Difference between revisions of "Book - The development of the chick (1919)"

From Embryology
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The attempt to present a consecutive account of the development of the form on which so many classics in the history of embryology have been based is no slight undertaking. The author can hardly hope that he has avoided omissions and errors, and he will be sincerely grateful to those who call such to his attention.
 
The attempt to present a consecutive account of the development of the form on which so many classics in the history of embryology have been based is no slight undertaking. The author can hardly hope that he has avoided omissions and errors, and he will be sincerely grateful to those who call such to his attention.
 +
 +
==Contents==
 +
 +
Ixtroduction
 +
 +
I. The Cell Theory . 1
 +
 +
II. The Recapitulation Theory 3
 +
 +
III. The Physiology of Development 6
 +
 +
IV. Embryonic Primordia and the Law of Genetic Restric tion 8
 +
 +
V. General Characters of Germ-cells 9
 +
 +
The Spermatozoon 9
 +
 +
The Ovum 10
 +
 +
Comparison of the Germ-cells 12
 +
 +
VI. Polarity and Organization of the Ovum .... 14
 +
 +
Part I The Early Development To The End Of The Third Day
 +
 +
CHAPTER I. THE EGG 17
 +
 +
Chemical Composition of the Hen's Egg 20
 +
 +
Formation of the Egg 21
 +
 +
Abnormal Eggs 25
 +
 +
Ovogenesis 26
 +
 +
CHAPTER II. THE DEVELOPMENT PRIOR TO LAYING 32
 +
 +
I. Maturation 32
 +
 +
11. Fertilization 35
 +
 +
III. Cleavage of the Ovum 38
 +
 +
The Hen's Egg 39
 +
 +
The Pigeon's Egg 43
 +
 +
IV. Origin of the Periblastic Nuclei, Formation of the
 +
 +
Germ-wall 47
 +
 +
V. Origin of the Ectoderm and Entoderm ...... 52
 +
 +
CHAPTER III. OUTLINE OF DEVELOPMENT, ORIENTATION, CHRONOLOGY 61
 +
 +
Orientation 63
 +
 +
Chronology {Classification of Stages) 64
 +
 +
Tables of the Developyyient of the Chick 68
 +
 +
CHAPTER IV. FROM LAYIXG TO THE FORMATIOX OF
 +
 +
THE FIRST SOMITE 69
 +
 +
I. Structure of the Unincubated Blastoderm .... 69
 +
 +
II. The Primitive Streak 69
 +
 +
Total Views 69
 +
 +
Sections 74
 +
 +
The Head-process 80
 +
 +
hiterpretation of the Primitive Streak 83
 +
 +
III. The Mesoderm of the Opaque Area 86
 +
 +
IV. The Germ-wall 90
 +
 +
CHAPTER V. HEAD-FOLD TO TWELVE SOMITES
 +
 +
(From about the twenty-first to the thirty-third hour of incubation) 91
 +
 +
I. Origin of the Head-fold 91
 +
 +
II. Formation of the Fore-gut 93
 +
 +
III. Origin of the Xeural Tube 95
 +
 +
The Medullary Plate 95
 +
 +
The Neural Groove and Folds 97
 +
 +
Primary Divisions of the Neural Tube 105
 +
 +
Origin of the Primary Divisions of the Embryonic Brain 108
 +
 +
IV. The Mesoblast 109
 +
 +
Primary Structure of the Sornites 11-4
 +
 +
The Nephrotome, or Intermediate Cell-mass (Middle
 +
 +
Plate) 114
 +
 +
The Lateral Plate 115
 +
 +
Development of the Body-cavity or Cadome 115
 +
 +
Mesoblast of the Head 116
 +
 +
Vascular System 117
 +
 +
Origin of the Heart 119
 +
 +
The Embryonic Blood-vessels 121
 +
 +
V. Description of an Embryo with 10 Somites .... 122
 +
 +
The Nervous System 124
 +
 +
Alimentary Canal 126
 +
 +
Vascular System 126
 +
 +
General 127
 +
 +
Zones of the Blastoderm 127
 +
 +
CHAPTER VI. FROM TWELVE TO THIRTY-SIX SOMITES.
 +
 +
THIRTY-FOUR TO SEVEXTY-TWO HOURS . 130 I. Development of the External Form, and Turning of the Embryo 130
