Difference between revisions of "Embryology History - Franklin Mall"

From Embryology
Line 91: Line 91:
==On The Frequency of Localized Anomalies in Human Embryos and Infants at Birth==
[[Paper_-_On_The_Frequency_of_Localized_Anomalies_in_Human_Embryos_and_Infants_at_Birth|On The Frequency of Localized Anomalies in Human Embryos and Infants at Birth]] Amer. Jour. Anat., (1917) vol. 22, p. 49-72.
'''Search PubMed:''' [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Mall%20FP%22%5BAuthor%5D Mall FP]
'''Search PubMed:''' [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Mall%20FP%22%5BAuthor%5D Mall FP]

Revision as of 17:37, 5 November 2013


Franklin Mall (1911)
Historic Marker

Franklin P. Mall (1862-1917) is most remembered for his work done at the Department of Embryology at the Carnegie Institute of Washington. Mall began collecting human embryos while a postgraduate student in Lepzig with Wilhelm His, but didn't receive the first Carnegie specimen until his position at Johns Hopkins University.

Surprizingly age and size proves a poor way to organize embryos. It is very difficult to accurately age an embryo, and it could shrink a full 50% in the preserving fluids. Mall took it upon himself to find a better way. He had more success basing his "staging" scheme on morphological characteristics. To that end, Mall and his colleagues not only prepared and preserved serial sections of the embryos, they also made hundreds of three-dimensional models at different stages of growth.

According to Adrianne Noe, who manages the collection at the National Museum of Health and Medicine, Mall gathered the most renowned scientists, scholars, artists, photographers, and craftspeople ever to apply their interests and skills to embryology.

One of the first to be hired, in 1913, was modeler Osborne O. Heard, who spent 42 years at the department and made over 700 wax-based reconstructions. The results of this team effort still stand as the international standard by which human embryos are described and classified.

(Above text and information about the collection is modifed from the original Carnegie Institute website)

The embryo collection is now held at the National Museum of Health and Medicine, located at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C. the Carnegie collection is still available for use by researchers.

Franklin Mall Links: Franklin Mall | 1891 26 Day Human Embryo | 1905 Blood-Vessels of the Brain | 1906 Human Ossification | 1910 Manual of Human Embryology 1 | 1912 Manual of Human Embryology 2 | 1911 Mall Human Embryo Collection | 1912 Heart Development | 1915 Tubal Pregnancy | 1916 Human Magma in Normal and Pathological Development | 1917 Frequency Human Abnormalities | 1917 Human Embryo Cyclopia | 1918 Embryo Age | 1918 Appreciation | 1934 Franklin Mall biography PDF | Mall photograph | Mall painting | Mall painting | Carnegie Stages | Carnegie Embryos | Carnegie Collection | Category:Franklin Mall

Embryologists: William Hunter | Wilhelm Roux | Caspar Wolff | Wilhelm His | Oscar Hertwig | Julius Kollmann | Hans Spemann | Francis Balfour | Charles Minot | Ambrosius Hubrecht | Charles Bardeen | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Florence Sabin | George Streeter | George Corner | James Hill | Jan Florian | Thomas Bryce | Thomas Morgan | Ernest Frazer | Francisco Orts-Llorca | José Doménech Mateu | Frederic Lewis | Arthur Meyer | Robert Meyer | Erich Blechschmidt | Klaus Hinrichsen | Hideo Nishimura | Arthur Hertig | John Rock | Viktor Hamburger | Mary Lyon | Nicole Le Douarin | Robert Winston | Fabiola Müller | Ronan O'Rahilly | Robert Edwards | John Gurdon | Shinya Yamanaka | Embryology History | Category:People
Related Histology Researchers  
Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Camillo Golgi

Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline | Glossary Carnegie Collection

