Book - Contributions to Embryology Carnegie Institution No.56-1

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Mall FP. and Meyer AW. Studies on abortuses: a survey of pathologic ova in the Carnegie Embryological Collection. (1921) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 275, 12: 1-364.

In this historic 1921 pathology paper, figures and plates of abnormal embryos are not suitable for young students.

1921 Carnegie Collection - Abnormal: Preface | 1 Collection origin | 2 Care and utilization | 3 Classification | 4 Pathologic analysis | 5 Size | 6 Sex incidence | 7 Localized anomalies | 8 Hydatiform uterine | 9 Hydatiform tubal | Chapter 10 Alleged superfetation | 11 Ovarian Pregnancy | 12 Lysis and resorption | 13 Postmortem intrauterine | 14 Hofbauer cells | 15 Villi | 16 Villous nodules | 17 Syphilitic changes | 18 Aspects | Bibliography | Figures | Contribution No.56 | Contributions Series | Embryology History

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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Chapter 1. Origin of the Collection

The collection of human embryos belonging to the Carnegie Institution of Washington owes its origin to thirty years of untiring effort on the part of one of the authors (Mall). The first specimen was obtained while he was a student under Professor Welch in the Pathological Department of the Johns Hopkins University; very soon another, in excellent state of preservation, was added. After his (Mall's) transfer to Clark University in 1899, embryo No. 2 was studied and modeled in wax. This was the first reconstruction of a human embryo ever made in America and at that time the most elaborate one in existence. In 1890 this specimen was offered to Professor His, who refused to accept the gift, and returned it, together with several from his own collection, expressing the hope that this small number of specimens might serve as a nucleus for a much larger collection. With the subsequent foundation of the University of Chicago, the collection was transferred there, and during the following year a few additions were made. Now somewhat augmented, it was returned to Baltimore in 1893, at the opening of the Johns Hopkins Medical School, and here it grew for a number of years, at first slowly, then more rapidly, until it was finally taken over by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1915.


In the beginning each specimen was labeled with the name of the physician who donated it, but it was soon found that this method was not accurate. Bottles were easily misplaced and notes lost from the files were not missed unless marked with consecutive numbers. Therefore, after the collection had grown to about 100 specimens, a system of numbering, somewhat in the order of accession, was adopted. However, a review of the catalogue later disclosed the fact that some of the specimens collected at Worcester followed in numerical order those collected at Chicago, so that for the first 100 specimens the sequence of accession can not be viewed as chronologically reliable. From an examination of table 1, in which the specimens are arranged in hundreds (or centuries), it will be observed that the first century includes catalogue numbers 1 to 98, the second century, 99 to 205, etc. These numerical discrepancies are due to the fact that quite frequently the same number is given to two or more specimens, as illustrated in the first century; or, as illustrated in the second century, a number once used may be discarded subsequently because the specimen is found to contain no remnants of an ovum. The latter specimens are finally marked on the catalogue card "No pregnancy." In this way we have been able to retain in the catalogues of the collection ovaries and uteri from non-pregnant women. The second column of the table shows the time required to collect each 100 specimens. It took 10 years for the first, 4 for the second, and 2 for the third 100; but after the collection had been transferred to the Carnegie Institution, about 400 specimens were collected in one year. It will be observed also that approximately 60 physicians contributed to the collection of each 100 specimens, of which number 8 (or about 13 per cent) resided in hospitals. The last column of the table shows the territorial source of each century, representing an average of 18 States from which material has been drawn. Upon comparing columns 2 and 3, it becomes apparent that by far the largest portion of the collection has come from physicians in private practice. Yet nearly all of our perfect specimens were obtained from hospitals. This is easily understood when one considers that only when the operator is near can perfectly fresh embryos be secured. In several instances these have been brought to the laboratory still living.

Table 1. Showing gradual growth of collection

Mall Meyer1921 table01.jpg


Table 2 gives a list of the contributing hospitals, with the number of specimens from each. As would be expected, the majority of the specimens came from hospitals located in Baltimore; second in order is New York, and third Manila, Philippine Islands. Naturally, the Johns Hopkins Hospital contributes the largest number, for its work is intimately related to our own and the members of its staff frequently are interested in embryological studies, both in this laboratory and in the clinical laboratories of the hospital. Hence we receive all of the embryological specimens found at operation.

Attention is called to the large number of specimens emanating from a single hospital in Manila. This is due to the fact that this hospital numbers among its staff several graduates from the Johns Hopkins Medical School, and these have responded loyally to our request for Filipino embryos for a study of racial embryology.

