Difference between revisions of "China Statistics"

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==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
 
[[File:China map.jpg|thumb|300px|China]]
 
[[File:China map.jpg|thumb|300px|China]]
This page links to the current online resources available to explore Chinese population and birth data.
+
This page links to the current online resources available to explore Chinese population, birth data and embryology related topics. Chinese birth rate is 12.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.).
 +
 
  
 
{{China Links}}
 
{{China Links}}
Line 9: Line 10:
  
 
==Some Recent Findings==
 
==Some Recent Findings==
 +
[[File:Yinchuan - China.jpg|thumb|alt=Yinchuan, China|Yinchuan, Ningxia, China]]
 
{|
 
{|
 
|-bgcolor="F5FAFF"  
 
|-bgcolor="F5FAFF"  
 
|
 
|
*  '''Neonatal Mortality Levels for 193 Countries in 2009 with Trends since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of Progress, Projections, and Priorities.'''<ref name="PMID21918640"><pubmed>21918640</pubmed>| [http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001080 PLoS Med.]</ref> " In 2009, an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life-compared with 4.6 million neonatal deaths in 1990-and more than half of all neonatal deaths occurred in five countries of the world (44% of global livebirths): India 27.8% (19.6% of global livebirths), Nigeria 7.2% (4.5%), Pakistan 6.9% (4.0%), China 6.4% (13.4%), and Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.6% (2.1%)."
+
* '''Heavy metals in maternal and cord blood in Beijing and their efficiency of placental transfer'''{{#pmid:30952357|PMID30952357}} "This study aimed to determine the effect of exposure to {{heavy metals}} in pregnant women in Beijing, {{China}}. We also evaluated the association of these heavy metals with birth weight and length of newborns. We measured the levels of 10 heavy metals, including lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), stannum (Sn), vanadium (V), and arsenic (As), in 156 maternal and cord blood pairs. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was used for measurement. Pb, As, Ti, Mn, and Sb showed high detection rates (>50%) in both maternal and cord blood. Fourteen (9%) mothers had blood Pb levels greater than the United States Center for Disease Control allowable threshold limit for children (50 μg/L). In prenatal exposure to these heavy metals, there was no significant association between any heavy metal and birth weight/length. Moreover, we estimated the placental transfer efficiency of each heavy metal, and the median placental transfer efficiency ranged from 49.6% (Ni) to 194% (Mn) (except for Cd and Sn). The level and detection rate of Cd in maternal blood were much higher than that in cord blood, which suggested that Cd had difficulty in passing the placental barrier." {{heavy metals}} | {{placenta}}
 +
 
 +
* '''The association between maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less during pregnancy and fetal congenital anomalies in Yinchuan, China: A population-based cohort study'''{{#pmid:30455103|PMID30455103}} "Few studies from western countries have linked prenatal exposure to ambient particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) with increased risk of congenital anomalies. However, the results are mixed. Particularly, evidence is limited for Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we matched the data of all pregnant women laboured in public hospitals during 2015-2016 in Yinchuan, a capital city of northwest China and the data of daily average PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations of the nearest monitor station. We calculated a time-dependent exposure over the entire pregnancy for each woman. We used a time varying Cox proportional hazards model to explore the association between PM2.5 exposure and the risk of congenital anomalies, after adjusting for individual confounders and other pollutants. RESULTS: A total of 39,386 singleton live births were included in the study, and 530 (1.35%) were with congenital anomalies. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 exposure over the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with increased risk of congenital anomalies, with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.35 [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.16, 1.58]. For subtype analyses, PM2.5 exposure exhibited a significant association with cardiac anomalies and other unclassifiable anomalies, with HRs of 1.60 (95%CI: 1.24, 2.08) and 1.42 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.89), respectively. The impacts of PM2.5 exposure on orofacial anomalies and musculoskeletal anomalies were not significant. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate high concentration of PM2.5 could increase the risk of congenital anomalies among Chinese, especially for cardiac anomalies. Self-protective measures involving reducing PM2.5 pollution exposure during pregnancy as well as environmental policies aiming to restrict PM2.5 emission could be helpful to reduce the burden of cognitional anomalies." {{air pollution}}
 +
 
