Difference between revisions of "Developmental Signals - Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor"

From Embryology
Line 13: Line 13:
* '''Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) is induced by VEGF as a negative regulator of angiogenic sprouting'''<ref name="PMID17296940"><pubmed>17296940</pubmed></ref>
* '''Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) is induced by VEGF as a negative regulator of angiogenic sprouting'''<ref name="PMID17296940"><pubmed>17296940</pubmed></ref>
{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"
! More recent papers
| [[File:Mark_Hill.jpg|90px|left]] {{Most_Recent_Refs}}
Search term: ''Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor''
<pubmed limit=5>Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor</pubmed>

Revision as of 17:49, 22 May 2013


Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted protein growth factor family which stimulates the proliferation of vasular endotheial cells and therefore blood vessel growth.

VEGF is secreted but remains associated with cells or extracellular matrix. It is released by heparin. VEGF belongs to the platelet derive growth factor (PDGF) family, has four isoforms are formed by alternative splicing of the same gene.

Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular

Some Recent Findings

  • Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) is induced by VEGF as a negative regulator of angiogenic sprouting[1]




Vascular endothelial growth factor A

  • Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth.
  • Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of blood vessels.
  • Binds to the FLT1/VEGFR1 and KDR/VEGFR2 receptors, heparan sulfate and heparin.

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

  • Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as a cell-surface receptor for VEGFA, VEGFC and VEGFD.
  • Plays an essential role in the regulation of angiogenesis, vascular development, vascular permeability, and embryonic hematopoiesis.


Signaling Pathway

Arterial Differentiation "Two 2002 papers in Cell and Developmental Cell provide evidence that VEGF directs arterial differentiation. Evidence that sensory nerves direct arteriogenesis (Mukouyama et al., 2002) and that the membrane spanning Notch signaling system is downstream of VEGF (Lawson et al., 2002) emphasize the paracrine regulation of vessel formation."

Model shown in Figure 1. Shh/VEGF/Notch in the Arterial Vasculature Sonic hedgehog (Shh) binding to the receptor complex formed by Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) can release the inhibition of Smo by Ptc. The derepressed Smo in turn activates the Gli family of transcription factors. Shh can upregulate the expression of VEGF by mesenchymal cells, but whether the Ptc/Smo/Gli pathway is involved in this Shh-mediated VEGF production is still unclear. VEGF acts on its specific receptors, including Flk-1 and neuropilin-1 (NP-1) and induces arterial-specific EphrinB2 expression on endothelial cells (EC). However, VEGF-induced EphrinB2 expression is dependent on the Notch signaling pathway, and it is unclear (?) if VEGF can activate the Notch pathway in arterial ECs directly. Both the Notch receptor family and their ligand (Delta and Jagged) families are expressed by the EC and smooth muscle cell (SMC)/pericyte in vivo.

(from: Won't You Be My Neighbor? Local Induction of Arteriogenesis Cell, Vol. 110, 289-292, August 9, 2002)


Intracellular Signaling

Vascular Endothelial Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase

This phosphatase is involved in vascular development through modulation of a receptor tyrosine kinase (Tie2) activity, the receptor of angiopoietin. Phosphatases remove and kinases add a phosphate group to proteins, phosphorylation is a common intracellular signaling pathway.


About OMIM "Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man OMIM is a comprehensive, authoritative, and timely compendium of human genes and genetic phenotypes. The full-text, referenced overviews in OMIM contain information on all known mendelian disorders and over 12,000 genes. OMIM focuses on the relationship between phenotype and genotype. It is updated daily, and the entries contain copious links to other genetics resources." OMIM


  1. <pubmed>17296940</pubmed>




Online Textbooks

  • Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al.New York: Garland Science; 2002.
  • Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al.New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.
  • Madame Curie Bioscience Database [Internet]. Austin (TX): Landes Bioscience; 2000.

Search PubMed

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, September 24) Embryology Developmental Signals - Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Developmental_Signals_-_Vascular_Endothelial_Growth_Factor

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G