Table 2. List of hospitals and laboratories contributing embryological material

Mall Meyer1921 table02.jpg


In order to obtain good specimens from hospitals, it is necessary that surgeons and pathologists connected therewith be sufficiently interested in embryology to preserve and transmit to this department any valuable specimens obtained at operations. Only in this way can we secure human embryos in as good preservation as those from the lower animals. It is very gratifying that in several instances authorities of hospitals have passed resolutions requesting the members of their respective staffs to send all of their embryological material to this department. Upon the receipt of a specimen it is described, the records filed, and a copy sent to the hospital. These records have in a number of instances enabled us to give expert information, especially in operations upon the uterine tubes in cases of doubtful pregnancy

Table 3 is interesting as showing the difficulties encountered by embryologists in collecting material. In our own experience we found at first that, although physicians seemed to be entirely willing to send specimens, we rarely received them; or, at best, only those which had been standing upon the shelves for years. These were badly preserved and of little scientific value, not only because the tissues were unfit for microscopic examination, but because histories were entirely lacking. Nevertheless, we always thankfully receive such specimens, and in return gladly send fixing fluids, write letters, and also send reprints of embryological studies to donors. In this way we have learned that a physician who will take the trouble to send one specimen is always willing to preserve carefully the next that falls into his hands, and, in the course of time, he naturally becomes a regular contributor. A number of physicians have been contributors for 30 years, and their unselfish efforts have been a great encouragement to us.

A glance at table 3 will suffice to show that over half of the specimens came from Maryland, and most of these necessarily from Baltimore; next in order is New York, and the third, Pennsylvania. The remainder cover widely scattered points, the first century being drawn from 21 States, the second from 29 States, the sources gradually expanding to include practically every State and Territory of the Union. From the beginning, a few have come regularly from abroad, so that now we have specimens from widely different countries. This wide distribution is due to the systematic circularization of the medical profession. We began by publishing letters of appeal in scientific journals, such as the American Naturalist; but as this was rarely seen by physicians it proved a waste of effort. Then, at the suggestion of Professor Minot, a number of articles were published in Wood's Reference Handbook in the belief that these would come under the eyes of physicians whom we hoped to reach; this plan likewise proved of little value. Finally, a circular was drawn up, widely distributed, and reprinted in most of the medical journals of the country. For a number of years our esteemed colleague, Dr. Howard A. Kelly, inclosed a copy of this circular with every one of his reprints.

Table 3. Sources of embryological material by states, cities, and countries

Mall Meyer1921 table03.jpg

This circularization, we believe, accounts for the responses we first received from distant and varied points. Furthermore, if the effort is worth while, as a collection grows a literature develops from it, and papers from studies of our own collection began to appear in rapid succession. Reprints of these were sent to all our contributors. This doubtless served to stimulate their interest and encourage others to send specimens, for in numerous instances physicians have written to us, at the suggestion of one of our donors, asking for information and instructions concerning the preservation and shipment of specimens. Thus, for a number of years our efforts were directed toward stimulating an increasingly large group of contributors, and we found that a succession of specimens from a physician .gradually improved in quality as his knowledge and interest increased. In the course of time certain contributors, who were especially interested in the work, developed contributing centers, so that in a few instances our collection has been augmented by a number of specimens received at one time from one or another of these centers. Aside from those in our own country, such a center was established at Manila, another at Shanghai, and quite recently one in Korea. The contributors at the last two points have carried their efforts to the extent of writing letters to the various Asiatic journals, requesting the preservation of embryos for this collection; and although unforeseen difficulties are to be overcome in Asia, we hope in the course of time to acquire at least a representative number of specimens from each of the important races.


It may prove helpful to others who are making embryological collections to state that the task will probably be simplified if they will focus most of their efforts upon the immediate territory. In this way a collector can doubtless secure all the specimens he can use and, in a way, pay his debt to the local profession by running a gratuitous pathological laboratory. The collection will thus be made a central point of interest for the physicians of the community who are scientifically inclined. Our many accessions from Maryland are due largely to personal influence through which the cooperation of the practising physicians of the Johns Hopkins Hospital was secured. We have also found that most of the physicians of Baltimore were not only willing but anxious to send specimens, especially from cases of repeated abortions. Usually a physician will bring his specimen directly to the laboratory, thus affording us an opportunity to show him what is done with it and thereby increase his interest. We do not receive all the embryological material available in the State of Maryland or in the city of Baltimore, but we do get a large amount from physicians practising among the poorer classes, as well as from gynecologists and obstetricians practising among the wealthier. Most of the specimens from the poorer people belong in the third to sixth month of pregnancy and usually appear normal; while those from the upper classes are, as a rule, younger specimens and most of them are pathological.