 +
* '''Household environmental exposures during gestation and birth outcomes: A cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China.''' {{#pmid:29751416|PMID29751416}} " Our findings demonstrate that home renovation and environmental tobacco smoke ({{smoking}}) during gestation may be risk factors for adverse birth outcomes. Associations of these factors with adverse birth outcomes appear to be stronger in boys and among mothers older than 34years during gestation. Home renovation and {{smoking}} exposure should be avoided during gestation, especially for pregnancies with male fetuses and older pregnant women."
 +
 
 +
* '''Stem cell science on the rise in China'''{{#pmid:22226351|PMID22226351}} "China's output in fundamental stem cell research has increased markedly in recent years. Vigorous public investment and infrastructure development have enabled major productivity gains, but challenges in regulation, governance, and the management of clinical expectations must be addressed to ensure scientific quality and sustainable growth." {{stem cells}}
 +
 
 +
*  '''Neonatal Mortality Levels for 193 Countries in 2009 with Trends since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of Progress, Projections, and Priorities.'''{{#pmid:21918640|PMID21918640}} " In 2009, an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life-compared with 4.6 million neonatal deaths in 1990-and more than half of all neonatal deaths occurred in five countries of the world (44% of global livebirths): India 27.8% (19.6% of global livebirths), Nigeria 7.2% (4.5%), Pakistan 6.9% (4.0%), China 6.4% (13.4%), and Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.6% (2.1%)."
 +
|}
 +
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
 +
! Older papers &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| {{Older papers}}
 +
 
 +
* '''Stem cell science on the rise in China'''{{#pmid:22226351|PMID22226351}} "China's output in fundamental stem cell research has increased markedly in recent years. Vigorous public investment and infrastructure development have enabled major productivity gains, but challenges in regulation, governance, and the management of clinical expectations must be addressed to ensure scientific quality and sustainable growth." {{stem cells}}
 +
 
 +
*  '''Neonatal Mortality Levels for 193 Countries in 2009 with Trends since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of Progress, Projections, and Priorities.'''{{#pmid:21918640|PMID21918640}} " In 2009, an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life-compared with 4.6 million neonatal deaths in 1990-and more than half of all neonatal deaths occurred in five countries of the world (44% of global livebirths): India 27.8% (19.6% of global livebirths), Nigeria 7.2% (4.5%), Pakistan 6.9% (4.0%), China 6.4% (13.4%), and Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.6% (2.1%)."
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 
==Birth==
 
==Birth==
 
[[File:World_population_graph02.jpg|thumb|300px|link=Statistics_-_World_Population|World population (countries more than 100 million)]]
 
[[File:World_population_graph02.jpg|thumb|300px|link=Statistics_-_World_Population|World population (countries more than 100 million)]]
 
* '''At the end of 2009''', the total number of Chinese population reached 1,334.74 million, an increase of 6.72 million over that at the end of 2008. The year 2009 saw 16.15 million births, a crude birth rate of 12.13 per thousand, and 9.43 million deaths, or a crude death rate of 7.08 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 5.05 per thousand. The sex ratio at birth was 119.45.<ref>National Bureau of Statistics of China (2010) [http://www.stats.gov.cn/was40/gjtjj_en_detail.jsp?searchword=birth&channelid=1175&record=1 Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2009 National Economic and Social Development]</ref>
 
* '''At the end of 2009''', the total number of Chinese population reached 1,334.74 million, an increase of 6.72 million over that at the end of 2008. The year 2009 saw 16.15 million births, a crude birth rate of 12.13 per thousand, and 9.43 million deaths, or a crude death rate of 7.08 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 5.05 per thousand. The sex ratio at birth was 119.45.<ref>National Bureau of Statistics of China (2010) [http://www.stats.gov.cn/was40/gjtjj_en_detail.jsp?searchword=birth&channelid=1175&record=1 Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2009 National Economic and Social Development]</ref>
 +
 
