Carnegie Stage Comparison

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Introduction

Stages are based on the external and/or internal morphological development of the vertebrate embryo, and are not directly dependent on either age or size. The human embryonic period proper is divided into 23 Carnegie stages. Criteria beyond morphological features include age in days, number of somites present, and embryonic length.

As this staging can be applied to all vertebrates, and most vertebrate embryos develop during the embryonic period in much the same way, we can directly compare the timing of development for different species.

From the table you can see that to reach the end of embryonic development, Carnegie stage 23, can take from as little as 10 days in chickens to nearly 60 days in humans.

Carnegie is the name of a historical US Institute that historically categorised these developmental stages, and continues to study embryology today.

Species Comparison of Carnegie Stages

Carnegie stages species.gif

Data For Carnegie Stages Comparison Graph (Species/Days)

Species Stage
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Human[1] Days 20 22 24 28 30 33 36 40 42 44 48 52 54 55 58
Baboon[2] Days 23 25 27 28 29 30 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47
Rhesus Monkey[3] Days 21 22 25 28 29 30 32 34 36 37 38 40 42 44 46
Marmoset[4] Days 57 60 64 67 74
Mouse Days 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16
Rat Days 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5
Chinese Hamster Days 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17
Guinea Pig Days 14.5 15 15.5 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29
Rabbit Days 8 8.5 9.5 10.5 11 12 12.5 13.5 14 14.5 15.5 16 16.5 17 18
Sheep Days 15 16 17.5 18.5 19.5 20.5 22 23 24.5 25.5 27.5 29.5 30 33
Pig Days 14 15 16 17 18 19 20.5 21.5 23 24 25.5 27.5 29 30.5 32.5
Chicken Days 1 1.5 2 2.25 2.5 3 3.25 3.75 4.75 5.5 6.25 7.25 7.75 8.5 10
Dog Days 27 28 29 30 34 36 37


Source: Butler, H. and Juurlink, B.H.J. An atlas for staging mammalian and chick embryos. CRC Press Inc., Florida (1987) and specific references listed below.

References

Human

O'Rahilly Early human development and the chief source of information on staged human embryos. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynec. Reprod. Biol. 9 p273 (1979)

Embryonic Development

Baboon

Hendrickx Embryology of the baboon. University of Chicago Press.

Rhesus Monkey

Hendrickx and Sawey Embryology of the rhesus monkey. The Rhesus Monkey, Bourne (ed), Academic Press, NY (1975)

Marmoset

Phillips The embryology of the common marmoset. Adv.

Mouse

Theiler The house mouse. Springer-Verlag, NY (1972)

Mouse Development

Rat

Witschi Growth. Altman and Dittmer (ed), Fed. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington (1962)

Rat Development

Chinese Hamster

Donkelaar Stages in the prenatal development of the chinese hamster. Anat. Embryol. 156 p1 (1979)

Guinea Pig

Harman and Prickett The development of the external form of the guinea-pig between the ages of 11 and 20 days of gestation. Am. J. Anat. 49 p351 (1932)

Guinea Pig Development

Rabbit

Edwards The external development of the rabbit and rat embryo. Advances in teratology, Vol 3, Woollam (ed), Academic Press, NY (1968)

Rabbit Development

Sheep

Bryden Embryology of the sheep. J. Morphology 138 p169 (1972)

Sheep Development

Pig

Marrable The embryonic pig. A chronological account. Pitman Medical, London (1971)

Pig Development

Chicken

Hamburger and Hamilton A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. J. Morph. 88 p49 (1951)

Butler and Juurlink An atlas for staging mammalian and chick embryos. CRC Press Inc., Florida (1987)

Chicken Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, October 13) Embryology Carnegie Stage Comparison. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Carnegie_Stage_Comparison

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G
  1. <pubmed>400868</pubmed>
  2. Hendrickx Embryology of the baboon. University of Chicago Press.
  3. Hendrickx and Sawey Embryology of the rhesus monkey. The Rhesus Monkey, Bourne (ed), Academic Press, NY (1975)
  4. <pubmed>827927</pubmed>