Developmental Signals - Anti-Mullerian Hormone
|Embryology - 1 Dec 2021 Expand to Translate|
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Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH; Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, MIS; Mullerian Inhibiting Factor, MIF) is a secreted glycoprotein factor (transforming growth factor-beta, TGF-beta superfamily) that regulates gonadal and genital tract development. In the male embryo, the Sertoli cell secrete AMH and inhibit paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct development. In postnatal males, AMH increases during the first month, reaching peak level at 6 months of age, and then slowly declines during childhood falling to low levels in puberty.
In reproductive age women, AMH is produced in the ovary by the granulosa cell surrounding preantral and small antral follicles and serum levels may reflect the remaining follicle cohort and decrease with age.
|Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular|
Some Recent Findings
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This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
Search term: Anti-Mullerian Hormone
<pubmed limit=5>Anti-Mullerian Hormone</pubmed>
- cytogenetic location - 19p13.3
- human gene has 5 exons
- Secreted protein
- 560 amino acid polypeptide
- C-terminal domain homology with human transforming growth factor-beta and the beta chain of porcine inhibin
- Links: UniProt
AMH can inhibit the autophosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in vitro even though it does not compete with EGF for receptor binding sites.
Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome
About 85% of all Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) cases are due to gene mutations in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) or the receptor (AMHR2) with autosomal recessive transmission. Often incidentally diagnosed during surgical repair of inguinal hernia or cryptorchidism.
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been suggested to involve an over-expression of AMH in the PCOS granulosa cells.
- Sathyapalan T, Al-Qaissi A, Kilpatrick ES, Dargham SR, Keevil B & Atkin SL. (2018). Salivary and serum androgens with anti-Müllerian hormone measurement for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Sci Rep , 8, 3795. PMID: 29491484 DOI.
- Bertoldo MJ, Walters KA, Ledger WL, Gilchrist RB, Mermillod P & Locatelli Y. (2018). In-vitro regulation of primordial follicle activation: challenges for fertility preservation strategies. Reprod. Biomed. Online , , . PMID: 29503209 DOI.
- Elias-Assad G, Elias M, Kanety H, Pressman A & Tenenbaum-Rakover Y. (2016). Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome Caused by a Novel Mutation of an Anti-MüIlerian Hormone Receptor Gene: Case Presentation and Literature Review. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev , 13, 731-40. PMID: 27464416
- Stracquadanio M, Ciotta L & Palumbo MA. (2018). Relationship between serum anti-Mullerian hormone and intrafollicular AMH levels in PCOS women. Gynecol. Endocrinol. , 34, 223-228. PMID: 28944702 DOI.
Roly ZY, Backhouse B, Cutting A, Tan TY, Sinclair AH, Ayers KL, Major AT & Smith CA. (2018). The cell biology and molecular genetics of Müllerian duct development. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol , , . PMID: 29350886 DOI.
Mossa F, Jimenez-Krassel F, Scheetz D, Weber-Nielsen M, Evans ACO & Ireland JJ. (2017). Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) and fertility management in agricultural species. Reproduction , 154, R1-R11. PMID: 28356501 DOI.
Elias-Assad G, Elias M, Kanety H, Pressman A & Tenenbaum-Rakover Y. (2016). Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome Caused by a Novel Mutation of an Anti-MüIlerian Hormone Receptor Gene: Case Presentation and Literature Review. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev , 13, 731-40. PMID: 27464416
Kissell KA, Danaher MR, Schisterman EF, Wactawski-Wende J, Ahrens KA, Schliep K, Perkins NJ, Sjaarda L, Weck J & Mumford SL. (2014). Biological variability in serum anti-Müllerian hormone throughout the menstrual cycle in ovulatory and sporadic anovulatory cycles in eumenorrheic women. Hum. Reprod. , 29, 1764-72. PMID: 24925522 DOI.
Search Bookshelf: Anti-Mullerian Hormone
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, December 1) Embryology Developmental Signals - Anti-Mullerian Hormone. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Developmental_Signals_-_Anti-Mullerian_Hormone
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G