 +
 +
Separation of the Embryo from the Blastoderm . . . 130
 +
 +
The Turning of the Embryo and the Embryonic Flexures 133
 +
 +
II. Origin of the Embryonic Membranes 135
 +
 +
Origin of the Amnion and Chorion 135
 +
 +
The Yolk-sac 143
 +
 +
Origin of the Allantois 143
 +
 +
Summary of Later History of the Embryonic Membranes . 145
 +
 +
III. The Xervous System 147
 +
 +
The Brain 147
 +
 +
The Neural Crest and the Cranial and Spinal Ganglia 156
 +
 +
IV. The Organs of Special Sense (Eye, Ear, X'ose) . 164
 +
 +
The Eye ^ . 164
 +
 +
The Auditory Sac 168
 +
 +
The Nose (Olfactory Pits) 169
 +
 +
V. The Alimentary Canal and its Appendages . . . 170
 +
 +
The StomodoEum 173
 +
 +
The Pharynx and Visceral Arches 173
 +
 +
(Esophagus and Stomach 179
 +
 +
The Liver 179
 +
 +
The Pancreas 181
 +
 +
The Mid-Gut 181
 +
 +
Ancd Plate, Hind-gut, Post-anal gut and Allantois 182
 +
 +
VI. History of the Mesoderm 183
 +
 +
Somites 183
 +
 +
The Intermediate Cell-mass 190
 +
 +
The Vascular System 197
 +
 +
VII. The Body-cavity and Mesenteries 205
 +
 +
PART II THE FORRTH DAY TO HATCHING, ORGANOGENY, DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANS
 +
 +
CHAPTER VII. THE EXTERXAL FORM OF THE EMBRYO AXD THE EMBRYONIC :\IEMBRAXES 211
 +
 +
I. The External Form 211
 +
 +
General 211
 +
 +
Head 213
 +
 +
II. Embryonic Membranes . . . 216
 +
 +
General 216
 +
 +
The Allantois 220
 +
 +
The Yolk-sac 225
 +
 +
The Amnion 231
 +
 +
Hatching . . 232
 +
 +
CHAPTER \TII. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 233
 +
 +
I. The Neuroblasts 233
 +
 +
The Medullary Neuroblasts 233
 +
 +
The Ganglionic Neuroblasts 236
 +
 +
II. The Development of the Spinal Cord 239
 +
 +
Central Canal and Fissures of the Cord 242
 +
 +
Neuroblasts, Commissures, and Fiber Tracts of the Cord . 244
 +
 +
III. The Development of the Brain 244
 +
 +
The Telencephalon 245
 +
 +
The Diencephalon 249
 +
 +
The Meseyicephalon 251
 +
 +
The Metencephalon 251
 +
 +
The Myelencephalon 252
 +
 +
Commissures of the Brain 252
 +
 +
IV. The Peripheral Nervous System . 252
 +
 +
The Spinal Nerves 252
 +
 +
The Cranial Nerves 261
 +
 +
CHAPTER IX. ORGANS OF SPECIAL SENSE .... 271
 +
 +
I. The Eye 271
 +
 +
The Optic Cup 271
 +
 +
The Vitreous Humor 275
 +
 +
The Lens 276
 +
 +
Anterior Chamber and Cornea 278
 +
 +
The Choroid and Sclerotic Coats 279
 +
 +
The Eyelids and Conjunctival Sac 279
 +
 +
Choroid Fissure, Pecten and Optic Nerve 281
 +
 +
II. The Development of the Olfactory Organ . . . 285
 +
 +
III. The Development of the Ear 288
 +
 +
Development of the Otocyst and Associated Parts . . . 289 The Development of the Tubo-tyyn panic Cavity, External
 +
 +
Auditory Meatus and Tympanum 297
 +
 +
CHAPTER X. THE ALIMENTARY TRACT AND ITS APPENDAGES 301
 +
 +
I. Mouth and Oral Cavity 301
 +
 +
Beak and Egg-tooth 302
 +
 +
The Tongue 305
 +
 +
Oral Glands 306
 +
 +
II. Derivatives of the Embryonic Pharynx 306
 +
 +
Fate of the Visceral Clefts 307
 +
 +
Thyroid 307
 +
 +
Visceral Pouches • • 307
 +
 +
The Thymus 308
 +
 +
Epithelial Vestiges 309
 +
 +
The Posthranchial Bodies 309
 +
 +
III. The (Esophagus, Stomach and Intestine .... 309
 +
 +
Oesophagus 312
 +
 +
Stomach 313
 +
 +
Large Intestine, Cloaca, and Anus 314
 +
 +
IV. The Development of the Liver and Pancreas , . . 319
 +
 +
The Liver 319
 +
 +