After our collection was well established we came somewhat in conflict with the department of health of the city of Baltimore, owing to the passage of a law requiring physicians to register all miscarriages and still-births. For a time it seemed as though this would place a ban upon collecting material in the city, but what appeared at first to be a hindrance later proved to be of great advantage and help; for the departments of health, both in city and State, have since been doing everything in their power to facilitate our work. This is well attested by the following excerpt from the Report of the Commissioner of Health to the mayor and city council of Baltimore, published in October 1913, and sent to every practising physician:

"We have through this monthly publication called attention of physicians to the requirements of the law concerning the proper registration of all abortions or still-births. We have told you that every abortion or still-birth requires a birth certificate and a death certificate. As in the application of many new laws, we have found that the practical working out of this one has produced occasionally some hardships, particularly on the poorer people, which if they had been anticipated could have been avoided by application for instructions to this department. So I take advantage of this month's publication to inform the physicians that it is not necessary to place their patrons to the expense of having a fetus, born during the period of gestation of less than five months, buried by an undertaker. Of course the body must not be disposed of in an irregular way, such as throwing it down a privy sink or burying it in the yard or cellar, as has been more or less common in the past, but if the fetal body is properly wrapped up and placed in a small box and sent to this department, along with the birth certificate and death certificate, we will see that the body is properly disposed of. I feel quite sure that this arrangement will meet, or certainly ought to meet, all the reasonable objections that can be brought against the enforcement of the new law.
"One word concerning the specimens desired by Dr. Mall of the Johns Hopkins Medical School. We want in every way to assist Dr. Mall in obtaining the specimens that he so much desires, and this regulation of the department does not in any way interfere with it, but probably may be just as easy and certainly safer in supplying the specimen. Whenever a physician has a specimen to transmit to Dr. Mall, it will not add much to the physician's trouble to stop at the Health Department, which is open at all times, to leave a birth and death certificate and get permission to leave the specimen with Dr. Mall."


However, this note delayed unduly the sending of young specimens and doubtful ones from operations, such as uterine scrappings and tubal pregnancies, and did not, it appears, encourage the reporting of abortions. Later the Department of Health of the State of Maryland permitted the filing of birth and death certificates after the specimen had been sent to this laboratory. Many more abortions are now reported than before, but in order to make the records more complete the following letter was sent out by the Department of Health in November 1916, to all practising physicians in Maryland :

"From information this Department has received, we are convinced that we are not receiving full reports of still-births. It appears that most physicians do not comprehend what is embodied in the term 'still-birth,' as used in the Registration Law of this State. For the purpose of learning the extent to which we should expect reports of still-births under this law, I have requested from the Honorable Edgar Allan Poe, Attorney General of the State of Maryland (1912-1916), a legal definition of the term, which I am enclosing herewith. You will note that it is required of you to make a report of all products of conception no matter how early. Every still-birth should, according to the law, be treated as a birth and a death; that is, there should be filed with the registrar of vital statistics for each still-birth, no matter how early, a certificate of birth and a certificate of death.
"The Department has learned that Dr. Franklin P. Mall has been endeavoring to collect embryological material for scientific purposes, and is particularly anxious to receive fresh specimens. This, or a similar procedure, is a permissible disposition of the materials in question, and physicians may forward that which comes into their possession to Dr. Mall, corner Monument and Wolfe Streets, Baltimore, provided that as soon as they have done so, they file a certificate of birth and death, in Baltimore City with Dr. John D. Blake, and in the rural districts with the local registrar of the district in which the birth occurred. The local registrar will issue a burial permit in receipt thereof, which permit should be forwarded to Dr. Mall immediately. When material is preserved in formalin or other hardening fluid before forwarding, or in instances when it is disposed of locally, a certificate of birth and death should be filed and a burial permit 'received thereon before it is disposed of. In any instance where a certificate of birth and death is not filed for a still-birth it will be treated as a violation of the Registration Act."


These instructions really make it easier for physicians to send specimens to this laboratory than to dispose of them otherwise, and we have found that the instructions of the State Board of Health have furthered our work greatly. All that is necessary is to file the birth and death certificates as usual and send in the burial permit, either with the specimen or shortly afterwards, and we file it. To make this clear, Dr. Frederic V. Beitler, chief of bureau of vital statistics, wrote us as follows :

"In answer to your communication of December 7th will say that all that is necessary for you to receive for a still-birth is a burial permit like the inclosed form, which you will endorse on the back as having received the specimen. At the end of ten days all the burial permits should be sent to this office.
"Ordinarily, when a body is disposed of it is necessary to obtain this permit before removing or disposing of it, but in order to facilitate the rapid transportation of specimens to your office, we allow physicians to register the birth and death without this permit. They should, however, register the still-birth as a birth and a death as soon as possible after forwarding the specimen and then send the permit by mail to you."

