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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Frazer JE. Buchanan's Manual of Anatomy, including Embryology. (1937) 6th Edition. Bailliere, Tindall And Cox, London.

Buchanan's Manual of Anatomy: I. Terminology and Relative Positions | II. General Embryology | III. Osteology | IV. Bones of Trunk | V. Bones of Head | VI. Bones of Upper Limb | VII. Bones of Lower Limb | VIII. Joints | IX. The Upper Limb | X. Lower Limb | XI. The Abdomen | XII. The Thorax | XIII. Development of Vascular Systems | XIV. The Head and Neck | XV. The Nervous System | XVI. The Eye | XVII. The Ear | Glossary
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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Glossary

Terms still in common use, though now ‘discarded are included in this list, with a certain number of proper names coming in the same category.

A

Abdomen, a word of uncertain derivation, but possibly from abdo, I hide or conceal.

Aberrant, wandering from the normal source.

Acervulus, a little heap.

Acervulus cerebri, brain-sand.

Acetabulum, a vessel for holding vinegar; a juggler’s cup. But used by Pliny to signify hipsocket.

Acinus, any juicy berry with stones — e.g., the grape; the kernel in the berry.

Acrocephalous, having a pointed or conical head.

Acromion, the point or summit of the shoulder.

Acusticus, a, um, pertaining to sound, or to the sense of hearing.

Adamantoblast, enamel germ cell.

Adductor canal, subsartorial canal.

Adenoid, glandular.

Aditus, an approach or access.

Adrenal, near to the kidney.

Advehens, carrying to.

Afferent, carrying to.

Agger, a mound or rampart.

Agminated, disposed in columns.

Ala, a wing.

Ala cinera, vagal triangle.

Albicans, white.

Albuginea, whitish.

Alcock’s canal, pudendal canal.

Allantois, sausage-like.

Alveolus, a little trough.

Alveus, a trough.

Amacrine, without a long fibre.

Ambiguus, dark, obscure.

Ameloblast, enamel germ.

Ammonis, cornu, horn of Ammon, who was represented as having the head of a ram.


Amphiarthrosis, literally, articulation on both sides. Secondary cartilaginous joint (fibro-cartilage).

Ampulla, a flask.

Amygdala, an almond.

Anastomosis, literally, an outlet; the communication of branches of vessels with one another.

Anconeus, pertaining to the elbow.

Ankylosis, bony union between two bones which are normally separate.

Annulus, a little ring.

Ansa, a handle, loop, or brace.

Ansa cervicis, ansa hypoglossi.

Anserinus, pertaining to a goose.

Antecubital, in front of the elbow.

Antibrachium, forearm.

Anticubital fossa, cubital fossa.

Anticus, in front, anterior.

Antinion, opposite to the inion.

Antrum, a cave or cavity.

Antrum of Highmore, maxillary sinus.

Antrum, mastoid, tympanic antrum.

Anus, a ring.

Aorta, literally, the lower end of the trachea; a carrier.

Apertura piriformis, anterior aspect of nose.

Aponeurosis, an expansion from a tendon.

Aponeurosis, lumbar, lumbar fascia.

Aponeurosis, pharyngeal, pharyngobasilar fascia.

Apophysis (‘ grow from ’), a process or swelling on a bone.

Appendix ventriculi laryngis, saccule.

Aqueductus cerebri, aqueduct of mid-brain.

Aqueductus Fallopii, facial canal. Arachnoid, like a spider’s web.

Arantii, corpus, nodule (in cusps of aortic and pulmonary valves).

Archenteron, primitive intestine.

Arcuatus, curved.

Area acustica, vestibular area.

Areola, a small open place.

Arnold’s ganglion, otic ganglion.

Arnold’s nerve, tympanic nerve.

Artery, literally, an air vessel; the trachea was known as the arteria aspera; a bloodvessel which carries the blood from the heart.

Arthrodia, from the Greek word meaning * a joint ’; applied to a gliding joint.

Arthrosis, plane joint.

Arytenoid, pitcher-like.

Ascending frontal convolution, precentral convolution.

Ascending parietal convolution, postcentral convolution.

Aspera, rough.

Asterion, a star.

Astragalus, the ankle-bone; a die (pi. dice); talus.

Atlas, a support; refers to Atlas, who carried the earth on his neck.

Atresia, imperforation.

Atrium, the hall in a Roman house.

Attic, epitympanic recess.

Attollens, raising up, elevating.

Attrahens, drawing to or towards.

Auditory, pertaining to the organ, or sense, of hearing.

Auerbach’s plexus, myenteric plexus.

Auricle, the external ear.

Auricle (O.T.), atrium (heart).

Auricular appendix (O.T.), auricle.

Azygos, without a pair, single.

B

Bacillary, pertaining to a small staff or rod.

Balanus, an acorn.

Barba, a beard.

Bartholin’s duct (great duct of Rivini),

principal sublingual duct.

Basilar, belonging to the base.

Basilic, royal, important.

Basion, base.


Bechterew, nucleus of, superior vestibular nucleus.

Bell, nerve of, nerve to serratus anterior.

Bellini, ducts of, terminal collecting tubules of kidney.

Biceps, having two heads.

Bicornis, two-horned.

Bicuspid (teeth), pre-molar.

Bigelow, Y-shaped ligament of, iliofemoral ligament.

Biventer, having two bellies.

Bowman’s capsule, capsule of glomerulus.

Bowman’s membrane, anterior elastic lamina of cornea.

Brachium, the arm.

Brachium conjunctivum, superior cerebellar peduncle.

Brachium pontis, middle cerebellar peduncle.

Brachycephalic, short-headed.

Bregma, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ to moisten/

Broca, area of, parolfactory area.

Broca, band of, diagonal band.

Bronchiole, a little bronchus.

Bronchus, literally, a draught; the windpipe.

Bryant’s triangle, (1) horizontal line from anterior superior spine; (2) vertical line from top of great trochanter; (3) line joining anterior superior spine to top of great trochanter.

Bubonocele, a variety of tumour in the groin.

Buccinator, a trumpeter.

Bulla, a knob; a bubble.

