Cardiovascular - Arterial Development

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Heart Tube Fusion.jpg

Introduction

The embryo stage 10 heart tube

Development of the heart and vascular system begins very early in mesoderm both within (embryonic) and outside (extra embryonic, yolk sac and placental) the embryo. Vascular development therefore occurs in many places, the most obvious though is the early forming heart, which grows rapidly creating an externally obvious cardiac "bulge" on the early embryo. The cardiovascular system is extensively remodelled throughout development, this current page discusses systemic artery development. Note that placental vessels are discussed in placental notes.

Eph-B2 (EPHB2; Eph receptor gene family; 1p36.12) has been identified as an early marker of arterial endothelium development, see the review.[1]

See also the related pages Arterial Development, Venous Development, Placental Villi Blood Vessels and Coronary Circulation Development.


Cardiovascular Links: cardiovascular | Heart Tutorial | Lecture - Early Vascular | Lecture - Heart | Movies | 2016 Cardiac Review | heart | coronary circulation | heart valve | heart rate | Circulation | blood | blood vessel | blood vessel histology | heart histology | Lymphatic | ductus venosus | spleen | Stage 22 | cardiovascular abnormalities | OMIM | 2012 ECHO Meeting | Category:Cardiovascular
Historic Embryology - Cardiovascular 
1902 Vena cava inferior | 1905 Brain Blood Vessels | 1909 Cervical Veins | 1909 Dorsal aorta and umbilical veins | 1912 Heart | 1912 Human Heart | 1914 Earliest Blood-Vessels | 1915 Congenital Cardiac Disease | 1915 Dura Venous Sinuses | 1916 Blood cell origin | 1916 Pars Membranacea Septi | 1919 Lower Limb Arteries | 1921 Human Brain Vascular | 1921 Spleen | 1922 Aortic-Arch System | 1922 Pig Forelimb Arteries | 1922 Chicken Pulmonary | 1923 Head Subcutaneous Plexus | 1923 Ductus Venosus | 1925 Venous Development | 1927 Stage 11 Heart | 1928 Heart Blood Flow | 1935 Aorta | 1935 Venous valves | 1938 Pars Membranacea Septi | 1938 Foramen Ovale | 1939 Atrio-Ventricular Valves | 1940 Vena cava inferior | 1940 Early Hematopoiesis | 1941 Blood Formation | 1942 Truncus and Conus Partitioning | Ziegler Heart Models | 1951 Heart Movie | 1954 Week 9 Heart | 1957 Cranial venous system | 1959 Brain Arterial Anastomoses | Historic Embryology Papers | 2012 ECHO Meeting | 2016 Cardiac Review | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Review - Molecular identity of arteries, veins, and lymphatics[1] "Arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels are distinguished by structural differences that correspond to their different functions. Each of these vessels is also defined by specific molecular markers that persist throughout adult life; these markers are some of the molecular determinants that control the differentiation of embryonic undifferentiated cells into arteries, veins, or lymphatics. The Eph-B4 receptor and its ligand, ephrin-B2, are critical molecular determinants of vessel identity, arising on endothelial cells early in embryonic development. Eph-B4 and ephrin-B2 continue to be expressed on adult vessels and mark vessel identity. However, after vascular surgery, vessel identity can change and is marked by altered Eph-B4 and ephrin-B2 expression. Vein grafts show loss of venous identity, with less Eph-B4 expression. Arteriovenous fistulas show gain of dual arterial-venous identity, with both Eph-B4 and ephrin-B2 expression, and manipulation of Eph-B4 improves arteriovenous fistula patency. Patches used to close arteries and veins exhibit context-dependent gain of identity, that is, patches in the arterial environment gain arterial identity, whereas patches in the venous environment gain venous identity; these results show the importance of the host infiltrating cells in determining vascular identity after vascular surgery."
  • Quantitative comparison of cerebral artery development in human embryos with other eutherians[2] "Quantitative analysis of the internal radius of the aorta and cerebral arteries in a range of eutherian mammals has been used to compare arterial flow to the developing human brain with that to the brains of non-human eutherians....The findings suggest that the developing human brain may actually receive less blood flow at embryonic sizes (less than 22 mm body length) than do other mammalian embryos of a similar body size, but that internal carotid and vertebral flow is higher in human fetuses (body length greater than 30 mm) than in developing non-humans of the same body size. Increased flow to the developing human brain relative to non-humans is achieved by simultaneous increases in both aortic and cerebral feeder artery internal calibre."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Arterial Embryology | Artery Development

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

  • A detailed comparison of mouse and human cardiac development[3]

Textbooks

  • Human Embryology (2nd ed.) Larson Ch7 p151-188 Heart, Ch8 p189-228 Vasculature
  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed.) Moore and Persaud Ch14: p304-349
  • Before we Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Ch12; p241-254
  • Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Ch7 p97-122 Heart, Ch8 p123-146 Vasculature
  • Human Embryology Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Ch13-17: p77-111

Development

Early Artery Development
Carnegie Stage 10 Carnegie Stage 11 Carnegie Stage 12
Keibel Mall 2 539.jpg Keibel Mall 2 541.jpg Keibel Mall 2 542.jpg

Pharyngeal Arch Arteries

Pharyngeal arch arteries

In the head region of the embryo, each pharyngeal arch initially has paired arch arteries. These are extensively remodelled through development and give rise to a range of different arterial structures, as shown in the list below.