A specimen is of very little value, from a medical standpoint, unless accompanied by a comprehensive history. Hence, from the very beginning we have been making every effort to get full data regarding each specimen, with the intention of determining first its age, later the cause of the abortion. As will be noted in a subsequent chapter, the former question is approaching solution, but as to the latter we are still very much in the dark. The various histories given voluntarily by physicians have served as a basis for a history blank, copies of which have been sent out quite freely during the past five years. Since this blank has been in use our histories have improved greatly in value, and as the editions of the blank have been very small, we have been able to revise it once or twice a year. At the present writing it comprises the following data:


1. Patient's name.

2. Age.

3. Race (white or colored) - father/mother

4. Nationality - father/mother

5. Date of marriage.

6. Number of births at term.

7. Total number of abortions, including the present one.

8. Order of pregnancies, whether ending at term or in abortion.

9. Date of beginning of last menstrual period.

13. Data bearing upon the cause of the present abortion:

No data.
Associated with disease.
Probably induced.
Probably not induced.

14. Venereal disease - father/mother

15. In case of tubal pregnancy an account should be given of the condition of the ovaries, tubes, and uterus.

16. Has the mother, or any of the sisters of the patient, had abortions.

Physician's name.
Address.
In what fluid was specimen preserved.
How much time elapsed between abortion and preservation of specimen.


When a specimen reaches the laboratory acknowledgment is promptly made, accompanied by a history blank and return envelope. Invariably the physician will fill out and return the blank, and this also is acknowledged immediately. Any request made by the physician is noted and, in the course of time, whatever information we may be able to give is sent to him. In every case a summary of the description of the specimen is furnished him.


In tendering our thanks to the many friends who have helped in the upbuilding of the collection, we wish first to state that it owes its existence primarily to the encouragement given by the great Swiss anatomist, Wilhelm His, whose lively interest in it continued until his death in 1904. From 1889 until 1914 the late Professor Minot also aided us in every way possible, not only in studying our best specimens, but also in donating many valuable pathological embryos. His great collection of vertebrate embryos in the Harvard Medical School was likewise made at the suggestion of Professor His. It will be readily seen by the appended list of contributors that large numbers of specimens have been donated by certain individuals during the past 30 years. The names of Ballard, Boldt, Brodel, Cullen, Hammack, Hunner, Lamb, Terry, Titlow, Trout, West, and Williams appear repeatedly every year.


One specimen, a negro embryo (No. 460), 21 mm. long, is worthy of special mention at this time. It was obtained from a hysterectomy performed by Professor Thomas S. Cullen, was brought to the laboratory immediately by Dr. Elizabeth Hurdon, and received alive by Professor Sabin, who injected its bloodvessels, microscopically, with India ink and preserved it perfectly in a corrosive acetic solution. During the two years following, numerous surface drawings were made of this specimen by Professor Evans under the direction of Professor Brodel ; Dr. Essick and Professor Evans cut the embryo into a perfect series; and finally Professor Lewis made an elaborate set of models of the head to illustrate its anatomy.[1]


It is impossible to adequately express our obligations to our many contributors, most of whom are practically unknown to us; but we feel that in many cases we have made lifelong friends through an extensive correspondence. In general, the work on the part of these physicians is entirely altruistic, for they hold the firm belief that the material they gather will be of greater value to science if sent to an active laboratory than if retained as fine specimens in their own small collections. We have availed ourselves of every opportunity to accord recognition to the contributor whenever a publication, dependent upon his specimen, is made. Adequate return for the trouble he has taken can never be made, unless our work proves to be of sufficient value to make him feel that he has materially helped the progress of science.

  1. A paper dealing with the cartilaginous skull of this embryo has since been published by Dr. Lewis, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. No. 272. Lewis WH. The Cartilaginous Skull Of A Human Embryo Twenty-One Millimeters In Length. (1920) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 272, 9: 299-324.

List of Contributors

This list had been brought up to date by Dr. Mall when this chapter was written. It therefore includes only the donors of specimens received prior to 1918.