The Pancreas 323
 +
 +
V. The Respiratory Tract 325
 +
 +
Bronchi, Lungs and Air-sacs 325
 +
 +
The Laryngotracheal Groove 331
 +
 +
CHAPTER XI. THE BODY-CAVITIES, MESENTERIES AND
 +
 +
SEPTUM TRANSVERSUM 333
 +
 +
I. The Separation of the Pericardial and Pleuroperi TONEAL Cavities 333
 +
 +
Septum Transversum 334
 +
 +
Closure of the Dorsal Opening of the Pericardium . . . 337
 +
 +
Estahlishment of Independent Pericardial Walls . . . 338
 +
 +
Derivatives of the Septum Transversum 339
 +
 +
II. Separation of Pleural and Peritoneal Cavities; Or igin OF THE Septum Pleuro-peritoneale . . . 340
 +
 +
III. The Mesenteries 342
 +
 +
The Dorsal Mesentery 342
 +
 +
The Origin of the Omentum 343
 +
 +
Origin of the Spleen 345
 +
 +
CHAPTER XII. THE LATER DEVELOPMENT OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM 348
 +
 +
I. The Heart 348
 +
 +
The Development of the External Form of the Heart . . 348
 +
 +
Division of the Cavities of the Heart 350
 +
 +
Fate of the Bulbus .357
 +
 +
The Sinus Ve?iosus 357
 +
 +
II. The Arterial System 358
 +
 +
The Aortic Arches 358
 +
 +
The Carotid Arch 361
 +
 +
The Subclavian Artery 362
 +
 +
The Aortic System 362
 +
 +
III. The Venous System ..... c .... . 363
 +
 +
The Anterior Vence Cavce 363
 +
 +
The Omphalomesenteric Veins 364
 +
 +
The Umbilical Veins 367
 +
 +
The System of the Inferior Vena Cava 368
 +
 +
IV. The Embryonic Circulation 372
 +
 +
CHAPTER XIII. THE URINOGENITAL SYSTEM ... 378
 +
 +
I. The Later History of the Mesonephros 378
 +
 +
II. The Development of the Metanephros or Permanent
 +
 +
Kidney 38-1:
 +
 +
The Metanephric Diverticulum 384
 +
 +
The Nephrogenous Tissue of the Metanephros . . . 387
 +
 +
III. The Organs of Reproduction • 390
 +
 +
Development of Ovary and Testis 391
 +
 +
Development of the Genital Ducts 401
 +
 +
IV. The Suprarenal Capsules 403
 +
 +
Origin of the Cortical Cords 405
 +
 +
Origin of the Medullary Cords 406
 +
 +
CHAPTER XIV. THE SKELETON 407
 +
 +
I. General 407
 +
 +
II. The Vertebral Column 411
 +
 +
The Sclerotomes and Vertebral Segmentation .... 412
 +
 +
Membranous Stage of the Vertebrce 414
 +
 +
Chondrification 418
 +
 +
Atlas and Axis (Epistropheus) 420
 +
 +
Formation of Vertebral Articulations 421
 +
 +
Ossification 421
 +
 +
III. Development of the Ribs and Sternal Apparatus. . 424
 +
 +
IV. Development of the Skull 427
 +
 +
Development of the Cartilaginous or Primordial Cranium. 428
 +
 +
Ossification of the Skull 431
 +
 +
V. Appendicular Skeleton 434
 +
 +
The Fore-limb 434
 +
 +
The Skeleton of the Hind-limb 438
 +
 +
APPENDIX
 +
 +
General Literature ^ •> .... 443
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter I 443
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter II 444
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter III 44o
 +
 +
Literature — Chapters IV and V 44o
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter VII 447
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter VIII 449
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter IX 450
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter X 453
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter XI 4o/
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter XII 458
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter XIII 459
 +
 +
Literature — Chapter XIV 461
 +
 +
Index 465

