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Meckel JF. Handbook of Pathological Anatomy (Handbuch der pathologischen Anatomie) Vol. 2. (1812) Leipzig.

Ligaments: I. Trunk | II. Head | III. Extremities   Muscles: I. Trunk | II. Head | III. Extremities   Angiology: I. Heart | II. Body or Aorta Arteries | III. Body Veins| IV. Pulmonary Artery | V. Pulmonary Veins | VI. Lymphatic System | VII. A Comparison of Vascular System   Nervous System: I. Central Nervous System
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This historic 1812 textbook by J. F. Meckel, Professor of Anatomy at Halle, was translated firstly from German Into French (with additions and notes) by Prof. A. J. L. Jourdan and G. Breschet. Then translated again from French into English (with notes) by A. Sidney Doane.

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Manual of General, Descriptive, and Pathological Anatomy Vol. 2


J. F. Meckel, (1812)

Professor of Anatomy at Halle,

Translated From The German Into French, With Additions And Notes,

By A. J. L. Jourdan, Member of the Royal Academy of Medicine at Parie, And G. Breschet, Adjunct Professor of Anatomy at the School of Medicine,

Translated From The French, with Notes, By A. Sidney Doane, A. M., M. D.

  1. Physician to the Philadelphia Hospital.
  2. Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania.
  3. Professor of Op. Surgery in the College of Phys. and Surg., New York.
  4. Emeritus Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania.
  5. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in Columbia College, D. C.
  6. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in College of Phys. and Surg., N. York.
  7. Professor of Surgery in the University of Maryland.
  8. Professor of Surgery in the College of Phys. and Surg., New York.
  9. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in Harvard University, Boston.



George C. Shattuck, A. M., M, D., M. M. S., Of Boston,

These Volumes Are Respectfully Dedicated.


Book II. Of Ligaments

  1. Section I. Of the Ligaments of the Trunk
  2. Section II. Of the Ligaments of the Head
  3. Section III. Of the Ligaments of the Extremities

Book III. Of Myology

  1. Section I. Of The Muscles of the Trunk
  2. Section II. Of the Muscles of the Head
  3. Section III. Of the Muscles of the Extremities

Book IV. Angiology

  1. Section I. Of the Heart
  2. Section II. Arteries of the Body or of the System of the Aorta
  3. Section III. Of the Veins of the Body
  4. Section IV. Pulmonary Artery
  5. Section V. Pulmonary Veins
  6. Section VI. Lymphatic System
  7. A Comparison of the Different Regions of the Vascular System

Book V. Nervous System

  1. Section I. Central Part of hte Nervous System

Book II. of Syndesmology

§ 818. Under the head of Syndesmology(l ) we shall describe only the modes of union between the bones and the cartilages which cover their extremities. The connections between other organs, as the muscles and the viscera, will be mentioned when speaking of those organs.

The bones are connected by very different substances, and the degree of motion between the bones which are united varies exceedingly. Descriptive syndesmology however treats of the two classes of ligaments, the synovial or capsular (§ 367), and the fibrous or accessory (§ 299).

As these organs are intimately connected with the bones, it will be better to describe them in the same order. Hence we shall mention, first, the ligaments of the trunk, then those of the head, and conclude with those of the extremities.

(1) The principal books of reference are, J. Weitbrecht, Syndesmologia, seu Bistoria ligamentorum corporis humani , Petersburg!], 1742. - Desmographie, ou Description des ligamens du corps humain , Paris, 1752. - M. Alberti, Natzliche Lehre von der Artikulationen des menschlichen Karpers, Freyberg, 1745.

Book III. Of Myology

§ 995. The general characters of the muscles( 1 ) have been mentioned in the first volume. We shall here describe only the voluntary muscles, and not all even of these ; but shall confine ourselves to those which move the bones ; the history of all the others being placed more conveniently after the description of the parts which they move, with which we must first be acquainted if we wish to have an exact idea of the attachments of the muscles and of their modes of action. The system of the involuntary muscles is distributed in the vascular system and the viscera, in describing which also they will be examined.