Burdach, fasciculus of, fasciculus cuneatus.

Burns, falciform process of (ligament of Hey), superior cornu of saphenous opening.

Burns’ space, suprasternal space.

Bursa, a sac containing fluid.

Bursa omentalis, lesser sac.

C

Cacumen, tip, peak, or end.

Caecum, blind.

Caeruleus, dark blue.

Calamus, a reed-pen.

Calcaneum, the heel.

Calcar, a spur.

Calcination, reduction to a powder (or line) by heat.

Calcis, of the heel.

Calix, a cup or goblet.

Callosal convolution, gyrus cinguli.

Calloso-marginal fissure, sulcus cinguli.

Callosum, hard, thick.

Calvaria ( calva , the bald scalp), the upper part of the skull.

Canalis reuniens, ductus reuniens.

Cancellated, lattice-formed, reticulated.

Canthus, the angle of the eye.

Capillary, pertaining to the hair; a vessel of hair-like minuteness.

Capitellum, a small head.

Capsular, suprarenal.

Caput gallinaginis, urethral crest.

Caput medusae, varicose veins radiating from umbilicus in portal obstruction.

Cardia, the opening of the stomach; the heart.

Cardiac, pertaining to the heart (originally to the stomach).

Cardinal, principal or chief.

Carina, a keel.

Carneae, pertaining to flesh.

Carotid, stupefying; or perhaps from two Greek words meaning ‘ head ’ and ‘ ear.’

Carpus, the wrist.

Cartilages, alar, lower lateral cartilage.

Cartilages, lateral, upper lateral cartilage (of nose).

Cartilages, Santorini, of, corniculate cartilage.

Cartilages, Wrisberg, of, cuneiform cartilage.

Caruncula, a little piece of flesh.

Caruncula sublingualis, sublingual papilla.

Carunculae myrtiformes, carunculae hymenales.


Cauda, a tail.

Caudate, tailed.

Caudate lobe (O.T.), tail of caudate lobe.

Cavernous, full of hollows or cavities.

Centimetre (cm.), § of an English inch.

Cephalic, pertaining to the head. Cerato, horny.

Ceruminous, pertaining to wax. Chiasma, two lines placed like an X. Choana, a funnel.

Choanse, posterior apertures of nose. Choledochus, bile-receiving. Chondral, pertaining to cartilage.

Choroid (Chorioid), like skin. Cinereus, ash-coloured.

Cingulum, a small girdle. Circumflexus, bent around. Circumvallate papillae, vallate papillae.

Cisterna, a cistern or reservoir. Clarke, posterior vesicular column of,

thoracic (dorsal) nucleus. Claustrum, a bulwark, barrier, or inclosure.

Clava, a club; gracile tubercle. Clavicle, from clavis, a key, or possibly a hoop-stick.

Cleido-, pertaining to the clavicle. Clinoid, like the knob of a bedpost. Clitoris, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I shut up ’ or ‘ enclose.’

Clivus, a slope.

Cloaca, a sewer or drain.

Coccyx, a cuckoo.

Cochlea, a snail.

Cochlea, membranous, duct of cochlea.

Cochleariformis, spoon-like.

Coeliac, pertaining to the belly. Colliculus, a little hill.

Colliculus, quadrigeminal body. Colliculus seminalis, urethral crest. Colon, the great gut.

Columns, rectal (Morgagni), anal columns.

Comes, a companion.

Comma tract, semilunar tract.

Complexus, literally, folded together; encompassing.

Concatenatae, chained together. Concatenate glands, deep cervical (lymph) glands.

Concha, a shell.

Condyle (‘ knuckle ’), a small round prominence covered by cartilage. Coni vasculosi, lobules of epididymis. Conjunctiva, connecting. Conniventes, winking or blinking. Conoid, cone-like.

Conoid tubercle, coracoid tuberosity. Conus arteriosus, infundibulum. Conus elasticus, crico-vocal membrane.

Convoluta, rolled together.

Coracoid, like a crow or raven.

Cord, vocal, false, vestibular folds. Cord, vocal, true, vocal fold. Cordiform, heart-shaped.

Cords (gangliated, lumbo-sacral, etc.), trunks.

Cornea, horny.

Corniculum, a little horn.

Cornu ammonis, hippocampus. Coronal, literally, pertaining to a crown; transverse.

Coronary, encircling.

Coronoid, like a crooked beak. Corpora albicantia (brain), corpora mamillaria.

Corpus (of long bone), shaft.

Corpus adiposum buccae, buccal pad. Corpus arantii, nodule (aortic and pulmonary valves).

Corpus cavernosum penis, corpus cavernosum.

Corpus cavernosum urethrae, corpus spongiosum.

Corrugator, a wrinkler.

Cortex, the bark or outer covering. Costal, pertaining to a rib.

Cotyloid, cup-like.

Cowper’s gland, bulbo-urethral gland. Coxa, the hip.

Cranium, the skull.

Crassum, thick, dense, or bulky. Cremaster, a suspender.

Cribriform, sieve-like.


Cribrosa, perforated with sieve-like pores.

Cricoid, like a ring.

Crista tuberculi majoris, lateral lip of bicipital groove.

Crista tuberculi minoris, medial lip of bicipital groove.

Crucial, pertaining to, or shaped like, a cross.

Crural, pertaining to the leg.

Crural canal, femoral canal.

Crural ring, femoral ring.

Crural septum, femoral septum.

Crus, cerebral peduncle.

Crusta, basis pedunculi.

Cryptorchismus, concealment of the testis.

Cryptozygous, hidden arches.

Cubitum, the elbow.

Cucullaris, pertaining to a cowl or hood.

Culmen, the top or summit.

Cuneate, wedge-shaped.

Cuneiform bone (hand), triquetrum.

Cuneus, a wedge.

Cupola, a dome.

Cymba, a boat or skiff.

Cystic, pertaining to the gall-bladder. The condition of a thin-walled swelling containing fluid or semifluid.

Cytoplasm, formative yolk; protoplasm in a cell.

D

Dacryon, a tear.

Dartos, skinned or flayed.

