Difference between revisions of "Book - Evolution and Genetics"

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BY
London: Humphrey Milford
 
Oxford University Press
 
 
 
  
  
EVOLUTION AND
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[[Embryology_History_-_Thomas_Morgan|Thomas Hunt Morgan]]
GENETICS
 
  
  
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Professor Of Experimental Zoology
  
BY
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In Columbia University
THOMAS HUNT MORGAN
 
  
PROFESSOR OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY
 
IN COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
 
  
  
  
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Princeton
  
PRINCETON
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Princeton University Press
PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS
 
  
 
1925  
 
1925  
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==Preface==  
 
==Preface==  
 +
[[File:Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945).jpg|thumb|alt=Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)|Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)]]
 
THE third reprinting of the Vanuxem Lectures for 1915-16, entitled A Critique of the Theory of Evolution, having been exhausted, the publishers have asked for a revised edition. The revision is no less an attempt at a critique of the evolution theory than its predecessor, but, as the change in title suggests, greater attention is here paid to one of the most debated questions among evolutionists today, namely, the bearing of the recent discoveries in genetics and in mutation on the theory of evolution.  
 
THE third reprinting of the Vanuxem Lectures for 1915-16, entitled A Critique of the Theory of Evolution, having been exhausted, the publishers have asked for a revised edition. The revision is no less an attempt at a critique of the evolution theory than its predecessor, but, as the change in title suggests, greater attention is here paid to one of the most debated questions among evolutionists today, namely, the bearing of the recent discoveries in genetics and in mutation on the theory of evolution.  
 +
  
 
While in a general way Darwin's theory of Natural Selection is independent of the origin of the new variations that furnish it with its materials, yet the scientific formulation of the theory is intimately connected with the origin and inheritance of suitable variations. For instance, if most of the observed variability of animals and plants were due directly to the environment, and if the effects thus brought about were not inherited, such variability could no longer be appealed to as material for natural selection.  
 
While in a general way Darwin's theory of Natural Selection is independent of the origin of the new variations that furnish it with its materials, yet the scientific formulation of the theory is intimately connected with the origin and inheritance of suitable variations. For instance, if most of the observed variability of animals and plants were due directly to the environment, and if the effects thus brought about were not inherited, such variability could no longer be appealed to as material for natural selection.  
 +
  
 
Again, if the variations that appear as mutants are always defective types, they could not, even though they are inherited, be appealed to as furnishing material for progressive evolution.  
 
Again, if the variations that appear as mutants are always defective types, they could not, even though they are inherited, be appealed to as furnishing material for progressive evolution.  
 +
  
 
A discussion of these two problems in their historical setting is one of the principal themes treated in the following pages.  
 
A discussion of these two problems in their historical setting is one of the principal themes treated in the following pages.  
  
The four original lectures (chapters) have been subdivided and enlarged into thirteen chapters. Two of these are entirely new, one dealing with the noninheritance of acquired characters ( copied with slight changes from the Yale Review for July 1924), the other a criticism of the evidence of human inheritance. The somewhat acrimonious discussion taking  
+
 
place at the present time concerning racial differences in man, a discussion in which "nature" and "nurture" are often confused, mav furnish an excuse for the addition of this final chapter.  
+
The four original lectures (chapters) have been subdivided and enlarged into thirteen chapters. Two of these are entirely new, one dealing with the noninheritance of acquired characters ( copied with slight changes from the Yale Review for July 1924), the other a criticism of the evidence of human inheritance. The somewhat acrimonious discussion taking place at the present time concerning racial differences in man, a discussion in which "nature" and "nurture" are often confused, mav furnish an excuse for the addition of this final chapter.  
 +
 
  
 
T. H. MORGAN  
 
T. H. MORGAN  
  
March 1925  
+
March 1925
 +
 
 +
==Contents==
 +
 
 +
Preface v
 +
 
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 1|Different Kinds of Evolution]]
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 2|The Four Great Historical Speculations]]
 +
## The Environment
 +
## Use And Disuse
 +
## The Unfolding Principle
 +
## Natural Selection
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 3|The Evidence for Organic Evolution]]
 +
## The Evidence From Comparative Anatomy
 +
## The Evidence From Embryology
 +
## The Evidence From Palaeontology
 +
## The Evidence From Genetics
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 4|The Materials of Evolution]]
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 5|Mendel's Two Laws of Heredity]]
 +
## Mendel's first law
 +
## Mendel's second law
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 6|The Chromosomes and Mendel’s Two Laws]]
 +
## The Cellular Basis Of Heredity And Development
 +
## The Mechanism Of Mendel's Two Laws
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 7|The Linkage Groups and the Chromosomes]]
 +
## The Four Great Linkage Groups Of Drosophila Melanogaster
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 8|Sex-Linked Inheritance]]
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 9|Crossing-over]]
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 10|Natural Selection and Evolution]]
 +
## The Theory Of Naturxvl Selection
 +
## The Measurement Of Variation
 +
## Selection And Variation
 +
## Pure Lines
 +
## Genetic Variability
 +
## Conclusions
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 11|The Origin of Species by Natural Selection]]
 +
## The Diagnostic Characteristics Of Species And The Origin Of Species By Natural Selection
 +
## Chance And Evolution
 +
## Progressive Evolution
 +
## The Dominance Of The Wild Type Genes
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 12|The Non-Inheritance of Acquired Characters]]
 +
# [[Book - Evolution and Genetics 13|Human Inheritance]]
 +
## General Statement
 +
## Inheritance Of Physical Defects
 +
## The Four Blood Groups And Their Inheritance
 +
## Inheritance Of Other Traits
 +
## The Inheritance Of Mental Traits
 +
 
 +
[[Book - Evolution and Genetics - Figures|Figures]]
  
==Figures==
 
<gallery>
 
File:Morgan_1925_fig04.jpg|Fig. 4. Arm of chimpanzee and of man
 
File:Morgan_1925_fig05.jpg|Fig. 5. Legs of Five Mammals
 
File:Morgan_1925_fig06.jpg|Fig. 6. Male and female vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster
 
</gallery>
 
 
===Reference===
 
===Reference===
 
Morgan, T. H. (1925). ''Evolution and genetics.'' Princeton: Princeton University Press.
 