§ 996. We consider as single muscles all those parts of the muscular system which can be separated from each other without dividing the fibres. In this manner we count in the normal state two hundred and thirty-eight different muscles, six of which are unmated and composed of two parts which unite on the median line, and two hundred and thirty-two are in pairs ; so that the whole number of the muscles is four hundred and seventy.

The nomenclature of these muscles is not uniform : for a long time the inconvenient method of numbering them was used. It is, however equally inconvenient to establish 'a uniform principle of nomenclature in myology, by changing the names of the muscles into descriptions of their situations and attachments, as Dumas and Chaussier have done ; for then the extremely long and very complex names resemble each other loo much.

The muscles derive their names principally from their modes of action, their attachments, their form, and their volume.

(1) Among the descriptions we shall mention: Stenon, Elemenlorum myologiæ specimen, Amsterdam, 1669. — Douglas, Myographiæ comparâtes specimen , Leyden, 1729. — Garengeot, Myologie humaine et canine, Paris, 1728. — Albinus, Historia musculorum hominis, Leyden, 1734. — Duvcrney, V Art de disséquer méthodiquement les muscles du corps humain, Paris, 1749. — G. F. Petersen, Gründliche Anwiesung zu der Zergliederung der Muskeln des menschlichen Körpers, Hamburg, 1763. — J. Innés, A short account of the humanmuscles , Edinburgh, 1788. — J. G. Walter, Myologisches Handbuch, Berlin, 1777. — Sandifort, Descriptio musculorum hominis, Leyden, 1781. — Gavard, Traité de myologie suivant la méthode de Desault, Paris, an vii. — Fleischmann, Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Muskeln des menschlichen Körpers, Erlangen, 1811. — The principal plates are: G. Cowper, Myotomia reformata, London, 1724. — Myologie complète en couleur et de grandeur naturelle, Paris, 1746. — Albinus, Tabulée sceleti et musculorum corporis humani, Leyden, 1747.— Duverney, Tabules anatomicœ, 1748. — G. G. Muller, Jill. Kupfertafeln welche die meisten kleinen und zarten Muskeln des menschlichen Körpers vorstellen, Erfort, 1755. — J. Innés, Eight anatomical tables of the human body, containing the principal parts of the skeleton, muscles, etc., Edinburgh, 1776. — J. Bell, Engravings explaining the anatomy of the bones, muscles, and joints, London. 1808.— Lewis, Views of the muscles of the human body, London, 1820.

For the same reason that we commenced in osteology by describing the vertebral column, we shall mention first the muscles of the trunk, then those of the head, and lastly those of the extremities.

These three large divisions of the body, from the great number of their muscles and the different layers that they form, are usually subdivided into a greater or less number of regions ( regiones ), which modern writers have too extensively multiplied, by insulating the descriptions of the different muscles and by disregarding undoubted analogies.

When about to describe the muscles, a great difficulty presents itself relative to the order which we should adopt. Must we follow the anatomical order, which regards only the situation and the manner in which the different layers succeed each other ? or the physiological order, which is founded on their action, so that those muscles which should be considered together or immediately after each other, according to the first method, are separated from each other and allied on the contrary to others, which the anatomical order would separate from them ? Thus, for instance, many of the muscles which move the upper extremities are muscles of the back if we consider their situation ; so that they are generally referred to this region. The custom of considering the muscles according to their situation and the order in which they succeed each other is also proper ; since it presents all their relations more exactly and allows us to demonstrate the different layers in the presence of the pupil. This then is the order which we shall adopt, always however with the proviso mentioned above (§ 995).

Book IV. Angiology

§ 1293. The vascular system(l) is composed of a central part, the heart , whence all the blood departs and where all this fluid returns ; of vessels which carry it away, the arteries ; and of vessels which return it, the veins and the lymphatics. The last mentioned carry a fluid different from the blood, they are the annexes or appendages of the venous system.

(1) We have already mentioned (vol, i. p. 280) the most important works on the general conditions of the structure and external form of the vascular system in the normal and abnormal state. We shall now mention the principal descriptive treatises. They are,

I. Foe the whole system. - J. C. A. Mayer, Anatomische Beschreibung der Blutgefässe des menschlichen Körpers , Berlin, 1777, 1778. — F. A. Walter, Angiologisckes Handbuch, Berlin, 1789.

