Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain

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Sabin FR. and Knower H. An atlas of the medulla and midbrain, a laboratory manual (1901) Baltimore: Friedenwald.

Online Editor  
Mark Hill.jpg
This 1901 book by Florence Rena Sabin (1871 - 1953) and her collaborator presents one of the very earliest atlases of the human central nervous system, describing the midbrain and brainstem. This atlas was extremely useful for later researchers attempting to both understand the development and mapping of the midbrain and medulla. Florence Sabin later work was as a key historic researcher in early 1900's establishing our early understanding of both vascular and lymphatic development in the embryo.



Modern Notes: Medulla | Mesencephalon | Florence Sabin

Neural Links: ectoderm | neural | neural crest | ventricular | sensory | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | neural postnatal | neural examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural


Neural Tube Development
Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Brain
prosencephalon (forebrain) telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, hippocampus, cerebrum (cortex), hypothalamus‎, pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
diencephalon epithalamus, thalamus, Subthalamus, pineal, posterior commissure, pretectum, third ventricle
mesencephalon (midbrain) mesencephalon tectum, Cerebral peduncle, cerebral aqueduct, pons
rhombencephalon (hindbrain) metencephalon cerebellum
myelencephalon medulla oblongata, isthmus
spinal cord, pyramidal decussation, central canal
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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


AN ATLAS OF THE MEDULLA AND MIDBRAIN

By Florence R. Sabin


A LABORATORY MANUAL

ILLUSTRATED WITH SEVEN COLORED PLATES, ONE BLACK PLATE AND FIFTY-TWO FIGURES


EDITED BY


Henry McE. Knower, PH.D.

Instructor in Anatomy in the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.


BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A.

THE FRIEDENWALD COMPANY

PUBLISHERS

1901


COPYRIGHT, 1901, BY FLORENCE R. SABIN


THE FRIEDENWALD COMPANY BALTIMORE, MD M U. S. A.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Editor's Preface

This Atlas is planned to meet the practical need of some quick and simple, yet full and reliable, means of aiding the student to obtain, from a few sections (or from a series of sections), a reasonably clear idea of the important central relay-station of the brain here presented. (Though representing the human brain, the atlas can be applied to the study of the brains of lower mammals.)

The time allotted to a course in Neurology is generally so short; the sections to be studied exhibit such great special complexity of structure, due to the presence and association of many different centres in the narrow limits of the region; and the descriptions in text-books or lectures are commonly so detailed, or so general or diagrammatic; that many students get but hazy ideas of what is shown in their preparations, without spending more time in the effort than is reasonable.

We believe, and a number of well-known teachers in several of our large universities have agreed in this opinion, that this little Atlas will offer a valuable and new remedy for the difficulties stated above; and will save the student much time for real study, now often spent in getting started.

Supplied with these excellent drawings of the reconstruction, showing for the first time accurately and satisfactorily structures to be studied, the student can quickly compare his own sections with the figures of the Atlas and find the parts there clearly designated and explained.

Again, if, as is usually the case, a student has only a few cross -J-Tiio -narnrvn + Vi a A+laa with if.a 4-8 fiomrPS of


At the urgent solicitation of Professor Ph. Stohr, of Wiirzburg, Germany, Dr. F Ziegler, of Freiburg, Germany, is considering the reduplication of the model on which this atlas is based. It is expected that such models, from his studio, will be available within the year .



Florence R. Sabin, M. D


May 31, 1901.



Editor's Preface

This Atlas is planned to meet the practical need of some quick The need of and simple, yet full and reliable, means of aiding the student to obtain, from a few sections (or from a series of sections), a reasonably clear idea of the important central relay-station of the brain here presented. (Though representing the human brain, the atlas can be applied to the study of the brains of lower mammals.)

The time allotted to a course in Neurology is generally so short; the sections to be studied exhibit such great special complexity of structure, due to the presence and association of many different centres in the narrow limits of the region; and the descriptions in text-books or lectures are commonly so detailed, or so general or diagrammatic; that many students get but hazy ideas of what is shown in their preparations, without spending more time in the effort than is reasonable.

We believe, and a number of well-known teachers in several of our large universities have agreed in this opinion, that this little Atlas will offer a valuable and new remedy for the difficulties stated above; and will save the student much time for real study, now often spent in getting started.

Supplied with these excellent drawings of the reconstruction, its use with , sections.

showing for the first time accurately and satisiactorily structures to be studied, the student can quickly compare his own sections with the figures of the Atlas and find the parts there clearly designated and explained.

Again, if, as is usually the case, a student has only a few crosssections through this region, the Atlas, with its 48 figures of sections cut in two planes and drawn to resemble actual preparations, furnishes a good supplementary series of sections for comparison.

It is thus easy to understand the many sections which are not through particularly well-marked points usually figured in textbooks; and it is possible to get a very satisfactory idea of any structure, by turning to the two series figured, to the colored plates and to the index, with sections of Tracts in the Spinal Cord may be more readily understood and Spinal Cord. 'traced forward into the brain with the aid of this manual. The arrangement The text not only describes, in a convenient manner and fully, ' everything figured in the reconstruction; but the paragraphs of small print, and others referred to in the headings and index, explain just how to compare sections with the model, and how to trace nerve-fibre tracts or masses of gray matter, from section to section through this region.

The importance When it is realized that this model represents that part of the f the Braku brain in which the nuclei of origin of all the true cranial nerves are found; that association tracts between these centres are here included; that the cells and fibre-tracts are brought into intimate association, from their central position, with those of the Spinal Cord, Cerebellum, and Forebrain; the usefulness of the Atlas to the Anatomist, Physiologist, Pathologist, and Psychologist, whether in the laboratory or in connection with lectures and demonstrations, may be seen.

supplementary A short list of text-books and journals has been included, to " permit the tracing of certain tracts of nerve-fibres further up into the higher brain centres or down into the cord, and to encourage the student to seek information as to the many and varied sides of Neurology from reliable sources where more extensive references are to be found.

The Editor wishes to explain that his participation in this Atlas is confined to the suggestion of publishing the original research in the present modified new form, and to assistance in a considerable rearrangement of the text and index to facilitate ready reference. He has urged this publication in order to furnish the student, in a new and especially available form, a valuable guide to the ready

interpretation of his preparations.

