Developmental Signals - Homeobox

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Mouse HOXA5 expression (E12.5)[1]

The family of homeobox (Hox) proteins has been a focus of research for over 30 years.

Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular

Some Recent Findings

  • Proposed Hox protein classification[2]"Our classification scheme offers a higher-resolution classification that is in accordance with phylogenetic as well as experimental data and, thereby, provides a novel basis for experiments, such as comparative and functional analyses of Hox-proteins."
  • Homeobox A7 up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in human granulosa cells[3]"Our present study reveals a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating granulosa cell proliferation via the regulation of EGFR. This finding contributes to the knowledge of the pro-proliferation effect of HOXA7 in granulosa cell growth and differentiation."
  • Hoxa5 transcriptional complexity in the mouse embryo[1]Our observation that the Hoxa5 larger transcripts possess a developmentally-regulated expression combined to the increasing sum of data on the role of long noncoding RNAs in transcriptional regulation suggest that the Hoxa5 larger transcripts may participate in the control of Hox gene expression.


Proposed Hox protein classification.jpg
Proposed Hox protein classification[2]


Developmental patterning signal.


Hindbrain neural crest migration.jpg

Hindbrain neural crest migration and Hox expression pattern[4]

A schematic diagram of a chick head at embryonic day two (Hamburger Hamilton Stages), showing pathways of neural crest migration in the chick and mouse embryo and patterns of Hox gene expression in the pharyngeal arches. Hox genes are expressed in neural crest cells, which emigrate predominantly from even-numbered rhombomeres into the pharyngeal (branchial) arches generating skeletal tissues and cranial ganglia.

Note that the first pharyngeal arch is free of Hox expression.


  • PA - pharyngeal arch
  • Md - mandibular part of pharyngeal arch 1
  • Mx - maxillary part of pharyngeal arch 1
  • OV - otic vesicle
  • r - rhombomere

Adapted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature Reviews Neuroscience (<pubmed>17948031</pubmed>), copyright (2007)


Signaling Pathway


  1. 1.0 1.1 <pubmed>20485555</pubmed>| PLoS One
  2. 2.0 2.1 <pubmed>20520839</pubmed>| PLoS One
  3. <pubmed>20540809</pubmed>| Reprod Biol Endocrinol.
  4. <pubmed>17948031</pubmed>

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July 2010 "hox" All (3509) Review (545) Free Full Text (1453)

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, October 22) Embryology Developmental Signals - Homeobox. Retrieved from

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