Revision as of 16:04, 21 July 2019

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Lillie FR. The development of the chick. (1919) Henry Holt And Company New York, New York.

Online Editor 
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This historic 1908 book by Lille is an early chicken developmental atlas.


1908 Edition - Lillie FR. The development of the chick. (1908) New York.

https://archive.org/details/developmentofchi00lillrich/page/n8 https://archive.org/details/developmentofchi00lill/page/n6 https://archive.org/details/developmentofchi00lillief/page/n6

1919 Edition - https://archive.org/details/developmentofchi1919lill/page/n6

Review article

Modern Notes chicken

Chicken Links: Introduction | Chicken stages | Hamburger Hamilton Stages | Witschi Stages | Placodes | Category:Chicken
Historic Chicken Embryology  
1883 History of the Chick | 1900 Chicken Embryo Development Plates | 1904 X-Ray Effects | 1910 Somites |

1919 Lillie Textbook | 1920 Chick Early Embryology | 1933 Neural | 1939 Sternum | 1948 Limb | Movie 1961 | Historic Papers

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

The Development of the Chick - An Introduction to Embryology

Preface to First Edition

This book is a plain account of the development of the neverfailing resource of the embryologist, the chick. It has been necessary to fill certain gaps in our knowledge of the development of the chick by descriptions of other birds. But the account does not go beyond the class Aves, and it applies exclusively to the chick except where there is specific statement to the contrary. Projected chapters on the integument, muscular system, physiology of development, teratology, and history of the subject have been omitted, as the book seemed to be already sufficiently long. The account has been written directly from the material in almost every part, and it has involved some special investigations, particularly on the early development undertaken by Doctor Mary Blount and Doctor J. T. Patterson, to whom acknowledgments are due for permission to incorporate their results before full publication by the authors. As the book is meant for the use of beginners in embryology, references to authors are usually omitted except where the account is based directly on the description of a single investigator. A fairly full list of original sources is published as an appendix.

Figures borrowed from other publications are credited in the legends to the figures. The majority of the illustrations are from original preparations of the author: Figures 46, 48, 50, 51, 52, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 99, 105 and 106 were drawn by Mr. K. Hayashi; the remainder of the original drawings were executed by Mr. Kenji Toda. The photographs in Figures 118, 119, 120, 168, 181, 182, 189, 194, 197, and 231 are the work of Mr. Willard C. Green. Some of the figures may be studied with advantage for points not described in the text.

Acknowledgments are also due my colleague, Professor W. L. Tower for much assistance, and to Doctor Rov L. Moodie for special work on the skeleton, and photographs of potash preparations reproduced in Figures 242, 246, 249 and 250.

The best introduction to the problems opened up by the study of embryology is a careful first-hand study of some one species. It is in this sense that the book may serve as an introduction to embryology, if its study is accompanied by careful laboratory work. In some respects it is fuller, and in others less complete, than other books with which it might be compared. On its comparative and experimental sides, embryology is the only key to the solution of some of the most fundamental problems of biology. The fact that comparative and experimental embryology receive bare mention is not due to any lack of appreciation of their interest and importance, but to the conviction that the beginner is not prepared to appreciate these problems at the start; to the belief that our teachers of embryology are competent to remedy omissions; and finally to the circumstance that no one book can, as a matter of fact, cover the entire field, except in the most superficial way.

The development before laying and the first three days of incubation are treated by stages as far as possible, and this matter constitutes Part I of the book. It involves the study of the origin of the primordia of most of the organs. The matter concerning the later development is classified by the organs concerned, which seems to be the only possible way, and this constitutes Part II. The first part is complete in itself, so far as it goes, and no doubt it will be the only part consulted by some students.

The attempt to present a consecutive account of the development of the form on which so many classics in the history of embryology have been based is no slight undertaking. The author can hardly hope that he has avoided omissions and errors, and he will be sincerely grateful to those who call such to his attention.