Deciduous, falling away.

Decussation of lemnisci (fillet), sensory decussation.

Deferens, carrying away.

Deiters, nucleus of, lateral vestibular nucleus.

Dens, odontoid process.

Dens serotinus, wisdom tooth.

Dentate fascia, dentate gyrus.

Descemet’s membrane, posterior elastic lamina of cornea.

Detrusor, from detrudo, I drive away.

Deutoplasm, literally, wet plasm; nutritive yolk.

Dia-, through or between.

Diaphragm, a partition.

Diaphysis grow between ’), the shaft of a bone, or the part which grows between the epiphyses.

Diarthrosis, an ‘ apart ’ joint— i.e., a ‘ free ’ joint (the articular surfaces being free to play upon each other); synovial joint.

Diencephalon, the ’tween-brain or inter-brain; thalamencephalon.

Digastric, having two bellies.

Diploe, a doubling.

Discus proligerus, cumulus ovaricus.

Diverticulum, from diverto, ‘ I separate/ or ‘ part/ or ‘ go a different way.’

Dolichocephalic, long-headed.

Dorsal, pertaining to the back aspect.

Dorsum, the back.

Douglas, pouch of, recto-uterine or recto-vaginal pouch.

Douglas, semilunar fold of, arcuate line.

Duct, nasal, naso-lacrimal duct.

Ductus deferens, vas deferens.

Ductus perilymphaticus, aqueduct of cochlea.

Duodenum, twelve (probably fingerbreadths) .

E

Ebur, -oris, ivory.

Eburnea, pertaining to ivory.

Ectopia, a displacement.

Efferent, carrying out.

Embolif ormis, beak-shaped or wedgeshaped.

Emissary, sent out.

Emulgent, milking, straining out.

Enarthrosis, ball-and-socket joint.

Encephalon, the contents of the head or skull.

Endocardium, ‘ within the heart ’; the lining membrane of the cardiac chambers.

Endognathion, literally, inner jaw.

Endosteum, ‘ within a bone ’; the medullary membrane.

Ensiform, sword-like.

Ensiform process, xiphoid process.

Entomion, a notch.

Ependyma, from Greek words meaning ' clothing upon/

Ephippium, a saddle.

Epi-, upon or over, above.

Epicardium, upon the heart.

Epididymis, upon the testicle.

Epiglottis, cushion of, tubercle of epiglottis.

Epiotic, upon or over the ear.

Epiphysis (‘ grow upon ’); a process of a bone which has a secondary centre of ossification.

Epiploon, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ to float upon/

Epipteric, upon a wing.

Epipteric bone, sutural bone at pterion.

Epistropheus, axis.

Epoophoron, above the egg-bearing organ.

Erythroblast, red (cell) germ.

Ethmoid, like a strainer.

Eustachian cushion, tubal elevation.

Eustachian spine (of medial pterygoid plate), processus tubarius.

Eustachian tube, pharyngo-tympanic tube.

Eustachian valve, valve of inferior vena cava.

Exognathion, literally, outer jaw.

Exomphalos, out of the navel.

F

Facet (French, facette, a little face), a small plane surface, usually articular.

Falciform, sickle-like.

Fallopian tube, uterine tube.

Falx, a sickle.

Falx aponeurotica inguinalis, conjoint tendon.

Fascia, a bandage, or a bundle of reeds.

Fascia bulbi, fascial sheath of eyeball.

Fascia, Camper’s, superficial layer of superficial fascia of anterior abdominal wall.

Fascia, Colies’, deep layer of superficial fascia of perineum.

Fascia, coraco-clavicular, clavi-pec toral fascia.

Fascia infundibular, internal spermatic fascia.

Fascia intercolumnar, external spermatic fascia.

Fascia, Scarpa’s, deep layer of superficial fascia of anterior abdominal wall.

Fascia, Sibson’s, suprapleural membrane.

Fasciculus, a small bundle.

Fasciola cinerea, splenial gyrus.

Fastigium, a roof.

Fauces, the throat.

Fauces, anterior pillar, glosso-palatine arch.

Fauces, posterior pillar, pharyngopalatine arch.

Fel, the gall-bladder.

Femur, the thigh.

Fenestra, an opening, a window.

Fenestra ovalis, fenestra vestibuli.

Fenestra rotunda, fenestra cochleae.

Ferruginea, pertaining to iron-rust.

Fibula, a buckle, clasp, or brace.

Fillet, lemniscus.

Filum, a thread.

Fimbria, a fringe.

Fimbriatum, fringed.

Fissure, a cleft or slit.

Fistula, .a pipe or tube.

Flechsig, tract of, posterior spinocerebellar tract.

Flocculus, a little lock of wool.

Fold, bloodless (Treves), ileo-caecal fold.

Fold, ileo-colic, vascular fold of caecum.

Fold, recto-vesical, sacro-genital fold.

Follicle, a small bag or sac.

Fontana, spaces of, spaces of iridocorneal angle.

Fontanelle, a small spring.

Foramen, an aperture or a hole.

Forceps, a claw of a beetle.

Fornicatus, pertaining to an arch.

Fornix, an arch or a vault.

Fossa, a ditch or trench.

Fossa, antecubital, cubital.

Fossa ovalis, saphenous opening.

Fossa, rhomboid, floor of fourth ventricle.

Fossa, spheno-maxillary, pterygopalatine fossa.

Fourchette, a fork.

Fovea, a small pit.

Foveola, a very small pit.

Frenulum, a small bridle.

Frenum, a bridle.

Frontal, pertaining to the forehead.

Frontal spine (of frontal), nasal spine.

Fundiform, sling-like.

Funicular, pertaining to a cord.

Funiculus, a slender rope, a cord.

Furcalis, pertaining to a two-pronged fork.

Furcula, a small two-pronged fork.

Fusca, dark or dusky.

G

Galactophorous, milk-carrying.

Galea, a helmet.

Galea aponeurotica, epicranial aponeurosis.

Galen, great vein of, great cerebral vein.

Galen, veins of, internal cerebral veins.

Gallinaginis, of a woodcock.

Gallus, a cock.