HENRY Mo E. KNOWER. ANATOMICAL LABORATORY,

JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.


AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

A description and the plates of a reconstruction of the medulla oblongata of the new-born babe was published in the " Contributions to the Science of Medicine," dedicated to William Henry Welch. 1 The model was built in the Anatomical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University at the suggestion of Dr. Franklin P. Mall and Dr. Lewellys F. Barker. It was the original thought that such a reconstruction would not only show graphically for the first time the form and relations of the tracts and nuclei, but that it would simplify for the student of anatomy a region both complex and difficult. The shape of the tracts in the cord was well known, the forms of the internal capsule in the brain could be fairly well imagined, but the tracts between the cord and brain were too complex to give mental pictures without the aid of a model. The suggestion has been made by Dr. H. Me E. Knower, of the Anatomical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Medical School, that the description of the model be put into a more convenient form for the student; by means of fuller references to the plates and sections; by a rearrangement of contents to make the location in the model of any set of serial sections or any single section of the region an easy matter; by adding a full index; and by a list of literature containing a few of the most important references valuable to the student at the beginning of a study of the central nervous system of man or the mammals. I am indebted to him for the arrangements for this edition.

I wish to thank Dr. John Hewetson for the material which made the model possible. Both series were unbroken, and so admirably prepared that any omissions in the model are due not to the material, but to the nature of the structures in question. I am greatly indebted to Mr. Max Broedel for the beautiful illustrations of the model. They are so accurate and clear as to be equal in value to the model itself. It is through the kindness of Dr. Henry M. Hurd that the plates of these drawings can be used for the present edition. Dr. Franklin P. Mall controlled the construction of the model, Dr. Lewellys F. Barker its study. I acknowledge with thanks their unfailing help and interest.


1 Model of the Medulla, Pons and Midbrain of a New-born Babe, by Florence R. Sabin. Contributions to the Science of Medicine, and vol. ix of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports.


Contents

Chapter I.

Introductory

Method Of Using Atlas

Chapter Ii. The Long Tracts.

A. In The Medulla (Medulla Sheet)

B. In The Pons And Midbrain (Lemnisci And Formatio Reticularis)

Chapter Iii. The Columns Of The Spinal Cord.

A. Ventrolateral Column

(A) Ventral Part

(&) Dorsal Part

B. Dorsal Column

Chapter Iv. Cerebellar Peduncles.

Inferior Peduncle, Or Corpus Restiforme

Superior Peduncle, Or Brachium Conjunctivum

Chapter V. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei. Median Group (Red In Model).

(A) N. Hypoglossus, XII

Nucleus N., XII

(&) N. Abducens, VI

Nucleus N., VI

(C) N. Trochlearis, IV

Nucleus N., Iv 56

(D) N. Oculomotorius, III

Nucleus N., III

Chapter Vi. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei (Continued). Lateral Group.

A. Motor Nerves (Red In Model)

(A) N. Accessprius, XI

Nucleus N., XI.


(B) N. Glossopharyngeus Et N. Vagus, Ix And X

Nucleus N., Ix And X

(C) N. Facialis, VII

Nucleus N., VII

(D) N. Trigeminus, V

Nucleus N., V

B. Sensory Nerves (Blue In Model)

(A) N. Glossopharyngeus Et N. Vagus, Ix And X

Nucleus N. , Ix And X

(&) N. Trigeminus, V

Nucleus N., V

(C) N. Vestibuli, Viii

Nuclei N. Vestibuli

(D) N. Cochleae, Viii

Nuclei N. Cochlese

Chapter Vii. The Inferior And Accessory Olives 86

Chapter Viii. The Midbrain.

1. Relation Of Its Structures To The Central Fibre Mass

2. The Nucleus Ruber (Red Nucleus) And Its Capsule

3. The Fasciculus Retroflexus (Meynerti)

4. The Decussatio Tegmenti Dorsalis (Meynerti)

5. The Decussatio Tegmenti Ventralis Of Forel

6. Stratum Album Prof Undum (Deep White Layer)

7. Substantia Centralis Grisea (Central Gray Matter)

8. The Pyramidal Tract

9. Substantia Nigra

Chapter Ix. The Formatio Reticularis Alba And Grisea

General Summary of what Is shown In Reconstruction

References To Literature

List of Illustrations

FIGURES : PAGE

1. Transverse Section of the Spinal Cord. Outline 36

2. Diagram of Medial Accessory Olive 91

3-24. Series of Horizontal (frontal) Sections, including Medulla and Midbrain 125-132

25-51. Series of Transverse Sections from the Cord to the Midbrain. .133-145

52. Diagram of the Model giving Levels of Sections here Figured 146

PLATES following page 146

I. The Inferior Olive. II. View of the Lateral Surface of the Reconstruction.

III. View of the Dorsal Surface of the Reconstruction.

IV. First Dissection of the Reconstruction. Lateral view, showing

Fibre Tracts, &c., and the Sensory Nuclei of Cerebral Nerves. V. Second Dissection of the Reconstruction. Lateral view, showing

Fibre Tracts, &c., and Motor Nuclei of Cerebral Nerves. VI. Third Dissection of the Reconstruction. Lateral view, showing

the Long Tracts of the Medulla.

VII. Fourth Dissection of the Reconstruction. Dorsomedian view, showing the Long Fibre Tracts as Related to Nuclei of Cerebral Nerves and to other Structures.

VIII. View of the Midbraiu from Above, showing Relations of Fibre Tracts.


Chapter IX. Formation Reticulaeis Alba et Geisea

Formatio Though the formatio reticularis is represented in the model for a ' the most part merely by a space, nevertheless certain of its relations can be made quite clear. In considering the three regions of the model, each is characterized, first, by a special form of the sensory or central fibre-mass, and second, by nuclei limited to the region. For example, the medulla oblongata has the vertical medial sheet and the olive; the pons has the horizontal sheet and the pontal nuclei, while the midbrain has the oblique-lateral sheet and the nucleus ruber and substantia nigra, which have, as has been said, a common bed of cells.

