Cardiovascular - Arterial Development
|Embryology - 16 Oct 2019 Expand to Translate|
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Development of the heart and vascular system begins very early in mesoderm both within (embryonic) and outside (extra embryonic, yolk sac and placental) the embryo. Vascular development therefore occurs in many places, the most obvious though is the early forming heart, which grows rapidly creating an externally obvious cardiac "bulge" on the early embryo. The cardiovascular system is extensively remodelled throughout development, this current page discusses systemic artery development. Note that placental vessels are discussed in placental notes.
Some Recent Findings
Quantitative comparison of cerebral artery development in human embryos with other eutherians "Quantitative analysis of the internal radius of the aorta and cerebral arteries in a range of eutherian mammals has been used to compare arterial flow to the developing human brain with that to the brains of non-human eutherians....The findings suggest that the developing human brain may actually receive less blood flow at embryonic sizes (less than 22 mm body length) than do other mammalian embryos of a similar body size, but that internal carotid and vertebral flow is higher in human fetuses (body length greater than 30 mm) than in developing non-humans of the same body size. Increased flow to the developing human brain relative to non-humans is achieved by simultaneous increases in both aortic and cerebral feeder artery internal calibre."
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
- Human Embryology (2nd ed.) Larson Ch7 p151-188 Heart, Ch8 p189-228 Vasculature
- The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed.) Moore and Persaud Ch14: p304-349
- Before we Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Ch12; p241-254
- Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Ch7 p97-122 Heart, Ch8 p123-146 Vasculature
- Human Embryology Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Ch13-17: p77-111
|Carnegie Stage 10||Carnegie Stage 11||Carnegie Stage 12|
Pharyngeal Arch Arteries
In the head region of the embryo, each pharyngeal arch initially has paired arch arteries. These are extensively remodelled through development and give rise to a range of different arterial structures, as shown in the list below.
- Arch 1 - mainly lost, form part of maxillary artery.
- Arch 2 - stapedial arteries.
- Arch 3 - common carotid arteries, internal carotid arteries.
- Arch 4 - left forms part of aortic arch, right forms part right subclavian artery.
- Arch 6 - left forms part of left pulmonary artery , right forms part of right pulmonary artery.
- Links: Head Development
Renal Venous Development
The renal arterial and venous systems are also reorganised extensively throughout development with changing kidney position.
|Embryo renal venous||Adult renal venous|
- Links: Renal Development
Fetal Blood Flow
Mean Late Fetal Blood Flows
(8 subjects) in the major vessels of the human fetal circulation by phase contrast MRI. (median gestational age 37 weeks, age range of 30–39 weeks)
|(left) Mean flows in ml/kg/min||(right) Proportions of the combined ventricular output in the major vessels of the human fetal circulation by phase contrast MRI.|
- Cardiovascular Links: Fetal Blood Flow values | Mean Fetal Blood Flow | Proportions Ventricular Output | Ventricular Output (colour) | heart | blood | cardiovascular
- Wolf K, Hu H, Isaji T & Dardik A. (2019). Molecular identity of arteries, veins, and lymphatics. J. Vasc. Surg. , 69, 253-262. PMID: 30154011 DOI.
- Ashwell KW & Shulruf B. (2015). Quantitative comparison of cerebral artery development in human embryos with other eutherians. J. Anat. , 227, 286-96. PMID: 26183939 DOI.
- Krishnan A, Samtani R, Dhanantwari P, Lee E, Yamada S, Shiota K, Donofrio MT, Leatherbury L & Lo CW. (2014). A detailed comparison of mouse and human cardiac development. Pediatr. Res. , 76, 500-7. PMID: 25167202 DOI.
- Seed M, van Amerom JF, Yoo SJ, Al Nafisi B, Grosse-Wortmann L, Jaeggi E, Jansz MS & Macgowan CK. (2012). Feasibility of quantification of the distribution of blood flow in the normal human fetal circulation using CMR: a cross-sectional study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson , 14, 79. PMID: 23181717 DOI.
Tchirikov M, Schröder HJ & Hecher K. (2006). Ductus venosus shunting in the fetal venous circulation: regulatory mechanisms, diagnostic methods and medical importance. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol , 27, 452-61. PMID: 16565980 DOI.
Cammarato A, Ahrens CH, Alayari NN, Qeli E, Rucker J, Reedy MC, Zmasek CM, Gucek M, Cole RN, Van Eyk JE, Bodmer R, O'Rourke B, Bernstein SI & Foster DB. (2011). A mighty small heart: the cardiac proteome of adult Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE , 6, e18497. PMID: 21541028 DOI.
Min JK, Park H, Choi HJ, Kim Y, Pyun BJ, Agrawal V, Song BW, Jeon J, Maeng YS, Rho SS, Shim S, Chai JH, Koo BK, Hong HJ, Yun CO, Choi C, Kim YM, Hwang KC & Kwon YG. (2011). The WNT antagonist Dickkopf2 promotes angiogenesis in rodent and human endothelial cells. J. Clin. Invest. , 121, 1882-93. PMID: 21540552 DOI.
Guo C, Sun Y, Zhou B, Adam RM, Li X, Pu WT, Morrow BE, Moon A & Li X. (2011). A Tbx1-Six1/Eya1-Fgf8 genetic pathway controls mammalian cardiovascular and craniofacial morphogenesis. J. Clin. Invest. , 121, 1585-95. PMID: 21364285 DOI.
Arráez-Aybar LA, Turrero-Nogués A & Marantos-Gamarra DG. (2008). Embryonic cardiac morphometry in Carnegie stages 15-23, from the Complutense University of Madrid Institute of Embryology Human Embryo Collection. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) , 187, 211-20. PMID: 18057862 DOI.
Search May 2010
- Cardiovascular System Development All (63457) Review (10735) Free Full Text (15717)
Search Pubmed: Cardiovascular System Development
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, October 16) Embryology Cardiovascular - Arterial Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Cardiovascular_-_Arterial_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G