Ganglion, a swelling or excrescence.

Ganglion, aortico-renal, lower part of coeliac ganglion.

Ganglion, Gasserian, trigeminal ganglion.

Ganglion, jugular (O.T.), superior ganglion of ninth.

Ganglion, jugular (B.N.A.), superior ganglion of tenth.

Ganglion, lenticular, ciliary ganglion.

Ganglion, Meckel’s, spheno-palatine ganglion.

Ganglion nodosum (B.N.A.), inferior ganglion of tenth.

Ganglion, ophthalmic, ciliary ganglion.

Ganglion, petrous (O.T. and B.N.A.),

inferior ganglion of ninth.

Ganglion, semilunar, trigeminal ganglion.

Ganglion, stellate, first thoracic ganglion.

Ganglion, submaxillary, submandibular ganglion.

Gartner’s duct, duct of epoophoron. Gastric, pertaining to the stomach.

Gastrocnemius, the belly of the leg.

Gemellus, paired or double.

Geminus, twin or twofold.

Geniculate, knee-like.

Genio-, pertaining to the chin. Gennari, stria of, visual stria.

Genu, the knee.

Gerota’s capsule, renal fascia. Giacomini, banderella or frenulum, tail of dentate gyrus.

Gimbernat’s ligament, pectineal part of inguinal ligament.

Ginglymus, a hinge.

Ginglymus, hinge-joint.

Giraldes, organ of, paradidymis. Glabella, without hair; smooth. Gladiolus, a small sword.

Gladiolus, body of sternum.

Gland, Bartholin’s, greater vestibular gland.

Gland, Cowper’s, bulbo-urethral gland.

Glenoid, like a shallow socket.

Glisson’s capsule, hepato-biliary capsule.

Globosus, round or spherical.

Globus, a globe or sphere.

Glomerulus, a small ball of thread.

Glosso-, pertaining to the tongue.

Glottis, the mouthpiece of a flute. Gluteal, pertaining to the buttock.

Gnathic, pertaining to the jaw. Gnathion, the jaw.

Gomphosis, a bolting together. Gonion, an angle.

Gracilis, slender.

Grisea, grey.

Gubernaculum, a rudder.

Gula, the gullet.

Gustatory, pertaining to taste. Guttural, pertaining to the throat. Gyrus, a circle; a crook.

==H--

Habenula, a small thong or rein. Hsemorrhoidal, associated with haemorrhoids.

Hallux, the great toe.

Ham, a thing bent or crooked. Hamular, hook-shaped.

Harmonia, a fitting together. Hartmann’s pouch, sacculation at junction of neck and body of gallbladder.

Hassall, corpuscles of (thymus), concentric corpuscles.

Haustrum, a machine for drawing water.

Heister’s valves, spiral valve. Helicine, spiral.

Helicotrema, hole of a spiral.

Helix, a coil or spiral.

Hepar, the liver.

Hepatic, pertaining to the liver. Hernia, a sprout; a rupture. Hesselbach’s triangle, inguinal triangle.

Hiatus, a gap.

Hiatus Fallopii, hiatus for superficial petrosal nerve.

Highmore, antrum of, maxillary sinus.

Hilum, a little thing; a trifle.

Hippocampus, a seahorse. Hippocampus major, hippocampus. Hippocampus minor, calcar avis. Hircina, pertaining to a goat.

His, bundle of, atrio-ventricular bundle.

Homodynamic]

Homogenesis see Chapter I. Homologous )

Houston’s valves, horizontal folds of rectum.

Huguier, canal of, anterior canaliculus for chorda tympani.

Humerus, the upper part of the arm; the shoulder.

Hunter’s canal, subsartorial canal. Hyaline, glassv.

Hyaloid, like glass.

Hydatid, a watery vesicle.

Hydrocele, a watery tumour.

Hymen, the marriage deity.

Hyoid, like the Greek letter upsilon.

Hypo-, beneath or under.

Hypophysis, ‘ grow beneath.’

Hypothenar, beneath the palm of the hand.

I

Ileum, implying twists or coils.

Ilium, literally of the soft parts— i.e., of the flank; os ilium, the bone of the flank.

Ima, lowest.

Impar, dissimilar (in number), unequal.

Incisivus, cutting into.

Incisura jugularis, suprasternal notch.

Incisura scapularis, suprascapular notch.

Incisura semilunaris (ulna), trochlear notch.

Infundibuliform, funnel-shaped.

Infundibulum, a funnel.

Inguinal, pertaining to the groin.

Inion, literally, the occiput.

Innominatum, unnamed.

Insula, an island.

Intercalary, inserted.

Internodium, the space between two knots or joints.

Interparietal bone, membranous part of occipital as a separate bone.

Interpositum, placed between.

Interstitial, belonging to interstices or small parts between the main parts of bodies.

Intertubercular sulcus, bicipital groove.

Intumescentia, enlargement (spinal cord).

Iris, the rainbow.

Ischiatic, pertaining to the hip.

Ischium, the hip.

Isthmus, faucium, oro-pharyngeal isthmus.

Isthmus rhombencephali, upper constricted end of fourth ventricle.

Iter, a passage or road.

J

Jacobson, cartilage of, sub-vomerine cartilage.

Jacobson, organ of, vomero-nasal organ.

Jacobson’s nerve, tympanic nerve.

Jejunum, empty or hungry.

Jugal, yolking.

Jugular, pertaining to the throat.

Jugular notch (B.N.A.), suprasternal notch.

Jugum, a yolk.

K

Kerckring, ossicle, occasional centre in posterior margin of foramen magnum.

Key and Retzius, foramina of (Luschka), lateral apertures of fourth ventricle.

Kobelt’s tubes, epoophoron.

L

Labbe, vein of, inferior anastomotic vein (connects superficial middle cerebral with transverse sinus).

Labrum, a basin.

Lacertus fibrosus, bicipital aponeurosis.

Laciniosum, full of folds, indented, jagged.

Lacrimal, pertaining to tears.

Lacteal, pertaining to milk.

Lactiferous, milk-carrying.

Lacuna, a hollow or cavity.