The position of the formatio reticularis has a definite relation to these main structures. It lies dorsal to the large nucleus of the region in every case. In the medulla oblongata it lies dorsal to the inferior olive and lateral to the vertical sheet; in the pons, it lies dorsal both to the pontal nuclei and to the pontal sheet, that is, the sheet forms a boundary between the pontal nuclei and the formatio reticularis. In the midbrain, the formatio reticularis lies dorsal to the nucleus ruber and the substantia nigra, but here the fibre-sheet is reversed in position as compared with the medulla oblongata, for it lies lateral rather than medial.

The reticular area of the medulla oblongata is best seen from the side (Plate v); the pontal and midbrain reticular areas from the dorsal aspect in Plate vn, and the midbrain area in Plate vm.

The intrinsic structures of the formatio reticularis are its long and short fibre-tracts and its cells, both the diffuse areas and the more or less definite nuclei.

The longitudinal section in Fig. 9 gives a comprehensive view of the entire formatio reticularis. It is bounded medially by the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis and the stratum profundum album; laterally by the nucleus funiculi gracilis and the nucleus funiculi cuneati, the corpus restiforme, the sensory cerebral nuclei and the lemniscus lateralis. In this section several points are to be noted: (1) the large number of longitudinal fibres, some of which seem to run the entire length of the formatio reticularis; (2) the comparatively even distribution of these fibres; (3) the large number of cells, and (4) the absence at this level of special groups or nuclei, for the whole area seems to be one continuous nucleus. This section may be taken as a type of the dorsal area of the formatio reticularis.

This level of the formatio reticularis is in contrast to a level farther ventral (Fig. 13). Here we have the longitudinal fibres and the cells again ; but the fibres run in fairly definite bundles and the cells form fairly definite nuclei. The first level was undifferentiated and showed fibres extending through the whole length of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain, while this level is distinctly differentiated and shows shorter tracts breaking up into nuclei. For example, distal to the radix 1ST. abducentis is the middle part of the medulla sheet, namely, its formatio reticularis Bundle; and proximal to the root of the E". abducens the fibrebundle turns lateral ward and splits into two parts, a medial and a lateral.

These two longitudinal fibre-bundles can be traced from the region just proximal to the E". abducens through the pons and into the midbrain; the fibres pass directly through the brachium conjunctivum. The more centrally placed of these longitudinal fibres run to the border of the central gray masses and there end abruptly, while the more lateral fibres end indefinitely in a great cell area in the midbrain, namely, the nucleus lateralis superior of Flechsig. The fibres from the decussatio tegmenti dorsalis of Meynert turn spinalward and pass through the formatio reticularis of the pons. They cannot be separated as a distinct bundle.

The formatio reticularis area of the entire section is one large nucleus; nevertheless five fairly distinct groups of cells can be differentiated within it. The first of these is the nucleus centralis inferior, which lies in the medulla sheet distal to the radix N". abducentis (Plate vi, Fig. 35). The second, the nucleus reticularis tegmenti, lies between the formatio reticularis fibres just proximal to the E". abducens (Plate vm, Fig. 40). The third, the nucleus centralis superior medialis, lies between the two medial fibrebundles in the proximal part of the pons (Plate vm, Fig. 42). In Plate vin the curve of the formatio reticularis bundle corresponds to this nucleus. The fourth nucleus is the nucleus centralis superior lateralis, which lies at the same level as the third but farther lateral. It occupies the hollow of the brachium conjunctivum (Plate vm, Fig. 42). The fifth is the nucleus lateralis superior, or formatio reticularis grisea of the midbrain (Plate vm).

As has been said, besides these fibre-bundles and nuclei, the section in Fig. 13 shows a diffuse formatio reticularis area extending throughout the section and lying lateral from the tracts just considered. This lateral area is in contrast to the lateral area of the more dorsal level. The longitudinal fibres are almost entirely wanting, their place being taken by transverse fibres or internal arcuates. These fibres are so delicate that they show better in transverse section (cf. Fig. 30). Beside the definite arcuate bunbles from the dorsal funiculi of the cord and the decussating fibres of the brachium conjunctivum, the entire area from the proximal limit of the fasciculus cuneatus to the level of the motor root of the ~N. trigeminus shows numbers of delicate arcuate fibres cut in cross-section. This area corresponds in extent to that of the tractus spinalis IN", trigemini, and doubtless many of these fibres come from its nucleus.

It will make the formatio reticularis more interesting to compare with two sections, one taken dorsal to the level of the formatio reticularis and the other ventral. In the first place Fig. 6 lies dorsal to the formatio reticularis. This might be called the level of the dorsal cerebral nuclei or the level of the central gray matter and its differentiated nuclei. The longitudinal fibres of the formatio reticularis have disappeared, and the following nuclei of the cerebral nerves are visible, the !N". glossopharyngeus, 1ST. vagus, E". acusticus, "N. facialis and "N. trigeminus. Moreover, the central area of the section is a mass of cells around the central canal. The ventral level, on the other hand, as seen in Fig. 20, is the level of the main regional nuclei, the olive, the pontal nuclei, the substantia nigra and nucleus ruber. At this level there are no nuclei of cerebral nerves nor fibres of the formatio reticularis. It is, in fact, a non-medullated area in which the motor fibres, that are soon to characterize this level (i. e., pyramidal tract), can just be seen, as lines of brown stain on the sections.

In the reticular area of the medulla are two longitudinal tracts, first, the descending bundle from Deiters' nucleus to the spinal cord (Plate v), and second, the tract described as extending from Burdach's nucleus up to the region of the nucleus ambiguus (Plate vii, Fig. 12) (Tr. fr. Nu. D. and F. c. to F. r.).

It will be noted in both of the sections (Figs. 9 and 13) that the formatio reticularis region does not reach either the proximal or the distal limit of the section; that is to say, the formatio reticularis of the model region is not connected with the cord, nor yet with the hypothalamic region at so dorsal a level. This is due to the cervical and the midbrain curves. The model shows this point well. A cross-section of the spinal cord, showing its reticular area is to be seen in Plate v. The fibres of this area must curve over the dorsal surface of the olive to enter the formatio reticularis area of the medulla oblongata. On the other hand, the proximal connection shows best in Plate vm, where the transition is made just over the dorsal capsule of the nucleus ruber. It is not necessary to say that it is impossible to limit exactly the dorsal capsule from the formatio reticularis; indeed, Forel says that the formatio reticularis enters into the formation of the capsule of the nucleus ruber. Fig. 16 shows these relations clearly, for at either end of the section is to be seen an area of formatio reticularis.