* '''At the end of 2008''', the total number of Chinese population reached 1,328.02 million, an increase of 6.73 million over that at the end of 2007. The year 2008 saw 16.08 million births, a crude birth rate of 12.14 per thousand, and 9.35 million deaths, or a crude death rate of 7.06 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 5.08 per thousand. The sex ratio at birth was 120.56.<ref>National Bureau of Statistics of China (2009) [http://www.stats.gov.cn/was40/gjtjj_en_detail.jsp?searchword=birth&channelid=1175&record=3 Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2008 National Economic and Social Development]</ref>
 
* '''At the end of 2008''', the total number of Chinese population reached 1,328.02 million, an increase of 6.73 million over that at the end of 2007. The year 2008 saw 16.08 million births, a crude birth rate of 12.14 per thousand, and 9.35 million deaths, or a crude death rate of 7.06 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 5.08 per thousand. The sex ratio at birth was 120.56.<ref>National Bureau of Statistics of China (2009) [http://www.stats.gov.cn/was40/gjtjj_en_detail.jsp?searchword=birth&channelid=1175&record=3 Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2008 National Economic and Social Development]</ref>
 +
 
* '''At the end of 2007''', the total number of Chinese population reached 1,321.29 million, an increase of 6.81 million over that at the end of 2006. The year 2007 saw 15.94 million births, a crude birth rate of 12.10 per thousand, and 9.13 million deaths, or a crude death rate of 6.93 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 5.17 per thousand. the sex ratio at birth was 120.22.<ref>National Bureau of Statistics of China (2008) [http://www.stats.gov.cn/was40/gjtjj_en_detail.jsp?searchword=birth&channelid=1175&record=4 Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2007 National Economic and Social Development]</ref>
 
* '''At the end of 2007''', the total number of Chinese population reached 1,321.29 million, an increase of 6.81 million over that at the end of 2006. The year 2007 saw 15.94 million births, a crude birth rate of 12.10 per thousand, and 9.13 million deaths, or a crude death rate of 6.93 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 5.17 per thousand. the sex ratio at birth was 120.22.<ref>National Bureau of Statistics of China (2008) [http://www.stats.gov.cn/was40/gjtjj_en_detail.jsp?searchword=birth&channelid=1175&record=4 Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2007 National Economic and Social Development]</ref>
{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"
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{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
! More recent papers
+
! More recent papers &nbsp;
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[File:Mark_Hill.jpg|90px|left]] {{Most_Recent_Refs}}
 
| [[File:Mark_Hill.jpg|90px|left]] {{Most_Recent_Refs}}
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==Historic Embryology==
 
==Historic Embryology==
 
===Tong Dizhou===
 
===Tong Dizhou===
(童第周) (1902 - 1979)  
+
(童第周) Ti Chou Tung (1902 - 1979)  
  
 
:"Tong learned from famous European embryologists when studying in Belgium, published several papers after careful observation and researches, which exerted great effects on the biological field of Europe at that time. He made systematic studies of sea squirts and amphibiology, especially the growth of fish ovum. He put forth the idiographic idea that fish ovum does not have the equal growth ability in the budding period. He also made breakthroughs in the biological study and researches, found new ways to control fish's hereditary variation." ([http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_aboutchina/2003-09/24/content_26394.htm Ministry of Culture, P.R.China])
 
:"Tong learned from famous European embryologists when studying in Belgium, published several papers after careful observation and researches, which exerted great effects on the biological field of Europe at that time. He made systematic studies of sea squirts and amphibiology, especially the growth of fish ovum. He put forth the idiographic idea that fish ovum does not have the equal growth ability in the budding period. He also made breakthroughs in the biological study and researches, found new ways to control fish's hereditary variation." ([http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_aboutchina/2003-09/24/content_26394.htm Ministry of Culture, P.R.China])
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* '''UNICEF''' [http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/china_statistics.html China Statistics]
 
* '''UNICEF''' [http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/china_statistics.html China Statistics]
 
* '''The World Factbook''' [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html China]
 