Lacunee (of sagittal sinus), lacunae laterales.

Lacunar, pertaining to a hollow or gap.

Lacunar ligament, pectineal part of inguinal ligament.

Lamella, a small plate.

Lamina, a plate.

Lamina cinerea, lamina terminalis.

Lamina cribrosa, medial boundary of internal auditory meatus.

Lamina papyracea, orbital plate of ethmoid.

Lamina quadrigemina, tectum.

Lateral, on the side of. Used in reference to the sagittal plane of the body.

Lateral mass (ethmoid), labyrinth.

Lateral sinus, transverse sinus.

Latissimus, broadest.

Latum, broad.

Lemniscus, a ribbon.

Leptorhine, having small narrow nostrils.

Levator, a lifter or raiser.

Lien, the spleen.

Lieno-, pertaining to the spleen. Ligament, a band or bandage.

Ligula, a little tongue.

Limbic lobe, gyrus fornicatus. Limbous, pertaining to a border. Limbus, a border.

Limbus fossae ovalis (or limbus ovalis), annulus ovalis.

Limen, a threshold.

Linea, a line.

Lines, oblique (tibia), soleal line. Lines, oblique internal (jaw), mylohyoid line.

Lines (occiput), nuchal lines.

Lines, popliteal, soleal line.

Lingual, pertaining to the tongue. Lingula, a little tongue.

Lister’s tubercle, dorsal tubercle of radius.

Longissimus, longest.

Longitudinal sinus, sagittal sinus. Lower, tubercle of, intervenous tubercle (heart).

Lumbar, pertaining to the loin.

Lumbricalis, like an earth-worm.

Lunar, pertaining to the moon.

Lunula, a little moon; a crescent.

Luteum, of a yellow colour.

Luys’ nucleus, subthalamic body.

Lymphatic, from lympha, pure or spring water; lymph.

Lyra, a lyre; hippocampal commissure.

M

McBurney’s point (base of appendix), junction of lower and middle thirds of spino-umbilical line.

Macula, a spot.

Magendie, foramen, median aperture of fourth ventricle.

Magnum, os, capitate bone.

Malar, pertaining to the cheek.

Malar bone, zygomatic bone.

Malleolus, a small hammer or mallet.

Malleus, a hammer or mallet.

Mamma, a breast or pap.

Mammilla, a little breast or pap. Properly spelt mamilla.

Mandible, the chewing bone— i.e., lower jaw.

Manubrium, a handle or hilt.

Marshall, oblique vein, oblique vein of left atrium.

Massa intermedia, interthalamic connexus.

Masseter, the chewing muscle.

Mastoid, breast- or pap-like (nipplelike).

Maxilla, jaw.

Meatus (pi. Meatfis), a passage or canal.

Meckel’s cave, cavum trigeminale.

Meckel’s diverticulum, diverticulum ilei.

Mediastinum, standing in the middle; a partition.

Medulla, marrow.

Megacephalic, having a large head.

Megaseme, having a large index.

Meibomian glands, tarsal glands.

Meissner’s plexus, plexus of the submucosa.

Membrane, costo-coracoid, clavi pectoral fascia.

Meninges, membranes.

Meniscus, a crescent.

Meniscus (knee), semilunar cartilage.

Mental, pertaining to the chin.

Mesaticephalic, having a head with an index of mean value.

Mesencephalon, the mid-brain.

Mesentery, in the middle of, or among, the intestines.

Mesial, nearer to the sagittal plane of the body.

Meso-, in the midst of. In compounds usually implies a structure like a mesentery, a peritoneal attachment fold.

Mesocephalic, pertaining to a head of mean capacity.

Mesogastrium=meso- (q.v.) and stomach.

Mesognathion, middle jaw.

Mesometrium=meso- [q-v.) and womb.

Mesonephros, mid-kidney.

Mesorhine, pertaining to an intermediate nasal index; a condition intermediate between broad-nosed and narrow-nosed.

Mesosalpinx =meso- (q.v.) and tube.

Mesoseme, intermediate index.

Meta-, after or beyond.

Meta-nephros, hind-kidney.

Metencephalon, the after-brain.

Metopic, pertaining to the forehead.

Metopism, persistence of the metopic or frontal suture.

Microcephalic, pertaining to a small head.

Microseme, small index.

Middle commissure, interthalamic connexus.

Millimetre (mm.), slightly less than 2V of an English inch.

Minimae, least, smallest.

Mitral, resembling an Asiatic headdress, or mitre.

Modiolus, the nave of a wheel.

Molar, pertaining to a mill, or to grinding.

Monro, foramen, interventricular foramen.

Mons veneris, mons pubis.

Montanum, pertaining to a mountain.

Monticulus, a small mountain.

Morbus, a disease.

Muliebris, pertaining to a woman, feminine.

Miillerian duct, para-mesonephric duct.

Multangulum majus, os, trapezium.

Multifidus, many cleft; divided into many parts.

Musculo-spiral nerve, radial nerve.

Myelencephalon, marrow-brain.

Myeloplaxes, marrow-plates.

Myentericus, pertaining to the muscular tissue of the bowel.

Mylo-, pertaining to a mill.

Myocardium, the muscular tissue of the heart.

Myrtiform, like a myrtle-berry.

N

Nares, posterior, posterior apertures of nose.

Naris (pi. nares), a nostril.

Nasal, pertaining to the nose.

Natal, pertaining to the buttock.

Natis (pi. nates), the buttock.

Navicular, pertaining to a boat.

Nephros, a kidney.

Neural, pertaining to a nerve.

Neuroglia, literally ‘ nerve glue.’ Nictitans, winking.

Norma, a rule or measure (aspect).

Notochord, string or cord of the back.

Nucha, the nape of the neck.

Nuck, canal, vaginal process. Nucleus, a kernel.

Nuhn, glands, anterior lingual (seromucous) glands.

Nymphae, nymphs or goddesses of the fountains, woods, trees, etc.; labia minora.

O

Obelion, a horizontal line (perhaps a little spit).

Obex, a bolt; a barrier.

Obturator, one who closes or stops up.