Beside the large diffuse cell-masses of the formatio reticularis and the more definite cell-groups connected with the longitudinal tracts, there are scattered in the formatio reticularis certain definite little masses of cells. They are situated on either side of the brachium conjuiictivum sheet in its ventral course from the cerebellum to the decussation (Plates in and iv).

CONCLUSION.

GENERAL SUMMARY.

It will now be possible, I think, to reduce the model to simple summary of terms, even though it may seem to be complex. As viewed from the side, the model consists, in general, of two levels a ventral J and a dorsal. The ventral level is characterized, first, by a remarkable absence of medullated fibres at this stage of development, and second, by the presence of large definite nuclei. These nuclei characterize the regions they occupy; the olive of the medulla,

Comparison the pontal nuclei, the nucleus ruber and substantia nigra in the withcSS! midbrain. This is the level and these the structures by which the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain differ from the cord. The absence of medullated fibres speaks for the later development of these structures. This level is eventually occupied by the brachium pontis and the pyramidal tract, the fibres of which have long been laid down at this period. 1

The pyramidal tract, which develops in this level, lies wholly on the surface of this region, save where it plunges through the pontal nuclei. It lies far from the dorsal area, which represents the more developed part of the model and has no form relation to it save that the decussation makes a slight impression on the trough for the ventral horn; that is to say, the pyramidal tract has no influence in moulding the shape of other structures; it rather adjusts itself to structures already formed. In this it is in contrast to the sensory tract, which is so closely related in form to adjacent structures. This illustrates well the point which His has made, that the difference in time development determines the relative positions of structure. 2

Continuation The dorsal half of the model, on the other hand, corresponds structures, rather to the spinal cord. The easy transition of the cord into the dorsal part of the model is clear in the view of the lateral surface of the model. This level, with all its complexity, is in reality simple. It consists (1) of long tracts on the way to the cortex, (2) of long tracts to the cerebellum, namely, the brachium conjunctivum and corpus restiforme; (3) of the cerebral nuclei, their root-bundles and paths; (4) the association areas or formatio reticularis alba and grisea.

The central fibre mass is a structural unit in the form of three sheets, the medulla, pontal and midbrain, which contain the medial and lateral lemniscus, or the main sensory path toward the cortex. It contains also certain shorter tracts, the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, the lemniscus superior and unnamed formatio reticularis fibres. Of the tracts to the cerebellum, the corpus restiforme lies on the lateral surface of the medulla oblongata, while the brachium conjunctivum, being related to the nucleus ruber, lies within the pons and midbrain.


1 Flechsig. Die Leitungsbahnen im Geblrn und Kiickenmark des Menschen, Leipzig, 1876, S. 192.

2 Die Neuroblasten und deren Entstehung im embryonalen Mark, Abhandl. d. math.-phys. Cl. d. k. sachs. Gesellsch. d. Wissensch., Bd. xv, Leipzig, 1889, S. 292.


SUMMARY: GROUPING OF CEREBRAL NERVES, ETC. Ill


The cerebral nerves are divided into two groups, a medial and a Grouping of lateral. The motor nuclei are definite, compact masses, with the C( exception of the nucleus ~N. accessorii, which represents the transition from the type of the nuclei to the spinal cord. The motor nuclei correspond to the ventral-horn cells. They are related to f ormatio reticularis areas ; the median group to the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, the lateral to the formatio reticularis alba. The root-fibres of the lateral group, with one exception, take an indirect course to the surface, showing that they have developed in an area of complex growth. The sensory nuclei all belong to the lateral group. They correspond, in the main, to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, and thus occupy a dorsal level. They are diffuse and cover a wide area. All but two of them, namely, the nuclei of the !N". trigeminus and !N". cochleae, lie in the substantia centralis grisea. With the exception of the nuclei N. cochleae, they border the formatio reticularis. In general, they are characterized by long descending tracts accompanied by nuclei. The nerves of the special senses do not conform wholly to the general type, for the !N". vestibuli is peculiar in its relations to the cerebellum, and the "N. cochleae in its well-developed and complex central path.

The formatio reticularis consists of mixed cells and fibres. The Formatio dorsal level represents the longer association paths of the model, rt and its cells are diffuse. In the ventral level the fibres are grouped into shorter paths and then the cells form nuclei in connection with these short bundles.

The model brings out the fact that the region is divided into four levels, as has been shown by His from a study of earlier embryos. I wish to emphasize the large number of nerves represented by nuclei in the first layer, or the substantia centralis grisea. They are (1) all of the spinal nerves through the nuclei of the dorsal funiculi, (2) the nuclei of the four motor nerves of the median group, and (3) all of the sensory cerebral nuclei of the model except the nucleus of the !N". trigeminus and the N. cochleae. The second layer, that of the formatio reticularis, includes the remaining four motor nuclei of the cerebral nerves. That this position is not primary for these nuclei, but is rather the result of development, is suggested by courses of their fibres. The third layer includes the olive, pontal nuclei, substantia nigra and red nucleus, the fourth the pyramidal tract.

The question of the origin of these four layers is one of great interest. According to His, the motor nuclei, both of the median and lateral groups, come from the ground plate, while the sensory nuclei come from the medial part of the wing plates. 1 The third layer offers an attractive field for study.

Three of its nuclei, namely, the olive, the pontal nuclei and the red nucleus, are connected with the cerebellum. In the spinal cord the cells related to the cerebellum are in the nucleus dorsalis Clarkii which lies between the dorsal and ventral horns. The origin of the olive, according to His, is from the cells of the Rautenlippe, which forms the lateral part of the wing plate adjacent to the cells which form the sensory nuclei. This serves to open up the question of the origin and relations of this ventral nuclear layer. Have these nuclei a common origin, and what is the relation of the substantia nigra to the other three?

A part of this question is being studied in this laboratory. Problems along this line have been opened up by the work of His, and I can but believe that the application of the wax-plate method to the study of the development of the central nervous system has a promising future. With a series of models, the course of development may become a matter of sight and not a theory. Moreover, all those individual differences which may be misleading in any one model can be easily eliminated when each model is but one of a series.

1 His, W., Die Entwickehing des menschlichen EautenWms. Abhandl. d. math.-phys. Cl. d. k. sachs. Gesell. d. Wissensch., Leipz., 1891, S. 1-74.

