Difference between revisions of "Developmental Signals - Anti-Mullerian Hormone"

From Embryology
m
m
Line 69: Line 69:
 
==Abnormalities==
 
==Abnormalities==
  
Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome  
+
===Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome===
 +
 
 +
About 85% of all Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) cases are due to gene mutations in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) or the receptor (AMHR2) with autosomal recessive transmission. Often incidentally diagnosed during surgical repair of inguinal hernia or cryptorchidism.{{#pmid:27464416|PMID27464416}}
  
  

Revision as of 12:35, 8 March 2018

Embryology - 30 Nov 2021    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)

Introduction

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH; Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, MIS; Mullerian Inhibiting Factor, MIF) is a secreted glycoprotein factor (transforming growth factor-beta, TGF-beta superfamily) that regulates gonadal and genital tract development. In the male embryo, the Sertoli cell secrete AMH and inhibit paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct development. In postnatal males, AMH increases during the first month, reaching peak level at 6 months of age, and then slowly declines during childhood falling to low levels in puberty.


In reproductive age women, AMH is produced in the ovary by the granulosa cell surrounding preantral and small antral follicles and serum levels may reflect the remaining follicle cohort and decrease with age.


Links: AMH | Male | Ovary Development | Oocyte Development | Testis


Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular

Some Recent Findings

  • Salivary and serum androgens with anti-Müllerian hormone measurement for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome[1] To determine the predictive value of a raised androgen level with an elevated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) for the diagnosis or exclusion of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a prospective cross-sectional study of 170 women (105 with PCOS type A and 65 normal) was undertaken. AMH was combined with one of, total serum testosterone (T); calculated free androgen index; salivary testosterone (salT); serum androstenedione (A); salivary androstenedione (salA).... Therefore, the combination of an AMH with a cut off of 35 pmol/l combined with a raised T and/or a FAI will confirm PCOS whilst a normal AMH with a normal T and/or FAI will exclude PCOS, thus addressing diagnostic uncertainty."
  • Review - In-vitro regulation of primordial follicle activation[2] "In vivo, primordial follicles gradually exit the resting pool, whereas when primordial follicles are placed into culture, global activation of these follicles occurs. Therefore, the addition of a factor(s) that can regulate primordial follicle activation in vitro may be beneficial to the development of culture systems for ovarian tissue from cancer patients. Several factors have been observed to inhibit follicle activation, including anti-Müllerian hormone, stromal-derived factor 1 and members of the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase pathway."
More recent papers  
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

  • This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled.
  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.


References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References

Search term: Anti-Mullerian Hormone

<pubmed limit=5>Anti-Mullerian Hormone</pubmed>

Movies

  • Paramesonephric duct (red left, Müllerian duct) degenerates under the influence of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) secreted by sertoli cells (differentiated by SRY expression).


  • Mesonephric duct (purple, Wolffian duct) differentiates under the influence of testosterone secreted by Leydig cells. Within the testes these mesonephric tubules grow towards the medullary sex cords and will form the rete teste. The mesonephric duct extending out of the gonad forms the ductus deferens.


  • Medullary sex cords (orange) form testis cords.
Links: Testis Development Movie

Gene

  • cytogenetic location - 19p13.3
  • human gene has 5 exons
Links: HGNC | OMIM - AMH

Protein

  • Secreted protein
  • 560 amino acid polypeptide
  • C-terminal domain homology with human transforming growth factor-beta and the beta chain of porcine inhibin


Links: UniProt

Functions

AMH can inhibit the autophosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in vitro even though it does not compete with EGF for receptor binding sites.

Genital Development

Abnormalities

Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome

About 85% of all Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) cases are due to gene mutations in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) or the receptor (AMHR2) with autosomal recessive transmission. Often incidentally diagnosed during surgical repair of inguinal hernia or cryptorchidism.[3]


References

  1. Sathyapalan T, Al-Qaissi A, Kilpatrick ES, Dargham SR, Keevil B & Atkin SL. (2018). Salivary and serum androgens with anti-Müllerian hormone measurement for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Sci Rep , 8, 3795. PMID: 29491484 DOI.
  2. Bertoldo MJ, Walters KA, Ledger WL, Gilchrist RB, Mermillod P & Locatelli Y. (2018). In-vitro regulation of primordial follicle activation: challenges for fertility preservation strategies. Reprod. Biomed. Online , , . PMID: 29503209 DOI.
  3. Elias-Assad G, Elias M, Kanety H, Pressman A & Tenenbaum-Rakover Y. (2016). Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome Caused by a Novel Mutation of an Anti-MüIlerian Hormone Receptor Gene: Case Presentation and Literature Review. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev , 13, 731-40. PMID: 27464416

Reviewss

Roly ZY, Backhouse B, Cutting A, Tan TY, Sinclair AH, Ayers KL, Major AT & Smith CA. (2018). The cell biology and molecular genetics of Müllerian duct development. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol , , . PMID: 29350886 DOI.

Shahrokhi SZ, Kazerouni F & Ghaffari F. (2018). Anti-Müllerian Hormone: genetic and environmental effects. Clin. Chim. Acta , 476, 123-129. PMID: 29175649 DOI.

Mossa F, Jimenez-Krassel F, Scheetz D, Weber-Nielsen M, Evans ACO & Ireland JJ. (2017). Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) and fertility management in agricultural species. Reproduction , 154, R1-R11. PMID: 28356501 DOI.

Elias-Assad G, Elias M, Kanety H, Pressman A & Tenenbaum-Rakover Y. (2016). Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome Caused by a Novel Mutation of an Anti-MüIlerian Hormone Receptor Gene: Case Presentation and Literature Review. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev , 13, 731-40. PMID: 27464416

Articles

Kissell KA, Danaher MR, Schisterman EF, Wactawski-Wende J, Ahrens KA, Schliep K, Perkins NJ, Sjaarda L, Weck J & Mumford SL. (2014). Biological variability in serum anti-Müllerian hormone throughout the menstrual cycle in ovulatory and sporadic anovulatory cycles in eumenorrheic women. Hum. Reprod. , 29, 1764-72. PMID: 24925522 DOI.


Search Pubmed

Search Pubmed: Anti-Mullerian Hormone | AMH

Search Bookshelf: Anti-Mullerian Hormone


External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.



Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, November 30) Embryology Developmental Signals - Anti-Mullerian Hormone. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Developmental_Signals_-_Anti-Mullerian_Hormone

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G