Occipital, pertaining to the back part of the head.

Odontoblast, a tooth-germ.

Odontoid, tooth-like.

Odoriferae, carrying odours. (Esophagus, food-carrier.

Olecranon, head or point of the forearm.

Olfactory, pertaining to smell. Olfactory trigone, olfactory pyramid. Olivary, pertaining to an olive. Omentum, that which is drawn over.

Omentum, gastro - hepatic, lesser omentum.

Omentum, gastro-splenic, gastrosplenic ligament.

Omo-, pertaining to the shoulder.

Omphalo-, pertaining to the navel.

Operculum, a cover or lid.

Ophryon, the eyebrow.

Ophthalmic, pertaining to the eye.

Opisthion, hinder or rear.

Opisthotic, behind the ear.

Optic, pertaining to sight.

Optic thalamus, thalamus.

Ora, a border or margin.

Orthognathous pertaining to a straight (non-projecting) jaw.

Os incae, interparietal bone.

Os japonicum, bi-partite zygomatic bone.

Os magnum, capitate bone.

Os, oris, a mouth.

Os, ossis, a bone.

Os tincae, external os of uterus.

Ossicle of Kerckring, occasional centre in posterior margin of foramen magnum.

Osteoblast, bone-germ.

Osteoclast, bone-destroyer. Osteogenetic, bone-forming.

Ostium, a door, entrance, or exit. Otic, pertaining to the ear.

Otoconia, ear-dust.

Otoliths, ear-stones.

Ovary, egg-forming organ.

Oxyntic, producing acid.

P

Pacchionian bodies, arachnoid granulations.

Pacinian corpuscles, lamellated corpuscles.

Palatum, the palate.

Pallium, a covering.

Palmar, pertaining to the palm.

Palpebra, an eyelid.

Pampiniform, tendril-like.

Pancreas, literally, all or completely flesh.

Para-, near, by the side of.

Paradidymis, near the testis.

Parametrium, near the womb.

Parietal, pertaining to a wall.

Paroophoron, near the egg-bearing organ; medial mesonephric tubules.

Parbtid, near the ear.

Parovarium, epoophoron.

Pars intermedia (Wrisberg), sensory root of facial nerve.

Patella, a small dish; a plate.

Pecten, another name for the os pubis; a comb.

Pectinatus, pertaining to a comb.

Pectineal or Pectineus, associated with the pecten bone or os pubis.

Pectiniform, comb-like.

Pectoralis, pertaining to the breast.

Peduncle of corpus callosum, paraterminal gyrus.

Pelvis, a basin.

Penicillus, a painter’s brush or pencil.

Penis, a tail, or pendant process.

Peri-, around, about, or near.

Pericardium, around the heart.

Perineum, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I dwell, or am situated, around/

Perineum, central point of, perineal body.

Periosteum, around bone.

Periotic, around the ear.

Peritoneum, from a Greek word meaning ‘ stretched around/

Peroneal or Peroneus, ‘ pertaining to the peronee/ the Greek name for fibula.

Petit’s canal, zonular spaces.

Petit’s triangle, lumbar triangle.

Petrous, rocky.

Phalanx, a rank of soldiers.

Pharynx, the throat.

Phenozygous, having visible arches.

Philtrum, a love potion.

Phrenic, pertaining to the diaphragm.

Pineal, belonging to, or like, a pinenut or pine-cone.

Pinna, a kind of shell-fish; a feather or wing.

Pisiform, like a pea.

Pituitary, pertaining to phlegm or mucus; hypophysis.

Placenta, a flat cake.

Plagiocephalous, pertaining to an oblique or twisted head.

Planta, the sole of the foot.

Plantar, pertaining to the sole of the foot.

Platycnemism, broadness of leg.

Platyrhine, having a broad nose.

Platysma, a broad sheet.

Pleura, a rib.

Plexus, a twining or network.

Plexus, Auerbach’s, myenteric plexus. Plexus, gulae, cesophageal plexus. Plexus, Meissner’s, plexus of the submucosa.


Plica, a fold.

Plica hypogastrica, lateral umbilical fold.

Plica urachi, median umbilical fold.

Plicae palmatae (uterus), arbor vitae.

Pneumogastric, pertaining to the breathing organs and stomach.

Pocularis, pertaining to a cup.

Pollex, the thumb.

Pomum Adami, laryngeal prominence.

Pons, a bridge.

Popliteal or Popliteus, pertaining to the ham.

Porta, a gate.

Portal, pertaining to a gate.

Portio major and minor, sensory and motor roots of trigeminal nerve.

Postaxiah r , , T Preaxial / see Cha P ter L

Posterior vesicular column (Clarke), thoracic (or dorsal) nucleus.

Posticus, posterior.

Poupart’s ligament, inguinal ligament.

Primary divisions (of spinal nerves), anterior and posterior rami.

Proctodaeum, the threshold of the anus.

Prognathous, having a projecting lower jaw.

Proligerus, bearing offspring; germinating.

Pro-nephros, fore-kidney.

Pro-otic, before the ear.

Prosencephalon, the fore-brain.

Prostate, standing before; or, more probably, pertaining to a porch or vestibule.

Psalterium, a psaltery or instrument of the lute kind.

Psalterium (lyra), hippocampal commissure.

Psoas, from a Greek word meaning the muscles of the loins,’ and secondarily ‘ the loins themselves.’

Pterion, a wing.

Pterotic, pertaining to a wing. Pterygoid, wing-like.

Pubes, the hair which appears on the external genital organs at the age of puberty.

Pubic, pertaining to the os pubis. Pudendal, pertaining to the pudendum.

Pudendum, ‘ of which one ought to be ashamed.’

Pudic, modest or chaste.

Pulmo, a lung.

Pulmonary, belonging to the lungs.

Pulvinar, a couch or cushion,

Putamen, trimmings or clippings.

Pyloric vestibule, pyloric antrum.

Pylorus, literally, a gate-keeper.

Pyriformis, pear-shaped.

Q

Quadratus, square.

Quadriceps, having four heads.

Quadrigeminus, fourfold, four.