Literature

This list is designed to meet the needs of the student beginning the Study of the Central Nervous System. (It does not represent the full bibliography considered in writing the original article.)

For the development of the Central Nervous System:

His, W. Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol., Anat. Abth., Leipz., 1893.

For a comprehensive text-book on the Nervous System:

VAN GEHUCHTEN, A. Anatome du Systeme Nerveux De L'Homme. 1897.

For general text-books :

Nervensystem. Prof. Dr. H. Ziehen (Jena), 1899; from Dr. Karl von Bardeleben's Anatomie des Menschen. OBERSTEINER, H. Anleitung beim Studium der Nervosen Centralorgane. 1896.

QUAIN'S Anatomy. Vol. in, Pt. i. The Spinal Cord and Brain. Edited by Schafer and Thane. 1895. Also Quain's Anatomy. Vol. m, Pt. n. The Peripheral Nerves.

For the development and scope of the Neurone Conception, with a full review of modern investigation and with complete literature :

BARKER, L. F. The Nervous System. 1899.

For a detailed Anatomy of the Cord and Brain :

v. KOELLIKER, A. Handbuch der Gewebelehre, Bd. n.

Leipz., 1896. For the Anatomy of the Spinal Cord :

VON LENHOSSE'K, M.

For the Tracts as studied by the Method of Successive Myelenization:

FLECHSIG, P. Die Leitungsbahnen im Gehirn und Eiickenmark. Leipzig (1876).

For the Midbrain :

FOREL, A. Arch. f. Psychiat., Berl., Bd. vn (1877), S. 393495.

For a study of the details of the Medulla Oblongata by the Golgi Method:

RAMO'N Y CAJAL. Beitrag zur Studium der Medulla Oblongata. Deutsche Uebersetz. von Bresler, Leipzig (1896). For the Acustic Nerve and its central path :

HELD. Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys., Anat. Abth., Leipzig (1891). For the paths in the cord and brain, especially Medulla and Midbrain :

v. BECHTEREW, W. Die Leitungsbahnen im Gehirn und

TMickenmark. Leipzig (1894). For Comparative Anatomy:

EDINGER, L. Yorlesungen iiber den Bau der Nervb'sen Cen tralorgane. Leipzig, 1893. Journals of Current Contributions:

Le Neuraxe, Van Gehuchten, Lou vain.

Journal of Comparative Neurology, C. J. Herrick, Granville,

Ohio, U. S. A. Brain, London, England.

Arch, fiir Psychiatric und Nervenkrankheiten, Berlin, Germany.


Abbreviations

o, Fibres running from region of lemniscus lateralis toward the dorsal border of brachium conjunctivum.

A. c. (or Aq. c., or Aq. cer.), Aquaeductus cerebri. Silvian.

  1. , Decussating portion of root of N. trigeminus. N. V.

B. c. (or Br. conj., or Brach. conj.), Brachium conjunctivum. Superior cerebellar peduncle.

B. c. (d.), Brachium conjunctivum (dorsal bundle).

C. a., Columna anterior (Columna ventralis). Ventral column. C. c., Canalis centralis.

C. i. (or Coll. inf.), Colliculus inferior. Inferior Corpora Quadrigemina.

C. p., Cornmissura posterior cerebri.

C. r. (or Corp. rest.), Corpus restiforme. Inferior peduncle.

C. s. (or Coll. s., or Coll. sup.), Colliculus superior. Superior Corpora Quadrigemina.

C. t., Corpus trapezoideum.

D. b. c. (or Dec. B. c., or Dec. Br. Conj.), Decussatio brachii conjunctivi. Decussation of superior cerebellar peduncle.

D. betw. nu. c. i., Decussation between nuclei colliculi inferioris.

D. c. n. r., Capsula dorsalis of the nucleus ruber. (Red nucleus.)

Dec. Beet., Commissure between Bechterew's nuclei. (Superior vestibular nucleus.)

Dec. 1., Decussatio lemniscorum.

D. p., Decussatio pyramidum.

D. rel. to N. V. (Same as /?.), Decussation related to N. trigeminus.

D. t. v. F., Decussatio tegmenti ventralis, of Forel.

D. t. Vide F. to d. M.

D. t. d. M., Decussatio tegmenti dorsalis Meynerti.

F. a. i., Fibrae areuatse internae.

F. a. i. (d.) (or F. a. i. (Dec. 1.)), Fibrse arcuatae internae (distal bundle) or Decussatio lemniscorum.

F. a. i. (p.) (or F. a. i. (cun.)), Fibrae arcuatae internae (proximal bundle).

F. a. i. (vest.) , Fibrae arcuatae internae, pertaining to central vestibular paths.

F. a. e., Fibrae arcuatae externae.

F. betw. B. c. & h. 1. Vide a.

F. B. c. d. Vide B. c. (d.).

F. c. (or F. cu., or Fa. cun.), Fasciculus cuneatus. Column of Burdach.

F. c. s. (or F. do.), Fasciculus cerebellospinalis. Direct cerebellar tract.

F. c. to Fr., Fibres from fasciculus cuneatus to forma tio reticularis. Column of Burdach.

F. fr. d. M., Fibres from Decussatio tegmenti dorsalis Meynerti.

F. fr. f. 1. (1.), Fibres from fasciculus lateralis (lateral group). Lateral column.

F. fr. f. 1. (m.), Fibres from fasciculus lateralis (medial group).

F. fr. 1. m. to s. n., Fibres from lemniscus medialis to substantia nigra.

F. g. (or Fa. gr.), Fasciculus gracilis. Column of Goll.

F. L, Fossa interpedunculare.

Fib. arc. int. Vide F. a. i. (p.).

