Difference between revisions of "Embryology History - Bradley Patten"

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{{Header}}
 
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==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
[[File:Bradley M. Patten.jpg|thumb|alt=Bradley M. Patten|link=|Bradley Patten ( -1971)]]
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[[File:Bradley M. Patten.jpg|thumb|alt=Bradley M. Patten|link=Embryology History - Bradley Patten|Bradley Patten ( -1971)]]
 
Bradley Merrill Patten ( -1971) was an American embryologist, Western Reserve University, School of Medicine. Cleveland, Ohio.
 
Bradley Merrill Patten ( -1971) was an American embryologist, Western Reserve University, School of Medicine. Cleveland, Ohio.
  
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{{History People}}
 
{{History People}}
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==1920 Chicken Embryology==
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<gallery>
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File:Patten039.jpg|Fig. 39. Dextro-dorsal view ( X 14) of entire chick embryo of 36 somites (about three days incubation).
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File:Patten042.jpg|Fig. 42. Diagrams to show the topography of the brain of a four-day chick.
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File:Patten043.jpg|Fig. 43. Diagram of median longitudinal section of four-day chick.
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File:Patten047.jpg|Fig. 47. Schematic diagram to show the location of the more prominent internal organs of the four-day chick.
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File:Patten048.jpg|Fig. 48. Diagram to show course of vitelline circulation in chick of about four days.
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File:Patten049.jpg|Fig. 49. Ventral views of the heart at various stages to show its changes of shape and its regional differentiation.
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File:Patten050.jpg|Fig. 50. Dextral views of the same series of hearts shown in ventral view in Fig. 49.
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File:Patten051.jpg|Fig. 51. Schematic diagrams to show the relations of pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros at various stages of development.
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File:Patten052.jpg|Fig. 52. Drawings to show nephric tubules.
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File:Patten053.jpg|Fig. 53. Drawing from transverse section of four-day chick to show mesonephric tubule and duct.
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File:Patten054.jpg|Fig. 54. Schematic diagrams of cross sections at various stages to show the establishment of the coelom and mesenteries.
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</gallery>
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==1938 Developmental Defects at the Foramen Ovale==
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{{Ref-Patten1938}}
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<gallery>
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File:Patten1938 plate30.jpg|Plate 30
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File:Patten1938 plate31.jpg|Plate 31
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File:Patten1938 plate32.jpg|Plate 32
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File:Patten1938 plate33.jpg|Plate 33
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File:Patten1938 plate34.jpg|Plate 34
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</gallery>
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==1949 Heart Development==
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{{Ref-Patten1949}}
  
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==1951 Pig Embryology==
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{{Ref-Patten1951}}
  
===References===  
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==1953 Human Embryology==
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{{Ref-Patten1953}}
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==References==
 
{{Ref-Patten1920}}
 
{{Ref-Patten1920}}
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{{Ref-Patten1922}}
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{{Ref-Patten1929}}
  
 
{{Ref-Patten1938}}
 
{{Ref-Patten1938}}
  
Human Embryology. Ed. 2. Bradley M. Patten, Ph.D. New York, The Blakiston Company, 1953.
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This 1946 paper presented by Patten at the 1946 Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists.
 
This 1946 paper presented by Patten at the 1946 Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists.
  
Bradley M. PATTEN, Department of Anatomy, University of Michigan.
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Bradley M. Patten, Department of Anatomy, University of Michigan.
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Three recently acquired human embryos show progressive stages in the development of spina bifida and myeloschisis. The youngest (8 mm) exhibits a broad opening of the neural tube in the sacral region. Measurements of the sections show the bulk of the spinal cord is startlingly greater ill the region of the defect than just above or below it. Similarly in the second embryo (49 mm) there is marked overgrowth of the cord with the additional factor of local cord duplication toward one end of the defect. The third specimen (160 mm) is beginning to show degenerative changes in the open cord and clubbing of the feet. The youngest embryo indicates the cord defect is primary because it has been established well before the primordia of the neural arches have begun to take shape. Conditions presented by these specimens strongly suggest that the open neural tube is the result of local overgrowth which interfered with closure, rather than the result of a “developmental arrest” which left the tube unclosed. The importance of this possibility lies in its implications as to causation. Because of the emphasis which has been placed on the developmental arrest concept, search for causes of congenital defects has been largely directed toward conditions which might inhibit growth. If anomalies are caused also by local overgrowth, we must scrutinize causative factors of different types.
 
Three recently acquired human embryos show progressive stages in the development of spina bifida and myeloschisis. The youngest (8 mm) exhibits a broad opening of the neural tube in the sacral region. Measurements of the sections show the bulk of the spinal cord is startlingly greater ill the region of the defect than just above or below it. Similarly in the second embryo (49 mm) there is marked overgrowth of the cord with the additional factor of local cord duplication toward one end of the defect. The third specimen (160 mm) is beginning to show degenerative changes in the open cord and clubbing of the feet. The youngest embryo indicates the cord defect is primary because it has been established well before the primordia of the neural arches have begun to take shape. Conditions presented by these specimens strongly suggest that the open neural tube is the result of local overgrowth which interfered with closure, rather than the result of a “developmental arrest” which left the tube unclosed. The importance of this possibility lies in its implications as to causation. Because of the emphasis which has been placed on the developmental arrest concept, search for causes of congenital defects has been largely directed toward conditions which might inhibit growth. If anomalies are caused also by local overgrowth, we must scrutinize causative factors of different types.
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Latest revision as of 18:46, 4 June 2019

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Introduction

Bradley M. Patten
Bradley Patten ( -1971)

Bradley Merrill Patten ( -1971) was an American embryologist, Western Reserve University, School of Medicine. Cleveland, Ohio.