R

Racemose, pertaining to a cluster of grapes; full of clusters; clustering.

Radius, a staff or rod; the spoke of a wheel.

Ramus, a branch.

Ranine, pertaining to a frog.

Raphe, a seam.

Receptaculum, a receptacle.

Receptaculum chyli, cisterna chyli.

Rectus, straight.

Recurrent, running back.

Refractory, breaking up.

Reil, island of, insula.

Ren, a kidney.

Restiform, like a rope or cord.

Restiform body, inferior cerebellar peduncle.

Rete, a net.

Retina, from rete, a net.

Retrahens, drawing back.

Retzius, cave, retro-pubic space.

Revehens, carrying back.

Rhinencephalon, the ‘ nose ’ or olfactory brain.

Rhinion, a nose.

Rhombencephalon, the rhomb-brain (hind-brain).

Rhomboid ligament, costoclavicular ligament.

Riedel’s lobe, an elongation of lower margin of right lobe of liver (due to pressure).

Rima, a cleft or chink.

Risorius, laughing.

Rivini, ducts, sublingual ducts.

Rolando, fissure, central sulcus.

Rostrum, a beak.

Rotula, a little wheel.

Rugae, wrinkles.

S

Saccus reuniens, sinus venosus (heart).

Sacrum, sacred; derivation and original meaning very doubtful.

Sagittal, pertaining to an arrow; antero-posterior.

Salpinx, a trumpet or tube.

Salvatella, saving, or making well.

Santorini, cartilages, corniculate cartilages.

Santorini, duct, accessory pancreatic duct.

Santorini, fissures, clefts in cartilage of exterior auditory meatus.

Saphenous, apparent, manifest.

Sartorius, pertaining to a tailor.

Scala, a ladder, flight of steps, or staircase.

Scala media, duct of cochlea.

Scalenus, of unequal sides.

Scansorius, of, or for, climbing.

Scaphocephalous, having a head like a boat.

Scaphoid, like a boat.

Scapula, a spade; probably from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I dig/

Scarpa’s triangle, femoral triangle.

Schlemm, canal, sinus venosus sclerae.

Schindylesis, a splitting or cleavage.

Sciatic (identical with Ischiatic), pertaining to the hip.

Sclera, hard.

Sclerotic, hard; sclera.

Scrobiculus, a little ditch or trench.

Scrotum, a skin bag or pouch; a hide (probably originally ‘ scortum J ).

Sebaceous, pertaining to grease. Sella, a seat; a saddle.

Semilunar bone, lunate.

Semilunar fold of Douglas, arcuate line.

Seminalis, pertaining to semen. Septum, a fence or barrier.

Serotinus, that comes or happens late.

Serratus, jagged like a saw.

Sesamoid, like sesame (a kind of grain).

Shrapnell’s membrane, flaccid part of membrana tympani.

Sibson’s fascia, suprapleural membrane.

Sigmoid, like the Greek letter S (sigma).

Sigmoid cavity, greater, trochlear notch.

Sigmoid cavity, lesser, radial notch.

Sigmoid cavity (of radius), ulnar notch.

Sigmoid notch (mandible), mandibular notch.

Sinus, a cavity or hollow.

Sinus, Valsalva, of, sinuses of aorta. Smegma, a cleanser.

Solar, relating to the sun.

Solar plexus, coeliac plexus.

Soleus, a sole or sandal; a sole-fish. Sperma, seed or semen.

Spermatic, pertaining to semen.

Spermatoblast, a seminal bud.

Spermatozoa (plural), seminal animals.

Sphenoid, wedge-like. Spheno-maxillary fossa, pterygopalatine fossa.

Sphenotic, pertaining to the sphenoid bone and ear-capsule.

Sphincter, binding or closing tight.

Spigelian lobe, caudate lobe.

Splanchnic, pertaining to viscera.

Splenium, a bandage or compress.

Splenius, pertaining to a bandage. Squamous, scaly.

Stapes, a stirrup.

Stellatum, starry.

Stensen’s duct, parotid duct.

Stephanion, a crown or wreath.

Sternebra, a segment of the sternum.

Sternum, the breast or chest.

Stomata, mouths or pores.

Stomatodaeum or Stomodaeum, the threshold of the mouth.

Stria medullaris, stria habenularis.

Striae acusticae, auditory striae.

Striae medullares, auditory striae.

Styloid, pen-like.

Subflava, somewhat yellow.

Subiculum, an under layer or support.

Submaxillary, submandibular.

Substantia gelatinosa (Roland), gelatinous matter.

Sudoriferous, sweat-carrying.

Sulcus, a furrow.

Supercilium, an eyebrow.

Supracallosal gyrus, indusium griseum.

Sural, pertaining to the calf of the leg.

Sustentaculum, a prop or support.

Sustentaculum lienis, phrenico-colic ligament.

Suture, a sewing together, a seam.

Sylvius, aqueduct, aqueduct of midbrain.

Symphysis, growth together.

Syn-, with; together with (union or harmony may be implied).

Synarthrosis, literally, a * together with ' (direct) joint; fibrous joint.

Synchondrosis, bound together with cartilage; cartilaginous joint.

Syndesmosis, bound together with bands or bonds.

Synovia, resemblance to the white of an egg.

T

Taenia, a band or ribbon.

Talus, a die (pi. dice); the ankle-bone.

Tapetum, a carpet or coverlet.

Tarsus, a broad flat surface; the instep.

Tectorius, pertaining to a cover.

Tegmen, a covering.

Tegmentum, a covering.

Tela, a web.

Telencephalon, the end-brain.

Temporal, pertaining to the temples of the head.

Tendo Achillis, tendo calcaneus.

Tendon, from tendo, ‘ I stretch.’

Tenon’s capsule, fascial sheath of eyeball.

Tentorium, a tent.

Tenuis, slender, small.

Teres, rounded.

Testis, a witness.

Thalamencephalon, the bedchamberbrain, or inter-brain.

Thalamus, a bedchamber; a marriage-bed.

Thebesian valve, valve of coronary sinus.

Thebesian veins, venae cordis minimae.

