Difference between revisions of "Developmental Signals - TGF-beta"

From Embryology
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==Growth Differentiation Factor 9==
==Growth Differentiation Factor 9==
Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) has been identified as a specific factor required for ovarian follicle development (folliculogenesis).
Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are both members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. They have both been identified as growth factors required for ovarian follicle development (folliculogenesis).<ref name=PMID5531364><pubmed>5531364</pubmed></ref><ref name=PMID5531364><pubmed>24313324</pubmed></ref>
:Links: [[Developmental Signals - TGF-beta|TGF-beta]] | [[Oocyte Development]] | [[Ovary Development]] | [[Menstrual Cycle]] | [http://omim.org/entry/601918 OMIM - GDF9]
:'''Links:''' [[Developmental Signals - TGF-beta|TGF-beta]] | [[Developmental Signals - Bone Morphogenetic Protein|Bone Morphogenetic Protein]] | [[Oocyte Development]] | [[Ovary Development]] | [[Menstrual Cycle]] | [http://omim.org/entry/601918 OMIM - GDF9]
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[[Category:Developmental Signal]] [[Category:TGF-beta]] [[Category:Molecular]]
[[Category:Developmental Signal]] [[Category:TGF-beta]] [[Category:Molecular]]

Revision as of 15:46, 10 February 2014


Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β)

TGF-beta signaling pathway[1]

Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular

Some Recent Findings

  • Spatio-temporal distribution of Smads and role of Smads/TGF-β/BMP-4 in the regulation of mouse bladder organogenesis[2] "Although Shh, TGF-β and BMP-4 regulate radial patterning of the bladder mesenchyme and smooth muscle differentiation, it is not known what transcription factors, local environmental cues or signaling cascades mediate bladder smooth muscle differentiation. ...Based on the Smad expression patterns, we suggest that individual or combinations of Smads may be necessary during mouse bladder organogenesis and may be critical mediators for bladder smooth muscle differentiation." Urinary Bladder Development


The TGF precursor protein has three distinct regions:

  1. signal peptide - targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum and secretion
  2. propeptide - or the latency associated peptide
  3. mature peptide - cleaved from the precursor protein and is actively involved in signalling
  • cleaved by Furin - a convertase
  • cleaved at a dibasic arginine-X-X-arginine (RXXR) site


Signaling Pathway

TGF-beta signaling pathway[1]


  1. active peptide forms a hetero- or homodimer
  2. binds to a specific TGF-β Type II receptor
  3. Type II receptor then recruits a TGF-β Type I receptor
  4. phosphorylates it via its serine/threonine kinase domain
  5. phosphorylated Type I receptors then phosphorylate receptor-associated Smad proteins (R-Smads), including Smad1/5 and Smad2/3
  • Type II receptor - MlTgfRII
  • Type I receptors - MlTgfRIa, MlTgfRIb, and MlTgfRIc

Intracellular Signaling

  • R-Smad proteins are composed of two main functional domains
    • Mad-homology domains 1 and 2 (MH1 and MH2)
  • Smad1/5 - associated with BMP-like signalling.
  • Smad2/3 - associated with TGF-β-like signaling.

Growth Differentiation Factor 9

Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are both members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. They have both been identified as growth factors required for ovarian follicle development (folliculogenesis).[3][3]

Links: TGF-beta | Bone Morphogenetic Protein | Oocyte Development | Ovary Development | Menstrual Cycle | OMIM - GDF9


About OMIM "Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man OMIM is a comprehensive, authoritative, and timely compendium of human genes and genetic phenotypes. The full-text, referenced overviews in OMIM contain information on all known mendelian disorders and over 12,000 genes. OMIM focuses on the relationship between phenotype and genotype. It is updated daily, and the entries contain copious links to other genetics resources." OMIM


  1. 1.0 1.1 Pang K, Ryan JF, Baxevanis AD, Martindale MQ (2011) Evolution of the TGF-β Signaling Pathway and Its Potential Role in the Ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24152 PLoS ONE
  2. <pubmed>23620745</pubmed>
  3. 3.0 3.1 <pubmed>5531364</pubmed> Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "PMID5531364" defined multiple times with different content



<pubmed>19192293</pubmed>| BMC Evol Biol. <pubmed>17077151</pubmed>

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, October 20) Embryology Developmental Signals - TGF-beta. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Developmental_Signals_-_TGF-beta

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G