Practically all of the following are physicians, of specimens received: The figures indicate number

Baltimore City: M. Broedel 54, T. S. Cullen 44, H. B. Titlow 40, J. L. Truax 37, G. L. Hunner 34, E. B. Fenby 21, E. C. Lenhert 19, H. M. N. Wynne 19, V. N. Leonard 17, J. W. Williams 17, H. F. Cassidy 16, F. A. Conradi 16, E. J. Cook 16, A. F. Ries 16, W. T. Watson 15, J. G. Murray 14, G. G. Rusk 13, A. H. Schultz 13, J. C. Bloodgood 12, E. K. Ballard 11, G. J. France 10, A. B. Lennan 10, A. V. Zimmerman 10, C. N. Athey 8, L. E. Beach 8, H. M. Evans 8, Johns Hopkins Hospital 8, J. W. Schlieder 8, C. Vest 8, D. B. Casler 7, J. Girdwood 7, W. R. Holmes 7, J. M. Hundley 7, H. E. Knipp 7, W. W. Russell 7, H. N. Shaw 7, W. W. White 7, G. C. Blades 6, G. W. Corner 6, C. F. Coughlin 6, G. P. Evans 6, A. B. Lyman 6, M. Ostro 6, A. C. Pole 6, J. K. Seegar 6, W. G. Sexton 6, A. Wegefarth 6, G. Wilkins 6, W. D. Booker 5, W. S. Gardner 5, E. C. Gibbs 5, J. A. Luetscher 5, W. E. McClanahan 5, B. O. McCleary 5, A. W. Meyer 5, E. L. Mortimer 5, J. C. Neel 5, E. Novak 5, C. S. Parker 5, M. Rohde 5, J. W. Sanderson 5, J. B. Schwatka 5, W. Welch 5, J. H. Branham 4, E. H. Cullen 4, I. L. Fetterhoff 4, J. H. Groshans 4, J. F. Hemple 4, H. A. Kelly 4, I. Miller 4, J. H. Rehberger 4, A. Shelly 4, D. Silberman 4, J. Sperry 4, V. Van Williams 4, T. A. Ashby 3, J. Ayd 3, N. B. Bordensky 3, H. Briille 3, W. E. Byers 3, F. A. Carpenter 3, S. A. Dodds 3, W. A. Duvall 3, H. Forsythe 3, H. Fried 3, Gavin 3, F. A. Glantz 3, G. Goldman 3, H. G. Jones 3, W. S. Love 3, J. C. Lyman 3, J. A. Melvin 3, F. K. Nichols 3, E. H. Richardson 3, H. A. Rutledge 3, W. C. Sandrock 3, G. B. Scholl 3, G. Stickney 3, H. H. Arthur 2, R. P. Batchelor 2, C. N., Branin 2, H. T. Collenberg 2, E. V. Coolahan 2, G. C. Dohme 2, M. Flexner 2, C. M. Gabriel 2, H. J. Giering 2, Goldman 2, N. R. Gorter 2, W. Grant 2, Health Department 2, C. W. Hoffman 2, A. Horn 2, J. L. Ingle 2, Kemp 2, G. J. Lochboehler 2, A. M. McGlannan 2, R. W. B. Mayo 2, W. Neill 2, G. C. Ney 2, E. J. Russell 2, W. S. Seymour 2, M. E. Shamer 2, T. J. Simms 2, G. W. Simpson 2, A. G. Singewald 2, W. K. Skilling 2, M. G. Smith 2, G. A. Stewart 2, W. H. Strauss 2, A. Ullman 2, A. S. Warner 2, L. H. Watkins 2, P. Wegefarth 2, L. H. Wharton 2, K. M. Wilson 2, H. B. Athey 1, A. S. Atkinson 1, C. Bagley 1, H. H. Biedler 1, Billingslea 1, C. E. Brack 1, M. L. Brady 1, W. T. Carr Jr. 1, H. Chabot 1, J. W. Chambers 1, H. Gushing 1, G. W. Dobbin 1, W. M. Dumm 1, R. J. Erickson 1, C. R. Essick 1, J. M. T. Finney 1, J. Friedenwald 1, A. J. Gillis 1, F. C. Goldsborough 1, G. Heller 1, K. L. Hichew 1, J. E. Huiskamp 1, Jose L. Hirch 1, E. Hurdon 1, S. H. Hurwitz 1, E. H. Hutchinson 1, M. L. Ingram 1, C. K. Jump 1, L. Karlinsky 1, T. W. Keown 1, E. Kloman 1, II. C. Ivnapp 1, H. B. Kolb 1, A. J. Laciar 1, Maurice Lazenby 1, Little 1, J. G. Long 1, J. W. Lord 1, T. B. McCormick 1, D. I. Macht 1, T. H. Magness 1, A. H. A. Mayer 1, J. A. Miles 1, J. H. Mitnick 1, W. E. Moseley 1, Moss 1, J. E. Muse 1, L. E. Neale 1, R. B. Normant 1, E. D. Pleas 1, E. Plummer 1, F. Pollack 1, M. Raskin 1, J. N. Reik 1, F. R. Sabin 1, H. Schmeisser 1, W. J. Schmitz 1, A. W. SeUards 1, M. Sherwood 1, P. G. Shipley 1, C. E. Simon 1, F. R. Smith 1, G. A. Stein 1, A. R. Stevens 1, H. A. Stephenson 1, B. H. Swint 1, G. L. Taneyhill 1, F. N. Tanner 1, B. E. Taprnan 1, G. F. Taylor 1, R. T. Taylor 1, W. S. Thayer 1, M. H. Todd 1, Eugene Van Ness 1, A. Wanstall 1, W. T. Willey 1, L. R. Wilson 1, M. C. Winternitz 1, G. II. Woltereck 1, E. B. Wright 1.