* '''The World Factbook''' [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html China]
*  Tong Dizhou - [http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_aboutchina/2003-09/24/content_26394.htm Ministry of Culture, P.R.China] | [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tong_Dizhou Wikipedia]
+
*  Tong Dizhou - [https://openlibrary.org/works/OL6144657W/Tong_Dizhou_wen_ji Open Library - Tong Dizhou] (Published 1989 by Xin hua shu dian Beijing fa xing suo fa xing, Written in Mandarin)
 +
[http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_aboutchina/2003-09/24/content_26394.htm Ministry of Culture, P.R.China] | [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tong_Dizhou Wikipedia]
  
  

Latest revision as of 17:04, 1 June 2019

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Introduction

China

This page links to the current online resources available to explore Chinese population, birth data and embryology related topics. Chinese birth rate is 12.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.).


China Links: China Statistics | Embryology Statistics | Category:China
Statistics Links: Introduction | Reports | World Population | World Fertility | World Infant Mortality | Maternal Mortality | Australia | Brazil | Canada | China | Germany | India | Indonesia | Europe | Myanmar | Netherlands | Spain | United Kingdom | Romania | Uganda | United States | Australia’s mothers and babies - 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | Abnormal Development - Australian Statistics | BGD Tutorial - Applied Embryology and Teratology | | National Perinatal Statistics Unit | AIHW | Category:Statistics

Some Recent Findings

Yinchuan, China
Yinchuan, Ningxia, China
  • Heavy metals in maternal and cord blood in Beijing and their efficiency of placental transfer[1] "This study aimed to determine the effect of exposure to heavy metals in pregnant women in Beijing, China. We also evaluated the association of these heavy metals with birth weight and length of newborns. We measured the levels of 10 heavy metals, including lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), stannum (Sn), vanadium (V), and arsenic (As), in 156 maternal and cord blood pairs. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was used for measurement. Pb, As, Ti, Mn, and Sb showed high detection rates (>50%) in both maternal and cord blood. Fourteen (9%) mothers had blood Pb levels greater than the United States Center for Disease Control allowable threshold limit for children (50 μg/L). In prenatal exposure to these heavy metals, there was no significant association between any heavy metal and birth weight/length. Moreover, we estimated the placental transfer efficiency of each heavy metal, and the median placental transfer efficiency ranged from 49.6% (Ni) to 194% (Mn) (except for Cd and Sn). The level and detection rate of Cd in maternal blood were much higher than that in cord blood, which suggested that Cd had difficulty in passing the placental barrier." heavy metals | placenta
  • The association between maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less during pregnancy and fetal congenital anomalies in Yinchuan, China: A population-based cohort study[2] "Few studies from western countries have linked prenatal exposure to ambient particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) with increased risk of congenital anomalies. However, the results are mixed. Particularly, evidence is limited for Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we matched the data of all pregnant women laboured in public hospitals during 2015-2016 in Yinchuan, a capital city of northwest China and the data of daily average PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations of the nearest monitor station. We calculated a time-dependent exposure over the entire pregnancy for each woman. We used a time varying Cox proportional hazards model to explore the association between PM2.5 exposure and the risk of congenital anomalies, after adjusting for individual confounders and other pollutants. RESULTS: A total of 39,386 singleton live births were included in the study, and 530 (1.35%) were with congenital anomalies. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 exposure over the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with increased risk of congenital anomalies, with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.35 [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.16, 1.58]. For subtype analyses, PM2.5 exposure exhibited a significant association with cardiac anomalies and other unclassifiable anomalies, with HRs of 1.60 (95%CI: 1.24, 2.08) and 1.42 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.89), respectively. The impacts of PM2.5 exposure on orofacial anomalies and musculoskeletal anomalies were not significant. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate high concentration of PM2.5 could increase the risk of congenital anomalies among Chinese, especially for cardiac anomalies. Self-protective measures involving reducing PM2.5 pollution exposure during pregnancy as well as environmental policies aiming to restrict PM2.5 emission could be helpful to reduce the burden of cognitional anomalies." air pollution
  • Household environmental exposures during gestation and birth outcomes: A cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. [3] " Our findings demonstrate that home renovation and environmental tobacco smoke (smoking) during gestation may be risk factors for adverse birth outcomes. Associations of these factors with adverse birth outcomes appear to be stronger in boys and among mothers older than 34years during gestation. Home renovation and smoking exposure should be avoided during gestation, especially for pregnancies with male fetuses and older pregnant women."
  • Stem cell science on the rise in China[4] "China's output in fundamental stem cell research has increased markedly in recent years. Vigorous public investment and infrastructure development have enabled major productivity gains, but challenges in regulation, governance, and the management of clinical expectations must be addressed to ensure scientific quality and sustainable growth." stem cells
  • Neonatal Mortality Levels for 193 Countries in 2009 with Trends since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of Progress, Projections, and Priorities.[5] " In 2009, an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life-compared with 4.6 million neonatal deaths in 1990-and more than half of all neonatal deaths occurred in five countries of the world (44% of global livebirths): India 27.8% (19.6% of global livebirths), Nigeria 7.2% (4.5%), Pakistan 6.9% (4.0%), China 6.4% (13.4%), and Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.6% (2.1%)."
Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