  • Arch 1 - mainly lost, form part of maxillary artery.
  • Arch 2 - stapedial arteries.
  • Arch 3 - common carotid arteries, internal carotid arteries.
  • Arch 4 - left forms part of aortic arch, right forms part right subclavian artery.
  • Arch 6 - left forms part of left pulmonary artery , right forms part of right pulmonary artery.


Links: Head Development

Renal Venous Development

The renal arterial and venous systems are also reorganised extensively throughout development with changing kidney position.

Embryo renal venous cartoon.jpg Adult renal venous cartoon.jpg
Embryo renal venous Adult renal venous


Links: Renal Development

Fetal Blood Flow

Fetal Blood Flow


Mean Late Fetal Blood Flows[4]

(8 subjects) in the major vessels of the human fetal circulation by phase contrast MRI. (median gestational age 37 weeks, age range of 30–39 weeks)

(left) Mean flows in ml/kg/min (right) Proportions of the combined ventricular output in the major vessels of the human fetal circulation by phase contrast MRI.
  • AAo - Ascending aorta
  • MPA - main pulmonary artery
  • DA - ductus arteriosus
  • PBF - pulmonary blood flow
  • DAo - descending aorta
  • UA - umbilical artery
  • UV - umbilical vein
  • IVC - inferior vena cava
  • SVC - superior vena cava
  • RA - right atrium
  • FO - foramen ovale
  • LA - left atrium
  • RV - right ventricle
  • LV - left ventricle
Cardiovascular Links: Fetal Blood Flow values | Mean Fetal Blood Flow | Proportions Ventricular Output | Ventricular Output (colour) | heart | blood | cardiovascular

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wolf K, Hu H, Isaji T & Dardik A. (2019). Molecular identity of arteries, veins, and lymphatics. J. Vasc. Surg. , 69, 253-262. PMID: 30154011 DOI.
  2. Ashwell KW & Shulruf B. (2015). Quantitative comparison of cerebral artery development in human embryos with other eutherians. J. Anat. , 227, 286-96. PMID: 26183939 DOI.
  3. Krishnan A, Samtani R, Dhanantwari P, Lee E, Yamada S, Shiota K, Donofrio MT, Leatherbury L & Lo CW. (2014). A detailed comparison of mouse and human cardiac development. Pediatr. Res. , 76, 500-7. PMID: 25167202 DOI.
  4. Seed M, van Amerom JF, Yoo SJ, Al Nafisi B, Grosse-Wortmann L, Jaeggi E, Jansz MS & Macgowan CK. (2012). Feasibility of quantification of the distribution of blood flow in the normal human fetal circulation using CMR: a cross-sectional study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson , 14, 79. PMID: 23181717 DOI.

Reviews

Kelly RG. (2012). The second heart field. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. , 100, 33-65. PMID: 22449840 DOI.

Carmeliet P & Jain RK. (2011). Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of angiogenesis. Nature , 473, 298-307. PMID: 21593862 DOI.

Degani S. (2008). Fetal cerebrovascular circulation: a review of prenatal ultrasound assessment. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. , 66, 184-96. PMID: 18607112 DOI.

Tchirikov M, Schröder HJ & Hecher K. (2006). Ductus venosus shunting in the fetal venous circulation: regulatory mechanisms, diagnostic methods and medical importance. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol , 27, 452-61. PMID: 16565980 DOI.

Kiserud T. (2005). Physiology of the fetal circulation. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med , 10, 493-503. PMID: 16236564 DOI.

Kiserud T & Acharya G. (2004). The fetal circulation. Prenat. Diagn. , 24, 1049-59. PMID: 15614842 DOI.

Articles

Jiji RS & Kramer CM. (2011). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance: applications in daily practice. Cardiol Rev , 19, 246-54. PMID: 21808168 DOI.

Ribatti D & Djonov V. (2011). Angiogenesis in development and cancer today. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 55, 343-4. PMID: 21732277 DOI.

Cammarato A, Ahrens CH, Alayari NN, Qeli E, Rucker J, Reedy MC, Zmasek CM, Gucek M, Cole RN, Van Eyk JE, Bodmer R, O'Rourke B, Bernstein SI & Foster DB. (2011). A mighty small heart: the cardiac proteome of adult Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE , 6, e18497. PMID: 21541028 DOI.

Min JK, Park H, Choi HJ, Kim Y, Pyun BJ, Agrawal V, Song BW, Jeon J, Maeng YS, Rho SS, Shim S, Chai JH, Koo BK, Hong HJ, Yun CO, Choi C, Kim YM, Hwang KC & Kwon YG. (2011). The WNT antagonist Dickkopf2 promotes angiogenesis in rodent and human endothelial cells. J. Clin. Invest. , 121, 1882-93. PMID: 21540552 DOI.

Guo C, Sun Y, Zhou B, Adam RM, Li X, Pu WT, Morrow BE, Moon A & Li X. (2011). A Tbx1-Six1/Eya1-Fgf8 genetic pathway controls mammalian cardiovascular and craniofacial morphogenesis. J. Clin. Invest. , 121, 1585-95. PMID: 21364285 DOI.

Arráez-Aybar LA, Turrero-Nogués A & Marantos-Gamarra DG. (2008). Embryonic cardiac morphometry in Carnegie stages 15-23, from the Complutense University of Madrid Institute of Embryology Human Embryo Collection. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) , 187, 211-20. PMID: 18057862 DOI.


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Additional Images

See also Category:Heart ILP and Category:Heart

Ziegler Models

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, October 15) Embryology Cardiovascular - Arterial Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Cardiovascular_-_Arterial_Development

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