Contents

Ixtroduction

I. The Cell Theory . 1

II. The Recapitulation Theory 3

III. The Physiology of Development 6

IV. Embryonic Primordia and the Law of Genetic Restric tion 8

V. General Characters of Germ-cells 9

The Spermatozoon 9

The Ovum 10

Comparison of the Germ-cells 12

VI. Polarity and Organization of the Ovum .... 14

Part I The Early Development To The End Of The Third Day

CHAPTER I. THE EGG 17

Chemical Composition of the Hen's Egg 20

Formation of the Egg 21

Abnormal Eggs 25

Ovogenesis 26

CHAPTER II. THE DEVELOPMENT PRIOR TO LAYING 32

I. Maturation 32

11. Fertilization 35

III. Cleavage of the Ovum 38

The Hen's Egg 39

The Pigeon's Egg 43

IV. Origin of the Periblastic Nuclei, Formation of the

Germ-wall 47

V. Origin of the Ectoderm and Entoderm ...... 52

CHAPTER III. OUTLINE OF DEVELOPMENT, ORIENTATION, CHRONOLOGY 61

Orientation 63

Chronology {Classification of Stages) 64

Tables of the Developyyient of the Chick 68

CHAPTER IV. FROM LAYIXG TO THE FORMATIOX OF

THE FIRST SOMITE 69

I. Structure of the Unincubated Blastoderm .... 69

II. The Primitive Streak 69

Total Views 69

Sections 74

The Head-process 80

hiterpretation of the Primitive Streak 83

III. The Mesoderm of the Opaque Area 86

IV. The Germ-wall 90

CHAPTER V. HEAD-FOLD TO TWELVE SOMITES

(From about the twenty-first to the thirty-third hour of incubation) 91

I. Origin of the Head-fold 91

II. Formation of the Fore-gut 93

III. Origin of the Xeural Tube 95

The Medullary Plate 95

The Neural Groove and Folds 97

Primary Divisions of the Neural Tube 105

Origin of the Primary Divisions of the Embryonic Brain 108

IV. The Mesoblast 109

Primary Structure of the Sornites 11-4

The Nephrotome, or Intermediate Cell-mass (Middle

Plate) 114

The Lateral Plate 115

Development of the Body-cavity or Cadome 115

Mesoblast of the Head 116

Vascular System 117

Origin of the Heart 119

The Embryonic Blood-vessels 121

V. Description of an Embryo with 10 Somites .... 122

The Nervous System 124

Alimentary Canal 126

Vascular System 126

General 127

Zones of the Blastoderm 127

CHAPTER VI. FROM TWELVE TO THIRTY-SIX SOMITES.

THIRTY-FOUR TO SEVEXTY-TWO HOURS . 130 I. Development of the External Form, and Turning of the Embryo 130

Separation of the Embryo from the Blastoderm . . . 130

The Turning of the Embryo and the Embryonic Flexures 133

II. Origin of the Embryonic Membranes 135

Origin of the Amnion and Chorion 135

The Yolk-sac 143

Origin of the Allantois 143

Summary of Later History of the Embryonic Membranes . 145

III. The Xervous System 147

The Brain 147

The Neural Crest and the Cranial and Spinal Ganglia 156

IV. The Organs of Special Sense (Eye, Ear, X'ose) . 164

The Eye ^ . 164

The Auditory Sac 168

The Nose (Olfactory Pits) 169

V. The Alimentary Canal and its Appendages . . . 170

The StomodoEum 173

The Pharynx and Visceral Arches 173

(Esophagus and Stomach 179

The Liver 179

The Pancreas 181

The Mid-Gut 181

Ancd Plate, Hind-gut, Post-anal gut and Allantois 182

VI. History of the Mesoderm 183

Somites 183

The Intermediate Cell-mass 190

The Vascular System 197

VII. The Body-cavity and Mesenteries 205

PART II THE FORRTH DAY TO HATCHING, ORGANOGENY, DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANS

CHAPTER VII. THE EXTERXAL FORM OF THE EMBRYO AXD THE EMBRYONIC :\IEMBRAXES 211

I. The External Form 211

General 211

Head 213

II. Embryonic Membranes . . . 216

General 216

The Allantois 220

The Yolk-sac 225

The Amnion 231

Hatching . . 232

CHAPTER \TII. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 233

I. The Neuroblasts 233

The Medullary Neuroblasts 233

The Ganglionic Neuroblasts 236

II. The Development of the Spinal Cord 239

Central Canal and Fissures of the Cord 242

Neuroblasts, Commissures, and Fiber Tracts of the Cord . 244

III. The Development of the Brain 244

The Telencephalon 245

The Diencephalon 249

The Meseyicephalon 251

The Metencephalon 251

The Myelencephalon 252

Commissures of the Brain 252

IV. The Peripheral Nervous System . 252

The Spinal Nerves 252

The Cranial Nerves 261

CHAPTER IX. ORGANS OF SPECIAL SENSE .... 271

I. The Eye 271

The Optic Cup 271

The Vitreous Humor 275

The Lens 276

Anterior Chamber and Cornea 278

The Choroid and Sclerotic Coats 279

The Eyelids and Conjunctival Sac 279

Choroid Fissure, Pecten and Optic Nerve 281

II. The Development of the Olfactory Organ . . . 285

III. The Development of the Ear 288

Development of the Otocyst and Associated Parts . . . 289 The Development of the Tubo-tyyn panic Cavity, External