  • Stem cell science on the rise in China[4] "China's output in fundamental stem cell research has increased markedly in recent years. Vigorous public investment and infrastructure development have enabled major productivity gains, but challenges in regulation, governance, and the management of clinical expectations must be addressed to ensure scientific quality and sustainable growth." stem cells
  • Neonatal Mortality Levels for 193 Countries in 2009 with Trends since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of Progress, Projections, and Priorities.[5] " In 2009, an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life-compared with 4.6 million neonatal deaths in 1990-and more than half of all neonatal deaths occurred in five countries of the world (44% of global livebirths): India 27.8% (19.6% of global livebirths), Nigeria 7.2% (4.5%), Pakistan 6.9% (4.0%), China 6.4% (13.4%), and Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.6% (2.1%)."

Birth

World population (countries more than 100 million)
  • At the end of 2009, the total number of Chinese population reached 1,334.74 million, an increase of 6.72 million over that at the end of 2008. The year 2009 saw 16.15 million births, a crude birth rate of 12.13 per thousand, and 9.43 million deaths, or a crude death rate of 7.08 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 5.05 per thousand. The sex ratio at birth was 119.45.[6]
  • At the end of 2008, the total number of Chinese population reached 1,328.02 million, an increase of 6.73 million over that at the end of 2007. The year 2008 saw 16.08 million births, a crude birth rate of 12.14 per thousand, and 9.35 million deaths, or a crude death rate of 7.06 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 5.08 per thousand. The sex ratio at birth was 120.56.[7]
  • At the end of 2007, the total number of Chinese population reached 1,321.29 million, an increase of 6.81 million over that at the end of 2006. The year 2007 saw 15.94 million births, a crude birth rate of 12.10 per thousand, and 9.13 million deaths, or a crude death rate of 6.93 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 5.17 per thousand. the sex ratio at birth was 120.22.[8]
More recent papers  
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

  • This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled.
  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.


References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References

Search term: China Embryology

<pubmed limit=5>China Embryology</pubmed>

Nutrition

  • 3% of infants with low birthweight, 2005-2009
  • 96% of households consuming iodized salt, 2003-2009
  • Unknown Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (6-59 months) 2009
Data: UNICEF

General Statistics

Population 1,336,718,015 (July 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Age structure

  • 0-14 years: 17.6% (male 126,634,384/female 108,463,142)
  • 15-64 years: 73.6% (male 505,326,577/female 477,953,883)
  • 65 years and over: 8.9% (male 56,823,028/female 61,517,001) (2011 est.)