F. 1., Fasciculus lateralis.

F. 1. m. (or Fasc. 1. med.), Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis. Posterior longitudinal bundle.

F. 1. p., Fasciculus lateralis proprius. Lateral ground bundle.

F. 1. p. (d.), (or F. 1. p. (4)), Bundle continuous with fasciculus lateralis of the cord.

F. p. (or F. Py.), Fasciculi longitudinales pyramidales. (In Fig. 36 F. p. is Fibrse pontis.) Pyramidal tract.

F. r. a., Formatio reticularis alba.

F. r. M. (or Fasc. retrof.), Fasciculus retroflexus Meynerti.

F. sc. dl., Fasciculus cerebellospinalis dorsolateralis. Direct cerebellar tract.

F. to d. M. (or F. to d. t. d.), Fibres to decussatio tegmenti dorsalis Meynerti.

F. v. c. (i.), Fibres connecting vestibular area with cerebellum (inner or medial group).

F. v. c. (o.), Fibres relating the vestibular area with the cerebellum (outer or lateral bundle).

F. v. 1., Fasciculus ventrolateralis. Ventrolateral column.

F. v. p., Fasciculus ventralis proprius. Ventral ground bundle.

L. c. nu. r., Capsula lateralis nuclei rubri.

L. 1. (or Lemn. lat.), Lemniscus lateralis.

L. m., Lemniscus medialis.

L. nu. r., Lectus nuclei rubri. Bed of red nucleus.

L. s., Lemniscus superior.

Med. obi., Medulla oblongata.

Mesenc., Mesencephalon.

Mot. V. Vide N. V (m.).

N. c. Vide N. VIII (Coch.).

N. 1. 1., Nucleus lemnisci lateralis.

N. Ill, Eadix N. oculomotorii.

N. IV (or N. troch.), Eadix N. trochlearis.

N. V, Eadix N. trigemini.

N. V (dec.). Vide/?.

N. V (m.), or N. Mot. V, Eadix N. trigemini (motor).

N. V (s.) (or N. Sen. V), Eadix N. trigemini (sensory).

N. VI, Eadix N. abducentis.

N. VII, Eadix N. facialis.

N. VII p. p. (or VII (a.)), Eadix N. facialis, pars prima.

N. VII p. s. (or N. VII (c.)), Eadix N. facialis, pars secunda.

N. VII g. (i.) (or N. VII (b.)), Eadix N. facialis genu internuin.

N. VIII (coch.) (or N. c.), Eadix N. cochleae.

N. VIII (vest.) (or N. vest.), Eadix N. vestibuli.

N. IX & X, Eadices N. glossopharyngei et vagi.

N. XI, Eadix N. accessorii.

N. XI p. p., Eadix N. accessorii, pars prima.

N. XI p. s., Eadix N. accessorii, pars secunda.

N. XII, Eadix N. hypoglossi.

Nu. a., Nucleus arcuatus.

Nu. a. c., Nucleus alae cinerese.

Nu. c., Nucleus coluxnnaris.

Nu. c. i., Nucleus colliculi inferioris, Figs. 43 and 44. In Fig. 13, Nu. e. i. = Nucleus centralis inferior.

Nu. com., Nucleus commissuralis.

Nu. c. p., Nucleus commissurse posterior, or nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis. Posterior longitudinal bundle.

Nu. c. s. (1.), Nucleus centralis superior, pars lateralis.

Nu. c. s. (m.), Nucleus centralis superior, pars medialis.

Nu. d., Nucleus dentatus.

Nu. f. c. (or Nu. f. cu., or Nuc. f. cun.), Nucleus funiculi cuneati.

Nu. f. c. (1.), Nucleus funiculi cuneati lateralis (Blumenau).

Nu. f. g. (or Nucl. f. gr.), Nucleus funiculi gracilis.

Nu. f. 1. m., Nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis or nucleus commissurae posterioris (oberer Oculomotoriuskern or Darkschewitsch) .

Nu. g., Nucleus globosus.

Nu. 1. s., Nucleus lateralis superior of Flechsig.

Nu. N. c. d. (or Nu. N. cochl. cl.), Nucleus N. cochleae dorsalis.

Nu. N. c. v., Nucleus N. cochleae ventralis.

Nu. N. v. 1. (or Nu. N. vest. 1.), Nucleus N. vestibuli lateralis.

Nu. N. v. m. (or Nu. N. vest, m.), Nucleus N. vestibuli medialis (Schwalbe).

Nu. N. v. s. (or Nu. N. vest, s.), Nucleus N. vestibuli superior (von Bechterew).

Nu. N. Ill, Nucleus N. oculomotorii.

Nu. N. Ill, 1., (or Nu. N. Ill (a.)), Nucleus N. oculomotorii, pars lateralis.

Nu. N. Ill, m. (or Nu. N. Ill (b.)), Nucleus oculomotorii (medial nucleus).

Nu. N. IV, Nucleus N. trochlearis.

Nu. N. V, Nucleus N. trigemini.

Nu. m. m. N. V, Nuclei motorii minores N. trigemini.

Nu. m. p. N. V, Nucleus motorius princeps N. trigemini.

Nu. N. VI (or Nucl. N. abd.), Nucleus N. abducentis.

Nu. N. VII, Nucleus N. facialis.

Nu. N. XII (or Nucl. N. hyp.), Nucleus N. hypoglossi.

Nu. N. XII, a. K., Nucleus of Holler.

Nu. o. a. d., Nucleus olivaris accessorius dorsalis. Accessory olive.

Nu. of r., Nucleus of the roof.

Nu. o. a. m., Nucleus olivaris accessorius medialis.

Nu. o. i., Nucleus olivaris inferior. Olive.

Nu. o. s., Nucleus olivaris superior. Superior olive.

Nu. o. s. 2, Nucleus olivaris superior, at its junction with the nucleus lemnisci lateralis.

Nu. r., Nucleus ruber. Eed nucleus.

Nu. r. t., Nucleus reticularis tegmenti.

Nu. t. s. (or Nu. tr. sol.), Nucleus tractus solitarii.

Nu. x. of 1. c. of nu. r., Nucleus capsulse lateralis nuclei rubri.

Nu. y., Anterolateral extremity of nucleus of N. vest, medialis.

P. f., Pedunculus flocculi.

Py., Pyramis. Pyramid.

R. d. N. V, Radix descendens (mesencephalica) N. trigemini.

R. d. N. vest, (or Rad. desc. N. vest.), Radix descendens N. vestibuli.

R. 1., Recessus lateralis ventriculi quarti. Lateral recess of fourth ventricle.

S. 1., Transverse series.

S. 2., Horizontal series.

S. a., Striae acusticse.

S. a. p. (or St. a. p., or Str. alb. p., or St. alb. p.), Stratum album profundum.

Sen. V. Vide N. V. (s.).