II. Foe the heart, - 1st. Complete description of this organ in all its parts, both in the normal and the abnormal state ; Senac, Traité de la structure du cÅ“ur, de son action et de ses maladies, Paris, 1747, 1778. — 2d. Complete description of it in the normal state ; R. Lower, Tractatus de corde, item de motu calore et transfusione sanguinis, London, 1669. — J. N. Pechlin, De fabrica et usu cordis, Kiel, 1676. — Winslow, Sur les fibres du cÅ“ur et sur ses valvules, avec la manière de le préparer pour le démontrer, in the Mémoires de Paris, 1711, p. 196, 201.— Vieussens, Traité de la structure et des causes du mouvement natural du cÅ“ur, Toulouse, 1711. — Santorini, Obs. anat ., Venice, 1724, ch. viii., Deiis quee in thoracemsunt . — Lieutaud, Obs. anat. sur le cÅ“ur, in the Mém. de Paris, 1752, 1754. — 3d. Development of the heart; Meckel, Sur l'histoire du développment du cÅ“ur et des poumons dans les mammifères, in the journal complém. du Diet, des sc. médic., vol. i. p. 259. — Rolando, Sur la formation du cÅ“ur et des vaisseaux artériels , veineux et capillaires, same journal, vol. xv. p. 323, vol. 16. p. 34. — Prévost et Dumas, Développment du cÅ“ur et formation du sang, in the Annales des sciences naturelles, vol. iii. p. 46. — 4th. Structure of the heart in respect to. the arrangement of its fibres ; C. F. Wolff, Dissertationes de ordine fibrarum muscularium cordis, in the Act. Acad. Petropol., 1780-1781, in the Nova act., vol. L-viii. — J. F. Vaust, Recherches sur la structure et les mouvemens du cÅ“ur, Liege, 1821. — S. N. Gerdy, Mémoire sur l'organisation du cÅ“ur, in the Journ. compl. du Diet, des sc. méd., vol. x. p. 97. — 5th. Pathological state ; A Burns, Observations on some of the most frequent and important diseases of the heart, London, 1809. — Pelletan, Mémoires sur quelques maladies et vices de conformation du cÅ“ur, in the Clinique chirurgicale, Paris, 1810, vol. iii. — Testa, Delle malattie del cuore, loro cagioni, specie, cura, Bologna, 1810, 1813.' — Corvisart, Essai sur les maladies et les lésions organiques du cÅ“ur et des gros vaisseaux, Paris, 1818. — Kreysig, Ucber die Herzkrankheiten, Berlin, 1814, 1817. — Laennec, De l'auscultation médiate , or Traité du diagnostic des maladies des poumons et du cÅ“ur, Paris, 1819, p. 195-445. — Bertin, Traité des maladies du cÅ“ur et des gros vaisscu. v, Paris, 1824.

III. For the arteries. - Haller, Icônes anatomicœ, Gottingen, 1745, 1756. — A. Murray, Descriptio arteriarum corp. humani tabulis redacta, Upsal, 1783, 1798. — J. F. S. Posewitz, Physiologie der Pulsadern des menschlichen Körpers, Leipsic, 1795. — J. Barclay, A description of the arteries of the human body, Edinburgh, 1818, 8vo. — Tiedmann, Tabulae arteriarum corporis humani, Carlsruhe, 1822, 1824. — Hodgson, Diseases of the arteries and veins.

IV. For the veins. - Besides the tables of Loder see Breschet, Sur le système veineux, now publishing.

V. For the Lymphatics. - The works mentioned in the first volume contain also a description of this system.

Book V. Nervous System

§ 1710. The nervous system(l) is generally divided into that of animal life and that of vegetative life, or into the cerebral system and the ganglionic system. Both are composed of an internal or central part, and of an external ox peripheric. But we have already mentioned the reasons which prevent us from drawing the line between these two systems as distinctly as is usually established. We shall discuss the question more fully when speaking of the great sympathetic nerve. We shall then consider the nervous system as a whole, divided into a centre and a periphery.

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