Bradley Merrill Patten, the distinguished embryologist, is retiring from active service as Professor of Anatomy and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy in the Medical School, University of Michigan.

The son of a professor of zoology at Dartmouth College, he entered upon his own academic career with characteristic single-mindedness graduating from Dartmouth Phi Beta Kappa in 1911, and from Harvard Graduate School in 1914.


Embryologists: William Hunter | Wilhelm Roux | Caspar Wolff | Wilhelm His | Oscar Hertwig | Julius Kollmann | Hans Spemann | Francis Balfour | Charles Minot | Ambrosius Hubrecht | Charles Bardeen | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Florence Sabin | George Streeter | George Corner | James Hill | Jan Florian | Thomas Bryce | Thomas Morgan | Ernest Frazer | Francisco Orts-Llorca | José Doménech Mateu | Frederic Lewis | Arthur Meyer | Robert Meyer | Erich Blechschmidt | Klaus Hinrichsen | Hideo Nishimura | Arthur Hertig | John Rock | Viktor Hamburger | Mary Lyon | Nicole Le Douarin | Robert Winston | Fabiola Müller | Ronan O'Rahilly | Robert Edwards | John Gurdon | Shinya Yamanaka | Embryology History | Category:People
Related Histology Researchers  
Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Camillo Golgi

1920 Chicken Embryology

Patten BM. The Early Embryology of the Chick. (1920) Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son and Co.


Patten BM. The closure of the foramen ovale. Am. J. Anat., 1931, 48. 19-44

1938 Developmental Defects at the Foramen Ovale

Patten BM. Developmental defects at the foramen ovale. (1938) Am J Pathol. 14(2):135-162. PMID 19970381

1949 Heart Development

Patten BM. Initiation and early changes in the character of the heart beat in vertebrate embryos. (1949) Physiol Rev. 29(1): 31-47. PMID 18125910

1951 Pig Embryology

Patten BM. Embryology of the Pig. (1951) The Blakiston Company, Toronto.

1953 Human Embryology

Patten BM. Human Embryology. (2nd end) (1953) New York, The Blakiston Company.

References

Patten BM. The Early Embryology of the Chick. (1920) Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son and Co.

Patten BM. The formation of the cardiac loop in the chick. (1922) Amer. J Anat. 30: 373-397.

Patten, BM. Sommepfield WA. and Paff GH. Functional limitations of the foramen ovale in the human foetal heart. (1929) Anat. Rec. 44(2): 165-

Patten BM. Developmental defects at the foramen ovale. (1938) Am J Pathol. 14(2):135-162. PMID 19970381

Patten BM. Initiation and early changes in the character of the heart beat in vertebrate embryos. (1949) Physiol Rev. 29(1): 31-47. PMID 18125910

Patten BM. Human Embryology. (2nd end) (1953) New York, The Blakiston Company.

Patten BM. Embryology of the Pig. (1951) The Blakiston Company, Toronto.

The closure of the foramen oval (1931) | JAMA Review of - Embryology of the Pig | Open Library

In memoriam: Bradley M. Patten. Dev. Biol.: 1971, 26(4);659 PMID 4944077

BRADLEY M. PATTEN. Med Bull (Ann Arbor): 1958, 24(12);500-1 PMID 13625453


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Embryological stages in the development of spina bifida and myelosclzisis

This 1946 paper presented by Patten at the 1946 Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists.

Bradley M. Patten, Department of Anatomy, University of Michigan.


Three recently acquired human embryos show progressive stages in the development of spina bifida and myeloschisis. The youngest (8 mm) exhibits a broad opening of the neural tube in the sacral region. Measurements of the sections show the bulk of the spinal cord is startlingly greater ill the region of the defect than just above or below it. Similarly in the second embryo (49 mm) there is marked overgrowth of the cord with the additional factor of local cord duplication toward one end of the defect. The third specimen (160 mm) is beginning to show degenerative changes in the open cord and clubbing of the feet. The youngest embryo indicates the cord defect is primary because it has been established well before the primordia of the neural arches have begun to take shape. Conditions presented by these specimens strongly suggest that the open neural tube is the result of local overgrowth which interfered with closure, rather than the result of a “developmental arrest” which left the tube unclosed. The importance of this possibility lies in its implications as to causation. Because of the emphasis which has been placed on the developmental arrest concept, search for causes of congenital defects has been largely directed toward conditions which might inhibit growth. If anomalies are caused also by local overgrowth, we must scrutinize causative factors of different types.




Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, September 16) Embryology Embryology History - Bradley Patten. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_Bradley_Patten

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