Morgan, T. H. (1925). ''Evolution and genetics.'' Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  
 
{{Morgan1925 footer}}
 
{{Morgan1925 footer}}

Latest revision as of 12:00, 20 October 2014

Morgan (1925) Evolution and Genetics: 1 Different Kinds of Evolution | 2 Four Great Historical Speculations | 3 Evidence for Organic Evolution | 4 Materials of Evolution | 5 Mendel's Two Laws of Heredity | 6 Chromosomes and Mendel’s Two Laws | 7 Linkage Groups and the Chromosomes | 8 Sex-Linked Inheritance | 9 Crossing-over | 10 Natural Selection and Evolution | 11 Origin of Species by Natural Selection | 12 Non-Inheritance of Acquired Characters | 13 Human Inheritance | Figures

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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
Evolution and Genetics (1925

EVOLUTION AND GENETICS


BY


Thomas Hunt Morgan


Professor Of Experimental Zoology

In Columbia University



Princeton

Princeton University Press

1925

Based on lectures delivered at Princeton University

Under the Louis Clark Vanuxem Foundation

February 24, March 1, 8, 15, 1916

Copyright, 1916, By Princeton University Press

Published October, 1916, As "A Critique Of The Theory Of Evolution"

Second Printing, September, 1917

Third Revised Printing, February, 1919

Copyright, 1925, By Princeton University Press

Second Edition, September, 1925

Preface

Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)
Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)

THE third reprinting of the Vanuxem Lectures for 1915-16, entitled A Critique of the Theory of Evolution, having been exhausted, the publishers have asked for a revised edition. The revision is no less an attempt at a critique of the evolution theory than its predecessor, but, as the change in title suggests, greater attention is here paid to one of the most debated questions among evolutionists today, namely, the bearing of the recent discoveries in genetics and in mutation on the theory of evolution.


While in a general way Darwin's theory of Natural Selection is independent of the origin of the new variations that furnish it with its materials, yet the scientific formulation of the theory is intimately connected with the origin and inheritance of suitable variations. For instance, if most of the observed variability of animals and plants were due directly to the environment, and if the effects thus brought about were not inherited, such variability could no longer be appealed to as material for natural selection.


Again, if the variations that appear as mutants are always defective types, they could not, even though they are inherited, be appealed to as furnishing material for progressive evolution.


A discussion of these two problems in their historical setting is one of the principal themes treated in the following pages.


The four original lectures (chapters) have been subdivided and enlarged into thirteen chapters. Two of these are entirely new, one dealing with the noninheritance of acquired characters ( copied with slight changes from the Yale Review for July 1924), the other a criticism of the evidence of human inheritance. The somewhat acrimonious discussion taking place at the present time concerning racial differences in man, a discussion in which "nature" and "nurture" are often confused, mav furnish an excuse for the addition of this final chapter.


T. H. MORGAN

March 1925

Contents

Preface v

  1. Different Kinds of Evolution
  2. The Four Great Historical Speculations
    1. The Environment
    2. Use And Disuse
    3. The Unfolding Principle
    4. Natural Selection
  3. The Evidence for Organic Evolution
    1. The Evidence From Comparative Anatomy
    2. The Evidence From Embryology
    3. The Evidence From Palaeontology
    4. The Evidence From Genetics
  4. The Materials of Evolution
  5. Mendel's Two Laws of Heredity
    1. Mendel's first law
    2. Mendel's second law
  6. The Chromosomes and Mendel’s Two Laws
    1. The Cellular Basis Of Heredity And Development
    2. The Mechanism Of Mendel's Two Laws
  7. The Linkage Groups and the Chromosomes
    1. The Four Great Linkage Groups Of Drosophila Melanogaster
  8. Sex-Linked Inheritance
  9. Crossing-over
  10. Natural Selection and Evolution
    1. The Theory Of Naturxvl Selection
    2. The Measurement Of Variation
    3. Selection And Variation
    4. Pure Lines
    5. Genetic Variability
    6. Conclusions
  11. The Origin of Species by Natural Selection
    1. The Diagnostic Characteristics Of Species And The Origin Of Species By Natural Selection
    2. Chance And Evolution
    3. Progressive Evolution
    4. The Dominance Of The Wild Type Genes
  12. The Non-Inheritance of Acquired Characters
  13. Human Inheritance
    1. General Statement
    2. Inheritance Of Physical Defects
    3. The Four Blood Groups And Their Inheritance
    4. Inheritance Of Other Traits
    5. The Inheritance Of Mental Traits

Figures

Reference

Morgan, T. H. (1925). Evolution and genetics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Morgan (1925) Evolution and Genetics: 1 Different Kinds of Evolution | 2 Four Great Historical Speculations | 3 Evidence for Organic Evolution | 4 Materials of Evolution | 5 Mendel's Two Laws of Heredity | 6 Chromosomes and Mendel’s Two Laws | 7 Linkage Groups and the Chromosomes | 8 Sex-Linked Inheritance | 9 Crossing-over | 10 Natural Selection and Evolution | 11 Origin of Species by Natural Selection | 12 Non-Inheritance of Acquired Characters | 13 Human Inheritance | Figures