Theca, a cover, case, or sheath.

Thenar, the flat of the hand.

Thorax, the breast or chest; a breastplate.

Thymus, thyme.

Thyroid, like a shield.

Tibia, a pipe or flute; the shin-bone.

Tinea, a small fish, perhaps the tench.

Tonsil, palatine, tonsil.

Tonsil, pharyngeal, naso-pharyngeal tonsil.

Torcular, a wine-press (twisting is implied).

Torcular Herophili, confluens sinuum.

Torus, a protuberance.

Torus tubarius, tubal elevation.

Trabecula, a little beam.

Trachea (‘ rough ’), the wind-pipe.

Trachelo-, belonging to the neck.

Tragus, a goat.

Trapezium, a table; a four-sided, figure, no two sides of which are parallel to one another.

Trefoil, having three leaves.

Treitz, muscle, suspensory muscle of duodenum.

Treves, bloodless fold of, ileo-csecal fold.

Triangular fascia, reflected part of inguinal ligament.

Triangular fibro-cartilage, articular disc.

Triangular ligament, inferior or superficial layer; perineal membrane.

Triceps, having three heads.

Trigeminus, threefold, triple.

Trigdnocephalus, a triangular head.

Trigonum, a triangle; triangular.

Triquetrum, three-cornered; triangular.

Triticea, wheaten, or like a grain of wheat.

Trochanter, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I roll, turn, or revolve.'

Trochlea, the wheel of a pulley.

Trochlear, pulley-shaped.

Trochlearthrosis, a pulley-joint.

Trochoides, wheel-like.

Trolard, vein of, superior anastomotic vein.

Tuba, a trumpet.

Tubarius, pertaining to a trumpet.

Tube, auditory, pharyngo-tympanic tube.

Tube, Eustachian, pharyngo-tympanic tube.

Tubercle, a small swelling.

Tubercle, articular, articular eminence.

Tubercle, greater multangular, of,

crest of trapezium.

Tubercle, Lister’s, dorsal tubercle of radius.

Tubercle, Lower, of, intervenous tubercle (heart).

Tubercle, radial, dorsal tubercle of radius.

Tuberosity, an exaggerated tubercle.

Turbinals or turbinate bones, conchse.

Turbinate, whirled or coiled; like a top.

Turbo, a whirl or coil; a top.

Turcica, Turkish.

Tympanum, a drum.

U

Ulna, the elbow, but more usually the forearm.

Umbilicus, the navel.

Umbo, a boss or knob.

Unciform, hook-like.

Unciform bone, hamate.

Uncinate, furnished with a hook.

Ungual, relating to a nail.

Unguis, a nail.

Unicornis, one-horned.

Urachus, urine-holder.

Ureter, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I pass urine.'

Urethra, the canal by which urine is passed.

Uriniferous, urine-carrying.

Uterus, the womb or matrix.

Uterus masculinus, prostatic utricle. Utricle, a little womb or matrix. Uvea, from uva, a bunch of grapes; a cluster.

Uvula, a small bunch of grapes.

V

Vagina, a scabbard or sheath.

Vagus, strolling about, wandering, vagrant.

Valgus, bow-legged.

Vallecula, a little valley.

Vallecula Sylvii, vallecula cerebri. Vallum, a rampart.

Valsalva, sinuses, sinuses of aorta. Valve, bicuspid, left atrio-ventricular valve.

Valve, Eustachian, valve of inferior vena cava.

Valve, ileo-caecal, ileo-colic valve. Valve, mitral, left atrio-ventricular valve.

Valve, Thebesian, valve of coronary sinus.

Valve, tricuspid, right atrio-ventricular valve (cusps are anterior inferior medial).

Valve, Vieussens, superior medullary velum.

Varus, bent or turned inwards.

Vas (pi. vasa), a vessel.

Velum, a curtain or veil.

Velum interpositum, tela choroidea. Velum palatinum, soft palate. Veneris, ' of Venus.’

Ventral, pertaining to the belly. Ventricle of larynx, sinus of larynx. Vermiform, like a worm.

Vertebra, primarily means a joint, but more particularly a joint of the spine.

Vertex, the top or crown of the head.

Veru, a dart, javelin, or spear.

Verumontanum, urethral crest.

Vesalii, foramen, emissary sphenoidal foramen.

Vesica, the urinary bladder.

Vesical, pertaining to the urinary bladder.

Vespertilio, a bat.

Vestibular nucleus, principal or dorsal; medial nucleus.

Vestigial, pertaining to a trace.

Vestigium, a trace or vestige.

Vibrissa, a stiff hair of the nostril.

Vicq d’Azyr, bundle of, mamillothalamic tract.

Vidian canal, pterygoid canal.

Vidian nerve, nerve of pterygoid canal.

Vieussens, ansa of, ansa subclavia.

Vieussens, valve, superior medullary velum.

Villus, shaggy hair; a tuft of hair.

Vinculum, a band or bond.

Vitelline, pertaining to the yolk of an egg.

Vitellus, the yolk of an egg.

Vitreous, like glass, glassy.

Vola, the palm of the hand.

Volar, pertaining to the palm; palmar, or anterior.

Vomer, a ploughshare.

Vorticosse, full of whirlpools, eddying, coiled.

Vulva, a wrapper or covering.

W

Wharton’s duct, submandibular duct.

Willis, circle of, circulus arteriosus.

Winslow, foramen, opening of lesser sac.

Winslow, ligament, oblique posterior ligament of knee.

Wirsung, duct, pancreatic duct.

Wolffian duct, mesonephric duct.

Wood’s muscle, abductor metatarsi quinti.

Wormian bones, sutural bones.

Wrisberg, cartilage, cuneiform cartilage.

Wrisberg, ligament, accessory attachment of lateral semilunar cartilage.

Wrisberg, nerve, medial cutaneous nerve of arm.

X

Xiphoid, like a sword.

Y

Y-shaped ligament of Bigelow, iliofemoral ligament.

Z

Zinn, inferior tendon or ligament (eye), lower part of common tendinous ring.

Zinn, zonule, ciliary zonule.

Zygoma, a yoke.


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