Maryland: G. C. McCormick 81, G. H. Hocking 24, W. F. Twigg 12, F. Beitler 10, N. H. D. Cox 9, C. B. Boyle 8, C. M. Hanby 8, A. R. Mackenzie 8, W. J. Todd 7, J. W. Meade 6, W. P. Miller 6, F. W. Rich 6, C. M. Ellis 5, C. W. R. Crum 4, W. H. Houston 4, G. Steele 4, S. K. Wilson 4, J. L. Adams 3, T. H. Henderson 3, R. L. Hoyt 3, T. W. Linthicum 3, M. G. Porter 3, A. C. Swink 3, M. A. Birley 2, J. S. Bowen 2, F. C. Eldred 2, A. T. Gundry 2, W. M. Lewis 2, W. II. Morris 2, S. M. Wagaman 2, E. C. Wolff 2, J. H. Bates 1, J. C. Beck 1, C. H. Bee tern 1, T. Bra3 r shaw 1, G. L. Broadrup 1, W. D. Campbell 1, M. Colton 1, C. F. Davidson 1, H. P. Fahrney 1, F. R. Gough 1, J. O. Hendrick 1, R. C. Hume 1, T. W. Koon 1, H. W. Lankford 1, J. R. Laughlin 1, J. R. Littlefield 1, H. W. McComas 1, I. J. McCurdy 1, H. A. Mitchell 1, M. F. Merrill 1, Nihiser 1, D. N. Richards 1, J. A. Ross 1, Sampson 1, H. Schapiro 1, H. H. Simmerman 1, J. D. Skilling 1, L. G. Smart 1, Wallace 1.


New York: B. F. Terry 20, J. R. Losee 18, O. S. Lowsley 12, H. J. Boldt 9, C. R. Rynd 9, J. B. Harvie 7, W. G. McCallum 6, A. W. Elting 5, S. H. Gage 4, N. Jenison 4, H. D. Senior 4, L. J. J. Commiskey 3, F. R. Ford 3, W. B. Hetfield 3, D. Jurist 3, A. T. Kerr 3, A. H. Ritter 3, M. J. Ross 3, C. K. Winne Jr. 3, F. H. Church 2, H. I. Davenport 2, Simon Flexner 2, W. F. Jones 2, B. S. Kline 2, D. H. McGray 2, N. G. Orchard 2, R. Sanderson 2, E. Schwarz 2, E. M. Stanton 2, H. C. Taylor 2, M. Warren 2, C. A. Bentz 1, H. S. Bernstein 1, H. J. Chittenden 1, H. C. Coe 1, R. J. Cole 1, E. Comstock 1, C. W. Dodge 1, Edna D. Fiske 1, H. R. Gaylord 1, Burt D. Harrington 1, W. H. Haynes 1, H. von Hoevenburg 1, J. A. Hymans 1, Johnson 1, F. Kaminerer 1, E. Kellert 1, C. Kingsley 1, W. Kirk 1, L. J. Ladinski 1, J. S. Lewis 1, W. H. Licht 1, W. C. Lusk 1, McNaughton 1, Marney 1, Moffatt 1, E. M. Moore Jr. 1, W. L. Moss 1, C. W. Ottley 1, E. L. Robbins 1, J. A. Sampson 1, H. S. Steensland 1, A. R. Stevens 1, H. F. Swift 1, H. N. Vineberg 1, M. B. Wesson 1, G. H. Whitcomb 1, S. B. Wolff 1, J. Woodman 1.


