Cardiovascular System - Ductus Venosus

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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Introduction

Fetal ductus venosus cartoon
Fetal Ductus Venosus
Fetal ductus venosus cartoon
Fetal circulation

Ductus Venosus describes the vitelline blood vessel lying within the liver that connects (shunts) the portal and umbilical veins to the inferior vena cava and also acts to protect the fetus from placental overcirculation.

Postnatally this shunt functionally closes (93% of infants at 2 weeks) then structurally closes and degenerates to form it the ligamentum venosum. A comparison oat day 3 of postnatal shunt closures; 94% of infants have a closed ductus arteriosus, while only 12% had a closed ductus venosus.[1]


Abnormalities include an absence or patently. Absence can cause hydrops fetalis and the umbilical vein then drains directly into the inferior vena cava or right atrium. A patent or persistent ductus venosus describes postnatal failure of this vessel to close.


Cardiovascular Links: cardiovascular | Heart Tutorial | Lecture - Early Vascular | Lecture - Heart | Movies | 2016 Cardiac Review | heart | coronary circulation | heart valve | heart rate | Circulation | blood | blood vessel | blood vessel histology | heart histology | Lymphatic | ductus venosus | spleen | Stage 22 | cardiovascular abnormalities | OMIM | 2012 ECHO Meeting | Category:Cardiovascular
Historic Embryology - Cardiovascular 
1902 Vena cava inferior | 1905 Brain Blood Vessels | 1909 Cervical Veins | 1909 Dorsal aorta and umbilical veins | 1912 Heart | 1912 Human Heart | 1914 Earliest Blood-Vessels | 1915 Congenital Cardiac Disease | 1915 Dura Venous Sinuses | 1916 Blood cell origin | 1916 Pars Membranacea Septi | 1919 Lower Limb Arteries | 1921 Human Brain Vascular | 1921 Spleen | 1922 Aortic-Arch System | 1922 Pig Forelimb Arteries | 1922 Chicken Pulmonary | 1923 Head Subcutaneous Plexus | 1923 Ductus Venosus | 1925 Venous Development | 1927 Stage 11 Heart | 1928 Heart Blood Flow | 1935 Aorta | 1935 Venous valves | 1938 Pars Membranacea Septi | 1938 Foramen Ovale | 1939 Atrio-Ventricular Valves | 1940 Vena cava inferior | 1940 Early Hematopoiesis | 1941 Blood Formation | 1942 Truncus and Conus Partitioning | Ziegler Heart Models | 1951 Heart Movie | 1954 Week 9 Heart | 1957 Cranial venous system | 1959 Brain Arterial Anastomoses | Historic Embryology Papers | 2012 ECHO Meeting | 2016 Cardiac Review | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Reference ranges for ductus venosus velocity ratios in pregnancies with normal outcomes[2] "Singleton pregnancies from 11 to 38 weeks with exactly established gestational ages (GAs) were recruited for the study. A total of 902 velocity wave ratios and ductus venosus PIVs were used for reference ranges. The S/v, S/D, and v/D ratios were not changed with GA (P > .05 for all). The PIV and S/a, v/a, and D/a ratios were reduced with GA (P < .0001 for all). Significant reductions in the means and standard deviations of the PIV and S/a, v/a, and D/a ratios were observed between 17 and 18 weeks' gestation. Therefore, nomograms were separately created between 11 and 17 weeks and 18 and 38 weeks."
More recent papers
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<pubmed limit=5>Ductus Venosus</pubmed>

Embryonic Development

Stage 13

Stage 13 image 075.jpg

Stage 22

Stage 22 image 083.jpg


Fetal Development

Fetal ductus venosus ultrasound

Fetal ductus venosus ultrasound[3]

Links: Ultrasound

Physiology

Fetal ductus venosus pressure wave 01.jpg

Fetal ductus venosus pressure wave

Abnormalities

Patent Ductus Venosus

Patent or Persistent ductus venosus (postnatal 8 years) connecting the left portal vein to the inferior vena cava.[4]

Postnatal persistant ductus venosus ultrasound 02.jpg Postnatal persistant ductus venosus ultrasound 03.jpg
Tomography Two-dimensional echocardiography
Postnatal persistant ductus venosus ultrasound 03.jpg
 ‎‎Patent
Ductus Venosus
Page | Play
Links: Computed Tomography | OMIM 601466 Patent Ductus Venosus

References

  1. <pubmed>9377136</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>24449737</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>17374167</pubmed>| Cardiovasc Ultrasound.
  4. <pubmed>24688239</pubmed>| Ann Pediatr Cardiol.

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, July 13) Embryology Cardiovascular System - Ductus Venosus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Cardiovascular_System_-_Ductus_Venosus

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G