S. f., Substantia ferruginea.

S. g. (or Sub. gel., or Sub. gel. Rolandi), Substantia gelatinosa Rolandi.

S. i. 1. (or St. i. 1.), Stratum interolivare lemnisci. (In Fig. 20 extend the line through the olive.)

S. n., Substantia nigra.

St. g. c. (or St. gr. c.), Stratum griseum centrale. Central gray matter.

T. fr. D. to c. (or Tr. fr. nu. D.), Tract from Deiters' nucleus to the funiculus lateralis to lateral column.

T. s. ( (or Tr. s., or Tr. sol.), Tractus solitarius.

T. s. N. V (or T. s. n. t., or Tr. s. n. t., or Tr. s. N. V), Tractus spinalis N. trigemini.

V. q., Ventriculus quartus.



Description of Figures and Plates

Figs. 3-24. Series of horizontal sections passing through the medulla, pons and midbrain of a new-born babe. The series is traced from the dorsal to the ventral surface. The following sections, Figs. 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16 and 19 are after Barker, L. F.: The Nervous System and its Constituent Neurones. D. Appleton & Co., 1899. (Preparations by Dr. John Hewetson.)

Figs. 25-51. Series of transverse sections passing through the medulla, pons and midbrain of a new-born babe. The series is traced from the spinal cord toward the cerebrum. The following sections, Figs. 25, 28, 31, 33, 35, 36, 39, 41, 42, 46 and 49 are after Barker, L. F.: Op. cit. (Preparations by Dr. John Hewetson.)

Fig. 52. KEY TO PLANES OF SECTIONS.

PLATE I.

Fig. 1. View of the dorsolateral and lateral surfaces of the nucleus olivaris inferior. F. dl. Facies dorsolateralis. F. 1. Facies lateralis. F. p. Fissura prima. F. s. Fissura secunda. F. t. Fissura tertia. F. q. Fissura quarta. L. p. Lobus primus. L. s. Lobus secundus. L. t. Lobus tertius. L. q. Lobus quartus.

Fig. 2. View of the ventral surface of the nucleus olivaris superior. S. p. Sulcus primus. S. s. Sulcus secundus. S. t. Sulcus tertius.

PLATE II.

View of the model from the lateral surface. This view is designed to relate the model to the cord, the cerebellum and the cerebrum. The cut edge of the cord shows on the extreme right. The following points will make the position of the model clear: the dorsal and lateral funiculi and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, the cerebellum, the fourth ventricle, the inferior and superior colliculi and the third ventricle.

The color system is as follows: all fibres are in white and black, all nuclei in colors. Red represents the nuclei of the motor cerebral nerves, blue the nuclei of the sensory cerebral nerves and yellow all other nuclei.

Nu. et Radix N. vestibuli: The nucleus is distinguishable from the root by its color. The ascending and descending parts of the root are to be determined by their relation to the entering root-bundle of the nerve. The part of the vestibular nucleus distal to the nucleus N. abducentis is the nucleus N. vestibuli medialis; the part proximal, is the nucleus N. vestibuli superior. The nucleus N. vestibuli lateralis (Deiters'), (pars lateralis) lies in the vestibular tract just dorsal to the corpus restiforme. 9


122 DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES AND PLATES

PLATE III.

View of the model from the dorsal surface. On the right side is shown the floor of the fourth ventricle; on the left, the structures beneath are exposed. The position of these structures can be related to the dorsal funiculi of the spinal cord, the fourth ventricle, and the inferior and superior colliculi.

Nu. et Radix N. vestibuli: To be distinguished by the colors. The ascending root is marked by the most proximal of the three lines on the figure; the descending by the most distal line, while the nucleus N. vestibuli medialis is indicated by the middle of the three lines. The nucleus N. vestibuli superior is continuous with the medial nucleus and lies opposite the ascending root. The nucleus 1ST. vestibuli lateralis consists of two parts, one between the corpus restiforme and the ascending root, the other in the notch between the medial and superior nuclei.

Nucleus N. cochlew dor sails: The more proximal of the two lines points to the striae acusticae.

Traotus solitarius et Nu. alas cinerce: The former is in black and white, the latter in blue.

PLATE IV.

View of the model from the lateral aspect. After removing from Plate i, the following structures: the corpus restiforme, the substantia nigra and the medial, lateral and superior lemnisci. The view is designed to show (1) the sensory nerves and their nuclei, and (2) the midbrain. The nuclei of the dorsal funiculi represent a way-station for the sensory fibres from the spinal cord; the sensory cerebral nerves are represented by the nuclei nervi glossopharyngei, vagi, vestibuli et trigemini. These include all of the sensory nerves of the region of the model except the N. cochleae, which was removed with the corpus restiforme.

Radix N. trigemini (Sens.) : The proximal line runs to the root bundle, the distal to the tractus spinalis N. trigemini.

Tract from Betters' nucleus to F. i. (3), and Fasciculus lateraMs (4): The numbers are explained in the text.

PLATE V.

View of the model from the lateral aspect. The sensory nerves of Plate iv have been removed and all of the motor cerebral nerves except the N. trochlearis are now shown.

Fasciculus lateralis (2), and Fasciculus lateralis (3): The numbers are explained in the text.

PLATE VI.

View of the lateral surface of the medulla sheet. The view can be related to Plates n, iv and v, by the position of the nucleus N. abducentis. Fasciculus ventrolateralis (1): The number is explained in the text.

PLATE VII.

View of the model from a dorsomedian aspect. This view is designed to show the central fibre mass, that is, the medulla, pontal and midbrain sheets, together with the corpus trapezoideum.

. Fibres running from Lemniscus lateralis to the brachium conjunctivum.


DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES AND PLATES 123

PLATE VIII.

View of the midbrain from the superior or cerebral aspect. This view can be understood by comparing 1 it with Plates n, iv and v, which show the stratum profundum album, the lemniscus superior and the capsula nuclei rubri from the lateral aspect.

7 is a space in the model, in the stratum profundum album where fibres of the formatio reticularis alba are related to the substantia centralis grisea.

Fasciculus ventrolateralis (1) : The number is explained in the text.


HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 38, 56 and 62.



(126)


HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 66, 72 and 74.



Q26)


HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 80, 86 and 94.



(127)


HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 100, 108, 114 and 116.



(128)


HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 122 and 126.



(129)


HOKIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 128 and 136.