Nature - Obituary Notice

Prof. Franklin P. Mall

"ALL who are interested in the progress of biology will learn with deep regret of the sudden death of Dr. Franklin P. Mall, of Johns Hopkins University, at the age of fifty-five. It was chiefly owing to his precepts and example that, in little more than a score of years, a complete revolution was wrought in the anatomical departments attached to medical schools throughout the length and breadth of the United States. Dissecting-rooms were changed from places in which routine teaching and perfunctory investigation were carried on to laboratories where exact methods were applied to the elucidation of definite problems. Prof. Mall was thirty-one years of age when he returned in 1893 from a long course of study under the late Prof. His, of Leipzig, to become the first professor of anatomy in Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. He designed his own department, selecting a slimly built, cheap, brick construction, and settled down with his students to combine study with research. He devoted himself to embryological and microscopic investigations, reconstructing his results in the exact model methods practised by Prof. His. His writings cover the whole field of embryology, every contribution representing a permanent addition to knowledge. His pupils left him to fill the various chairs of anatomy as they fell vacant, and carried to their new departments the methods and spirit they had imbibed from Franklin Mall. He took a leading-part in the foundation of the excellent journals which have been established in the United States for the publication of anatomical investigations the American Journal of Anatomy, the Anatomical Record, and the Journal of Morphology. He pursued the study of human embryology in a more systematic manner than has ever been accomplished by any other man."
Links: Nature (27 December 1917)

Manual of Human Embryology

Keibel Mall 1910.jpg

by Franz Keibel and Franklin P. Mall (1910)

   Manual of Human Embryology I 1910: The Germ Cells | Fertilization | Segmentation | First Primitive Segment | Gastrulation | External Form | Placenta | Human Embryo and Fetus Age | Ovum Pathology | Integument | Skeleton and Connective Tissues | Muscular System | Coelom and Diaphragm | Figures | Manual of Human Embryology 1 | Manual of Human Embryology 2 | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Embryology History

A Human Embryo Twenty-Six Days Old

Mall1891 Plate02Fig01.jpg

A Human Embryo Twenty-Six Days Old Journal of Morphology (1891) vol. 5. pp459-480.

Studies on abortuses: a survey of pathologic oya in the carnegie embryological collection

Contributions to Embryology VOLUME XII (1921)

By Franklin Paine Mall and Arthur William Meyer. (24 plates, 5 text-figures, and 1 chart)

No.56 Studies on abortuses: a survey of pathologic oya in the carnegie embryological collection

Embryology - 23 Jul 2021    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)

Mall FP. and Meyer AW. Studies on abortuses: a survey of pathologic ova in the Carnegie Embryological Collection. (1921) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 275, 12: 1-364.

In this historic 1921 pathology paper, figures and plates of abnormal embryos are not suitable for young students.

1921 Carnegie Collection - Abnormal: Preface | 1 Collection origin | 2 Care and utilization | 3 Classification | 4 Pathologic analysis | 5 Size | 6 Sex incidence | 7 Localized anomalies | 8 Hydatiform uterine | 9 Hydatiform tubal | Chapter 10 Alleged superfetation | 11 Ovarian Pregnancy | 12 Lysis and resorption | 13 Postmortem intrauterine | 14 Hofbauer cells | 15 Villi | 16 Villous nodules | 17 Syphilitic changes | 18 Aspects | Bibliography | Figures | Contribution No.56 | Contributions Series | Embryology History

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Report Upon the Collection of Human Embryos at the John Hopkins University

Report Upon the Collection of Human Embryos at the John Hopkins University

Mall, F.P. The Anatomical Record Volume 5, Issue 7, pages 343–357, July 1911

  • 533 specimens recorded under 500 numbers
    • 335 normal specimens
    • 198 pathological
  • under 8 mm in length, under six weeks old
    • 50 normal embryos
    • 105 pathological
  • 9 and 25 mm
    • 133 normal embryos
    • 66 pathological

Pathological Percentages

  • 68% first six weeks of pregnancy
  • 34% sixth to the end of the eighth week
  • 18% remaining seven months
  • i - obtain complete vascular injection in embryos less than 20 mm long
  • k - clarified in caustic potash and glycerine to show the extent of ossification


Mall, FP, Report upon the collection of human embryos at the Johns Hopkins University. The Anatomical Record: 1911, 5: 343–357.

<pubmed>17830207</pubmed> <pubmed>17770718</pubmed>

On measuring human embryos. Franklin P. Mall The Anatomical Record Volume 1, Issue 6, pages 129–140, 1 August 1907

On The Frequency of Localized Anomalies in Human Embryos and Infants at Birth

On The Frequency of Localized Anomalies in Human Embryos and Infants at Birth Amer. Jour. Anat., (1917) vol. 22, p. 49-72.


Search PubMed: Mall FP

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, July 23) Embryology Embryology History - Franklin Mall. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_Franklin_Mall

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G