. PMID: 3894789

Articles

Kou Z, Wu Q, Kou X, Yin C, Wang H, Zuo Z, Zhuo Y, Chen A, Gao S & Wang X. (2015). CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering of the ferret. Cell Res. , 25, 1372-5. PMID: 26565559 DOI.

Proks P, Stehlik L, Paninarova M, Irova K, Hauptman K & Jekl V. (2015). Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets. Vet Radiol Ultrasound , 56, 117-23. PMID: 25124147 DOI.

Gertz CC, Lui JH, LaMonica BE, Wang X & Kriegstein AR. (2014). Diverse behaviors of outer radial glia in developing ferret and human cortex. J. Neurosci. , 34, 2559-70. PMID: 24523546 DOI.

Marino TA, Truex RC & Marino DR. (1979). The development of the atrioventricular node and bundle in the ferret heart. Am. J. Anat. , 154, 135-50. PMID: 760490 DOI.

Beck F, Swidzinska P & Gulamhusein A. (1978). The effect of trypan blue on the development of the ferret and rat. Teratology , 18, 187-91. PMID: 715725 DOI.

Deanesly R. (1977). Testis differentiation in the fetal and postnatal ferret. J. Anat. , 123, 589-99. PMID: 885777

Sweet C, Toms GL & Smith H. (1977). The pregnant ferret as a model for studying the congenital effects of influenza virus infection in utero: infection of foetal tissues in organ culture and in vivo. Br J Exp Pathol , 58, 113-23. PMID: 861161

Berkovitz BK. (1973). Tooth development in the albino ferret (Mustela putorius) with special reference to the permanent carnassial. Arch. Oral Biol. , 18, 465-71. PMID: 4516060 DOI.

Willis LS & Barrow MV. (1971). The ferret (Mustela putorius furo L.) as a laboratory animal. Lab. Anim. Sci. , 21, 712-6. PMID: 4329234

Deanesly R. (1970). Oögenesis and the development of the ovarian interstitial tissue in the ferret. J. Anat. , 107, 165-78. PMID: 5528805

Yeates T. (1911). Studies in the Embryology of the Ferret. J Anat Physiol , 45, 319-35. PMID: 17232892

Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Ferret development


Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | horse | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | opossum | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, June 4) Embryology Ferret Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Ferret_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G