Auditory Meatus and Tympanum 297

CHAPTER X. THE ALIMENTARY TRACT AND ITS APPENDAGES 301

I. Mouth and Oral Cavity 301

Beak and Egg-tooth 302

The Tongue 305

Oral Glands 306

II. Derivatives of the Embryonic Pharynx 306

Fate of the Visceral Clefts 307

Thyroid 307

Visceral Pouches • • 307

The Thymus 308

Epithelial Vestiges 309

The Posthranchial Bodies 309

III. The (Esophagus, Stomach and Intestine .... 309

Oesophagus 312

Stomach 313

Large Intestine, Cloaca, and Anus 314

IV. The Development of the Liver and Pancreas , . . 319

The Liver 319

The Pancreas 323

V. The Respiratory Tract 325

Bronchi, Lungs and Air-sacs 325

The Laryngotracheal Groove 331

CHAPTER XI. THE BODY-CAVITIES, MESENTERIES AND

SEPTUM TRANSVERSUM 333

I. The Separation of the Pericardial and Pleuroperi TONEAL Cavities 333

Septum Transversum 334

Closure of the Dorsal Opening of the Pericardium . . . 337

Estahlishment of Independent Pericardial Walls . . . 338

Derivatives of the Septum Transversum 339

II. Separation of Pleural and Peritoneal Cavities; Or igin OF THE Septum Pleuro-peritoneale . . . 340

III. The Mesenteries 342

The Dorsal Mesentery 342

The Origin of the Omentum 343

Origin of the Spleen 345

CHAPTER XII. THE LATER DEVELOPMENT OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM 348

I. The Heart 348

The Development of the External Form of the Heart . . 348

Division of the Cavities of the Heart 350

Fate of the Bulbus .357

The Sinus Ve?iosus 357

II. The Arterial System 358

The Aortic Arches 358

The Carotid Arch 361

The Subclavian Artery 362

The Aortic System 362

III. The Venous System ..... c .... . 363

The Anterior Vence Cavce 363

The Omphalomesenteric Veins 364

The Umbilical Veins 367

The System of the Inferior Vena Cava 368

IV. The Embryonic Circulation 372

CHAPTER XIII. THE URINOGENITAL SYSTEM ... 378

I. The Later History of the Mesonephros 378

II. The Development of the Metanephros or Permanent

Kidney 38-1:

The Metanephric Diverticulum 384

The Nephrogenous Tissue of the Metanephros . . . 387

III. The Organs of Reproduction • 390

Development of Ovary and Testis 391

Development of the Genital Ducts 401

IV. The Suprarenal Capsules 403

Origin of the Cortical Cords 405

Origin of the Medullary Cords 406

CHAPTER XIV. THE SKELETON 407

I. General 407

II. The Vertebral Column 411

The Sclerotomes and Vertebral Segmentation .... 412

Membranous Stage of the Vertebrce 414

Chondrification 418

Atlas and Axis (Epistropheus) 420

Formation of Vertebral Articulations 421

Ossification 421

III. Development of the Ribs and Sternal Apparatus. . 424

IV. Development of the Skull 427

Development of the Cartilaginous or Primordial Cranium. 428

Ossification of the Skull 431

V. Appendicular Skeleton 434

The Fore-limb 434

The Skeleton of the Hind-limb 438

APPENDIX

General Literature ^ •> .... 443

Literature — Chapter I 443

Literature — Chapter II 444

Literature — Chapter III 44o

Literature — Chapters IV and V 44o

Literature — Chapter VII 447

Literature — Chapter VIII 449

Literature — Chapter IX 450

Literature — Chapter X 453

Literature — Chapter XI 4o/

Literature — Chapter XII 458

Literature — Chapter XIII 459

Literature — Chapter XIV 461

Index 465