Difference between revisions of "Developmental Signals - Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor"

From Embryology
Line 1: Line 1:
[[File:Nonmammalian VEGF Receptors.jpg|thumb|Non-mammalian VEGF Receptors<ref><pubmed>17722983</pubmed></ref>]]
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted protein growth factor family which stimulates the proliferation of vasular endotheial cells and therefore blood vessel growth.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted protein growth factor family which stimulates the proliferation of vasular endotheial cells and therefore blood vessel growth.

Revision as of 13:19, 30 August 2016

Embryology - 23 Sep 2021    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)


Non-mammalian VEGF Receptors[1]

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted protein growth factor family which stimulates the proliferation of vasular endotheial cells and therefore blood vessel growth.

VEGF is secreted but remains associated with cells or extracellular matrix. It is released by heparin. VEGF belongs to the platelet derive growth factor (PDGF) family, has four isoforms are formed by alternative splicing of the same gene.

Note that in addition to the developmental role this factor has been studied in relation to vascular development in tumours.

Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular

| Blood Vessel Development | Category:VEGF

Some Recent Findings

  • Visceral Endoderm Expression of Yin-Yang1 (YY1) Is Required for VEGFA Maintenance and Yolk Sac Development[2] "Mouse embryos lacking the polycomb group gene member Yin-Yang1 (YY1) die during the peri-implantation stage. To assess the post-gastrulation role of YY1, a conditional knock-out (cKO) strategy was used to delete YY1 from the visceral endoderm of the yolk sac and the definitive endoderm of the embryo. ...these results demonstrate that YY1 is responsible for maintaining VEGF in the developing visceral endoderm and that a VEGF-responsive paracrine signal, originating in the yolk sac mesoderm, is required to promote normal visceral endoderm development."
  • A truncation allele in vascular endothelial growth factor c reveals distinct modes of signaling during lymphatic and vascular development[3] "Vascular endothelial growth factor C (Vegfc) is a secreted protein that guides lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos. However, its role during developmental angiogenesis is not well characterized. Here, we identify a mutation in zebrafish vegfc that severely affects lymphatic development and leads to angiogenesis defects on sensitized genetic backgrounds.... Our results suggest that Vegfc acts in two distinct modes during development: as a paracrine factor secreted from arteries to guide closely associated lymphatic vasculature and as an autocrine factor to drive migratory persistence during angiogenesis."
  • Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) is induced by VEGF as a negative regulator of angiogenic sprouting[4]
More recent papers
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

  • This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled.
  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References

Search term: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

<pubmed limit=5>Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor</pubmed>




Vascular endothelial growth factor A

  • Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth.
  • Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of blood vessels.
  • Binds to the FLT1/VEGFR1 and KDR/VEGFR2 receptors, heparan sulfate and heparin.

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

  • Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as a cell-surface receptor for VEGFA, VEGFC and VEGFD.
  • Plays an essential role in the regulation of angiogenesis, vascular development, vascular permeability, and embryonic hematopoiesis.



Lung alveolar type 1 cells express VEGFa required for alveolar angiogenesis.[5]

Links: Respiratory System Development

Signaling Pathway

Arterial Differentiation "Two 2002 papers in Cell and Developmental Cell provide evidence that VEGF directs arterial differentiation. Evidence that sensory nerves direct arteriogenesis (Mukouyama et al., 2002) and that the membrane spanning Notch signaling system is downstream of VEGF (Lawson et al., 2002) emphasize the paracrine regulation of vessel formation."

Model shown in Figure 1. Shh/VEGF/Notch in the Arterial Vasculature Sonic hedgehog (Shh) binding to the receptor complex formed by Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) can release the inhibition of Smo by Ptc. The derepressed Smo in turn activates the Gli family of transcription factors. Shh can upregulate the expression of VEGF by mesenchymal cells, but whether the Ptc/Smo/Gli pathway is involved in this Shh-mediated VEGF production is still unclear. VEGF acts on its specific receptors, including Flk-1 and neuropilin-1 (NP-1) and induces arterial-specific EphrinB2 expression on endothelial cells (EC). However, VEGF-induced EphrinB2 expression is dependent on the Notch signaling pathway, and it is unclear (?) if VEGF can activate the Notch pathway in arterial ECs directly. Both the Notch receptor family and their ligand (Delta and Jagged) families are expressed by the EC and smooth muscle cell (SMC)/pericyte in vivo.

(from: Won't You Be My Neighbor? Local Induction of Arteriogenesis Cell, Vol. 110, 289-292, August 9, 2002)


Intracellular Signaling

Vascular Endothelial Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase

This phosphatase is involved in vascular development through modulation of a receptor tyrosine kinase (Tie2) activity, the receptor of angiopoietin. Phosphatases remove and kinases add a phosphate group to proteins, phosphorylation is a common intracellular signaling pathway.

Placenta Growth Factor (PlGF)

Name comes from the fact that the gene was cloned from a placenta. See review.[6] Knockout mouse experiments suggest that PIGF is not required for normal vascular development.

  • four protein isoforms, differ in heparin binding
    • PlGF-1 and PlGF-3 - non-heparin binding diffusible isoforms
    • PlGF-2 and PlGF-4 - have heparin binding domains (highly basic 21 amino acids).
Links: OMIM - PGF


About OMIM "Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man OMIM is a comprehensive, authoritative, and timely compendium of human genes and genetic phenotypes. The full-text, referenced overviews in OMIM contain information on all known mendelian disorders and over 12,000 genes. OMIM focuses on the relationship between phenotype and genotype. It is updated daily, and the entries contain copious links to other genetics resources." OMIM


  1. <pubmed>17722983</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>23554936</pubmed>| PLoS One.
  3. <pubmed>23462469</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>17296940</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>26586225</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>22228176</pubmed>




Online Textbooks

  • Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al.New York: Garland Science; 2002.
  • Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al.New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.
  • Madame Curie Bioscience Database [Internet]. Austin (TX): Landes Bioscience; 2000.

Search PubMed

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, September 23) Embryology Developmental Signals - Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Developmental_Signals_-_Vascular_Endothelial_Growth_Factor

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G