Median age

  • total: 35.5 years
  • male: 34.9 years
  • female: 36.2 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

  • 0.493% (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 152

Birth rate

  • 12.29 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 160

Death rate

  • 7.03 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 132

Sex ratio

  • at birth: 1.133 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
  • 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
  • total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

  • total: 16.06 deaths/1,000 live births
  • country comparison to the world: 112
  • male: 15.61 deaths/1,000 live births
  • female: 16.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 74.68 years
  • country comparison to the world: 95
  • male: 72.68 years
  • female: 76.94 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate

  • 1.54 children born/woman (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 182

HIV/AIDS

  • 0.1% (2009 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 122

Major infectious diseases

  • degree of risk: intermediate
  • food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  • vectorborne diseases: Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever
  • soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
  • animal contact disease: rabies
  • highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country
Data: The World Factbook China

Abnormalities

Maternal and congenital syphilis

The following information is from a recent study of maternal and congenital syphilis in Shanghai, China, 2002 to 2006.[9] That has identified a resurgence of congenital syphilis, especially in the migrating population and other populations with a lower socioeconomic status.

  • A total of 535,537 pregnant women were included in the analysis.
  • 1471 maternal syphilis cases (298.7 per 100 000 live births) identified.
  • 334 congenital syphilis cases (62.4 per 100,000 live births) identified.
  • Both maternal and congenital syphilis rates increased from 2002 until 2005, with a slight decrease in 2006.
  • The rate of maternal syphilis was:
    • 156.2 per 100,000 live births in Shanghai residents.
    • 371.7 per 100,000 live births in the migrating population (p<0.001).
  • The compliance to treatment for maternal syphilis was poorer in women with a lower level of education.
  • The rate of congenital syphilis in infants born to mothers with incomplete treatment (50.8%) was much higher than in infants born to mothers with complete treatment (12.5%).
    • complete treatment group - rates of fetal death (5.5%), neonatal death (0.56%), and major birth defects (0.46%)
    • incomplete treatment group - rates of fetal death (30.4%), neonatal death (11.0%), and major birth defects (3.8%)
  • Infant outcome affected by initial maternal RPR antibody level and time of treatment
    • much better outcomes in mothers with low antibody levels and earlier treatment.
Links: Abnormal Development - Syphilis


Historic Embryology

Tong Dizhou

(童第周) Ti Chou Tung (1902 - 1979)

"Tong learned from famous European embryologists when studying in Belgium, published several papers after careful observation and researches, which exerted great effects on the biological field of Europe at that time. He made systematic studies of sea squirts and amphibiology, especially the growth of fish ovum. He put forth the idiographic idea that fish ovum does not have the equal growth ability in the budding period. He also made breakthroughs in the biological study and researches, found new ways to control fish's hereditary variation." (Ministry of Culture, P.R.China)

References

  1. Li A, Zhuang T, Shi J, Liang Y & Song M. (2019). Heavy metals in maternal and cord blood in Beijing and their efficiency of placental transfer. J Environ Sci (China) , 80, 99-106. PMID: 30952357 DOI.
  2. Liu C, Li Q, Yan L, Wang H, Yu J, Tang J, Yao H, Li S, Zhang Y & Guo Y. (2019). The association between maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less during pregnancy and fetal congenital anomalies in Yinchuan, China: A population-based cohort study. Environ Int , 122, 316-321. PMID: 30455103 DOI.
  3. Liu W, Huang C, Cai J, Wang X, Zou Z & Sun C. (2018). Household environmental exposures during gestation and birth outcomes: A cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. Sci. Total Environ. , 615, 1110-1118. PMID: 29751416 DOI.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Yuan W, Sipp D, Wang ZZ, Deng H, Pei D, Zhou Q & Cheng T. (2012). Stem cell science on the rise in China. Cell Stem Cell , 10, 12-5. PMID: 22226351 DOI.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Oestergaard MZ, Inoue M, Yoshida S, Mahanani WR, Gore FM, Cousens S, Lawn JE & Mathers CD. (2011). Neonatal mortality levels for 193 countries in 2009 with trends since 1990: a systematic analysis of progress, projections, and priorities. PLoS Med. , 8, e1001080. PMID: 21918640 DOI.
  6. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2010) Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2009 National Economic and Social Development
  7. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2009) Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2008 National Economic and Social Development
  8. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2008) Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2007 National Economic and Social Development
  9. <pubmed>20137991</pubmed>

External Links

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, October 16) Embryology China Statistics. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/China_Statistics

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G