Pennsylvania: P. F. Williams 12, J. M. Jackson 9, R. M. Pearce 7, A. C. Wentz 7, H. Leaman 6, W. H. McCurdy 5, H. S. Newcomer 5, John Harvey 4, H. D. King 4, I. N. Snively 4, E. W. Stick 4, W. C. Stick 4, J. E. Miesenhelder 3, I. Davis 2, T. H. Gilland 2, G. M. Gould 2, M. J. Locke 2, D. F. Unger 2, R. B. Varden 2, D. Dale 1, J. Y. Dale 1, German Hospital 1, M. S. Hardy 1, C. C. Hartman 1, Hoge 1, E. B. McGraw 1, J. H. Sieling 1, F. F. Simpson 1, A. B. Snively 1, J. S. Swartz welder 1, T. P. Tredway 1.


Connecticut: T. Wheeler 34, G. B. Cowell 6, E. J. O'Shaughnessy 5, W. H. Fairfield 4, E. A. Wells 4, G. W. Cox 3, T. J. Roche 3, D. M. Trecartin 3, H. M. Griffin 2, O. Ramsey 2, J. M. Slemons 2, Anderson 1, J. W. Churchman 1, F. H. Cooper 1, E. A. Deming 1, Formichello 1, C. C. Godfrey 1, R. G. Harrison 1, C. N. Haskell 1, E. B. Ives 1, H. B. Lambert 1, R. J. Lynch 1, E. F. Oliver 1, Stevens 1.


Michigan: G. L. Streeter 46, B. N. Epler 9, F. Shilleto 4, C. Brumme 3, E. H. Cullen 3, L. H. Stewart 3, L. W. Haynes 2, J. L. Robinson 2, E. J. O'Brien 1, L. S. Crotser 1, L. J. Crum 1, L. H. S. Dewitt 1, E. G. Knill 1, F. L. Pierce 1, H. N. Torry 1.


District of Columbia: D. S. Lamb 29, T. C. Smith 14, Gray 4, E. H. Egbert 3, R. Munson 3, H. L. E. Johnson 2, E. C. C. Winter 2, O. H. Coumbe 1, H. T. A. Lemon 1, G. F. Lull 1, W. A. Moncrief 1, G. B. Miller 1, M. M. Park 1, M. Parsons 1, B. F. Poole 1, M. B. Strickler 1.


California: A. Miller 30, R. W. Hammack 19, R. L. Jump 3, E. Rosencranz 2, J. C. Spencer 2, C. M. Faris 1, W. C. McKee 1, A. W. Meyer 1, W. L. Wills 1. Massachusetts: C. S. Minot 17, D. V. Adriance 2, J. L. Bremer 2, E. Morse 2, R. S. Perkins 2, R. F. Rand 2, E. M. Rockwood 2, A. W. Buck 1, M. S. Haynes 1, J. L. Huntington 1, M. W. Marvel 1, G. L. Richards 1, M. A. Southard 1, L. N. Wilson 1.


Philippine Islands: R. W. Hammack 25, C. Fernando 6, P. K. Gilman 3, B. C. Crowell 1, C. H. Manlove 1, D. P. Quazon 1, M. Quazon 1.


West Virginia: P. M. Barrett 21, H. G. Steele 3, F. K. Vass 3, G. Ackermann 2, D. D. Chapman 1, W. W. Golden 1, P. L. Gray 1, H. 0. Henry 1, D. J. Long 1.


Virginia: 3. M. Melton 8, H. B. Disbrow 4, C. 0. Miller 4, E. M. Hicks 3, J. S. Speed 3, W. H. Trout 3, W. E. Nesbit 2, A. G. Hoen 2, R. L. Rhodes 2, S. S. Gale 1, M. D. Hoge Jr. 1, C. S. F. Lincoln 1, R. H. Wooling 1.


Texas: W. W. Waite 22, W. L. Hart 3, H. W. Crouse 2, W. Wilson 2, Brown 1, F. L. Paschal 1.


New Jersey: G. N. J. Sommer 23, T. W. Harvey Jr. 3, J. L. Fewsmith 3, F. E. Chidester 1, G. K. Dickinson 1, Orange Memorial Hospital 1.


Illinois: L. L. Iseman 4, J. H. Bacon 4, R. T. Edwards 2, M. K. German 2, R. E. Larsen 2, G. W. Bartelmez 1, R. Dodds 1, E. C. Dudley 1, E. Dunn 1, H. F. Dunn 1, M. A. Fitzpatrick 1, S. C. Glidden 1, L. Hektoen 1, F. Holland 1, W. S. Lemon 1, Mitchell 1, J. F. Percy 1, W. Ryan 1.