J

~



(130)


HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 146 and 162.



(131)


HOEIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 170, 180 and 202.



be


CROSS-SECTIONS 20-84.




be



CKOSS-SECTIONS 94-146.



f



(134)


CROSS-SECTION 158.



(135)


CEOSS-SECTION 170.



N_^JJ


(136)


CROSS-SECTION 182.



(137)


CROSS-SECTION 190.



p ml


(138)


CKOSS-SECTIONS 200 and 212. Na.mp.n.T.


B.c.



C.t.


Urn.


Fig-. 38, Series II, Section No. 200.



I(SPflS)


Lm.,


Fig. 39, Series II, Section No. 212.

(139)


CKOSS-SECTIONS 254 and 268.



Fig. 40, Series II, Section No. 254.



Fig-. 41, Series II, Section No. 268.


(140)


CROSS-SECTIONS 290 and 304.


Nu.


St.gr.



Fig-. 42, Series II, Section No. 290.


D.betw.nax.L

NiLcl.



11


Fig. 43, Series II, Section No. 304. (141)


CROSS-SECTIONS 316 and 330.


S.CL.p,.

NU.C.L



Fig-. 44, Series II, Section No. 316.


a



JS.a.p A.C-.


N n

Ill .J-V


Fig. 45, Series II, Section No. 330.


(142)


CEOSS-SECT1ONS 338 and 354.



Bec.Br.Con]. J


Fig-. 46, Series II, Section No. 338.



n.m


-S.n.



Fig-. 47, Series II, Section No. 354.


(143)


CKOSS-SECT1ONS 372 and 384.


L.S,



NHL

Fig. 48, Series II, Section No. 372.


Aq.cer.


St. gr. c



Fig. 49, Series II, Section No. 384.


(144)


CROSS-SECTIONS 396 and 420.



Fig-. 50, Series II, Section No. 396.



TtM.

JUL

Fig-. 51, Series II, Section No. 420.


(145)


GUIDE TO SECTIONS IN SERIES 1 and 2.



(146)


INFERIOR OLIVE.


PLATE I.


Lateral Surface.


T.i


Dorsal



Veatrul


FIG. 1.


Ventral Surface.


Lateral



Mesial


FIG. 2.


LATERAL SURFACE a OF MODEL. |

!~


PLATE II.



s I

26

III


i o

I!


I

6" 11


DORSAL SURFACE OF MODEL.


PLATE III.


Stratum album profundum


Nucleus N. oculomotor!!


Commissurae nuclei coll;


Fasciculus retroflexus (Meynerti)


Lemniscus medialls...


Nucleus colliculi inferloris . .


Radix N. trochlearls __ A

Brachium conjunctivum

Radix descendens

N. trigemini

Locus caeruleus.

Radix N. trigemini (Mot.) Radix N. trigemini (Sens.) ,


Nucleus motorius princeps N. trigemini


Nucleus N. trigemini (Sens.)

Nucleus N.

vestibuli lateralis f|

Corpus restiforme


Nucleus et radix N. vestibuli


Nucleus N. cochleae dorsalis


Corpus restiforme


Tractus solitarius et nucleus alae cinereae ""


Nucleus funiculj cuneati .-"

Fasciculus cuneatus . Nucleus funiculi gracills ....

Fasciculus gracilis



Nucleus N.


.Substantia fei .Ventriculus qu


Brachium con;


Corpus restiforme


-Radix N. facial! --Nucleus N. abd


- fasciculus long


--Nucleus olivaris i


--Nucleus N. hypog


INTERIOR OF MODEL FROM SIDE (one layer removed).


PLATE IV.


<



FURTHER DISSECTION OF INTERIOR OF MODEL FROM SIDES.


PLATE V.



LATERAL VIEW OF MEDULLA SHEET.


PLATE VI.



RELATIONS OF LONG TRACTS.


Capsula superior nuclei rubri


PLATE VII.


Radix N. oculomotor! i Nucleus ruber


Fasciculus retroflexus (Meynerti)


Lemniscus lateralis*


Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis- Formatio reticularis alba -,Nucleus olivaris superior^

Radix N. facialiSx \

Nucleus N. abducentis -s^.-l


Striae acusticseNucleus N. cochleae dorsalis


Radix N. vestibuli

Corpus trapezoideum ,*'*'

Radix N. cochleae- ' Nucleus olivaris inferior -;

Nucleus funiculi cuneati


Fasciculus cuneatus to formatio reticularis


Nucleus funiculi gracilis



Lemniscus

medialis


Corpus ,- 'trapezoideu


^Nucleus oli' ' superior


Stratum interolivare lemnis --- Nucleus N. hypoglossi


Nucleus olivaris accessorius rr "Decussatio lemniscorum


Canalis centralis Substantia gelatinosa (Rolandi)


THE MIDBRAIN FROM ABOVE.


PLATE VIII.


Commissure between Bechterew's nuclei Corpus trapezoideum and nucleus olivaris superior,


Brachium conjunctivum (dorsal bundle)


Brachium conjunctivum


Decussatio tegmenti dorsalis .


Capsula dorsalis nuclei rubri


Decussatio tegmenti dorsalis


Decussatio tegmenti ventralis



Nucleus N. abducentis


Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis

Nucleus reticularis Kucleus colliculi inferioris


Capsula nuclei colliculi inferioris


Position of nucleus N. trochlearis Lemniscus superior V

Position of nucleus N. oculomotor!! ^Stratum album profundui

7' Lemniscus medialis Commissura posterior


Fasciculus retroflexus (Meynerti)


tiapsula superior nuclei rubrl


/ Nucleus Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis fasciculi

longitudinalis medialis


Lectus nuclei rubri


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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain (1901): Chapter I. Introductory | Chapter II. The Long Tracts | Chapter III. The Columns Of The Spinal Cord | Chapter IV. Cerebellar Peduncles | Chapter V. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei | Chapter VI. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei (Continued). Lateral Group | Chapter VII. The Inferior And Accessory Olives | Chapter VIII. The Midbrain | Chapter IX. The Formatio Reticularis Alba And Grisea | General Summary of what Is shown In Reconstruction | References To Literature | Abbreviations | Description of Figures and Plates


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, May 7) Embryology Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_An_Atlas_of_the_Medulla_and_Midbrain

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