South Carolina: G. T. Tyler 15, D. K. Briggs 4, L. Peters 2, C. O. 'Bates 1, W. M. Burnett 1, D. Furman 1, F. Jordan 1, Powe 1, P. G. Saussure 1.

Wisconsin: A. F. Fuchs 6, C. R. Bardeen 5, W. G. Darling 3, A. Egdahl 3, C. H. Bunting 1, G. L. Kaumheimer 1, A. S. Thompson 1, J. L. Yates 1. Maine: W. Tobie 14, G. M. Elliott 4, S. P. Warren 4, A. C. Ferguson 1, L. B. Hatch 1, B. Hunt 1, E. H. King 1, C. M. Swett 1.


Ohio: H. G. Sloan 4, W. Howard 3, C. A. Bowers 2, H. McE. Knower 2, C. A. Lamont 2, D. W. Boone 1, J. M. S. Heath 1, C. C. Jones 1, H. N. Mateer 1, R. G. Perkins 1, H. Robb 1, F. Schmitta 1, D. W. Steiner 1. Minnesota: B. J. Merrill 7, W. S. Miller 4, C. A. Roeder 3, E. H. Loufbourrow 2, F. C. Baier 1.


Iowa: J. L. Crawford 6, G. B. Ward 5, J. McMorris 2, M. Emmert 1, J. T. Miller 1, A. P. Stoner 1. Kansas: C. E. Caswell 11, M. Hahn 2, M. T. Sudler 1. North Carolina: R. B. Slocum 5, J. A. Ackerman 1, A. G. Can- 1, F. W. Griffith 1, F. H. Russell 1.

Canada: J. V. Graham 2, S. H. Quance 2, F. B. Bowman 1, D. A. Campbell 1, R. W. Large 1, R. L. McCrady 1, J. J. Sheehan 1. Tennessee: N. I. Ardan 3, W. B. Burns 2, W. T. DeSantelle 2, A. E. Douglass 2. Colorado: C. B. Ingraham 2, H. Sewall 2, W. Boget 1, F. N. Cochems 1, W. D. Fleming 1, C. Powell 1, M. R. Stratton 1.


Florida: L. A. Peek 4, E. G. Birge 2, J. C. Dickinson 1. Indiana: A. G. Pohlman 4, R. E. Troutman 2, N. W. Cady 1. Kentucky: J. R. Cottell 2, J. D. Hunt 2, H. A. Cottell 1, J. F. A. Flexner 1, M. Flexner 1. Utah: H. Jeidell 7.


Missouri: H. A. L. Rohlfing 3, A. C. Ames 2, A. C Eycleshymer 1. China: O.T. Logan 3, H. S. Houghton 1, C. H. McCloy 1, Li Yuin Tsao 1. Georgia: T. E. Oertel 2, J. R. B. Branch 1, C. W. Crane 1, C. A. Rhodes 1.


Oregon: W. J. Weese 3, E. B. Hughes 1. Idaho: C. L. Dutton 4. Montana: A. Poska 4.


Korea: R. G. Mills 2, J. W. Hirst 1, T. H. Daniel 1.

Alabama: W. A. Burns 1, H. P. Cole 1, F. A. Lupton 1.

New Hampshire: F. E. Kittridge 3.

Rhode Island: F. A. Coughlin 2, E. A. Stone 1.

Japan: S. Kioshita 3.

Arizona: J. I. Butler 1, C. E. Palmer 1.

Arkansas: M. D. Ogden 1, H. Scott 1.

Louisiana: E. Dreyfus 1, L. J. Genella 1.

North Dakota: W. H. Moore 1.

Nebraska: J. R. Blackman 1.

Washington: H. A. Wright 1.



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Mall FP. and Meyer AW. Studies on abortuses: a survey of pathologic ova in the Carnegie Embryological Collection. (1921) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 275, 12: 1-364.

In this historic 1921 pathology paper, figures and plates of abnormal embryos are not suitable for young students.

1921 Carnegie Collection - Abnormal: Preface | 1 Collection origin | 2 Care and utilization | 3 Classification | 4 Pathologic analysis | 5 Size | 6 Sex incidence | 7 Localized anomalies | 8 Hydatiform uterine | 9 Hydatiform tubal | Chapter 10 Alleged superfetation | 11 Ovarian Pregnancy | 12 Lysis and resorption | 13 Postmortem intrauterine | 14 Hofbauer cells | 15 Villi | 16 Villous nodules | 17 Syphilitic changes | 18 Aspects | Bibliography | Figures | Contribution No.56 | Contributions Series | Embryology History

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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)