Difference between revisions of "Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain"

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{{Sabin1901 header}}
 
{{Sabin1901 header}}
 
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=An Atlas Of The Medulla And Midbrain=
 
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[[File:Sabin1901 titlepage.jpg|right|400px]]
'''AN ATLAS OF THE MEDULLA AND MIDBRAIN'''
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[[File:Florence Sabin 1938.jpg|thumb|alt=Florence Rena Sabin (1871 - 1953)|link=Embryology History - Florence Sabin|Florence Rena Sabin (1871-1953)]]
 
 
 
By [[Embryology History - Florence Sabin|Florence R. Sabin]]  
 
By [[Embryology History - Florence Sabin|Florence R. Sabin]]  
  
  
  
A LABORATORY MANUAL
+
A Laboratory Manual
  
ILLUSTRATED WITH SEVEN COLORED PLATES, ONE BLACK PLATE AND FIFTY-TWO FIGURES
+
Illustrated With Seven Colored Plates, One Black Plate And Fifty-Two Figures
  
  
EDITED BY
+
Edited By
  
  
Line 22: Line 21:
  
  
BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A.  
+
Baltimore, Md., U. S. A.  
  
THE FRIEDENWALD COMPANY
+
The Friedenwald Company
  
PUBLISHERS
+
Publishers
  
 
1901  
 
1901  
Line 32: Line 31:
  
  
COPYRIGHT, 1901,  
+
Copyright, 1901,  
BY FLORENCE R. SABIN
+
By Florence R. Sabin
  
  
THE FRIEDENWALD COMPANY
+
The Friedenwald Company
BALTIMORE, MD M U. S. A.  
+
Baltimore, Md M U. S. A.  
  
 
{{Historic Disclaimer}}
 
{{Historic Disclaimer}}
Line 43: Line 42:
 
==Editor's Preface==
 
==Editor's Preface==
  
This Atlas is planned to meet the practical need of some quick and simple, yet full and reliable, means of aiding the student to  
+
This Atlas is planned to meet the practical need of some quick and simple, yet full and reliable, means of aiding the student to obtain, from a few sections (or from a series of sections), a reasonably clear idea of the important central relay-station of the brain  
obtain, from a few sections (or from a series of sections), a reasonably clear idea of the important central relay-station of the brain  
+
here presented. (Though representing the human brain, the atlas can be applied to the study of the brains of lower mammals.)  
here presented. (Though representing the human brain, the atlas  
 
can be applied to the study of the brains of lower mammals.)  
 
  
The time allotted to a course in Neurology is generally so short;  
+
 
the sections to be studied exhibit such great special complexity of  
+
The time allotted to a course in Neurology is generally so short; the sections to be studied exhibit such great special complexity of  
 
structure, due to the presence and association of many different  
 
structure, due to the presence and association of many different  
 
centres in the narrow limits of the region; and the descriptions in  
 
centres in the narrow limits of the region; and the descriptions in  
Line 56: Line 53:
 
shown in their preparations, without spending more time in the  
 
shown in their preparations, without spending more time in the  
 
effort than is reasonable.  
 
effort than is reasonable.  
 +
  
 
We believe, and a number of well-known teachers in several of  
 
We believe, and a number of well-known teachers in several of  
Line 62: Line 60:
 
stated above; and will save the student much time for real study,  
 
stated above; and will save the student much time for real study,  
 
now often spent in getting started.  
 
now often spent in getting started.  
 +
  
 
Supplied with these excellent drawings of the reconstruction, showing for the first time accurately and satisfactorily structures  
 
Supplied with these excellent drawings of the reconstruction, showing for the first time accurately and satisfactorily structures  
to be studied, the student can quickly compare his own sections  
+
to be studied, the student can quickly compare his own sections with the figures of the Atlas and find the parts there clearly  
with the figures of the Atlas and find the parts there clearly  
 
 
designated and explained.  
 
designated and explained.  
  
Again, if, as is usually the case, a student has only a few cross
+
 
-J-Tiio -narnrvn + Vi a A+laa with if.a 4-8 fiomrPS of
+
Again, if, as is usually the case, a student has only a few cross-sections through this region the Atlas with its 48 figures of sections.
  
  
  
At the urgent solicitation of Professor Ph. Stohr,  
+
At the urgent solicitation of Professor Ph. Stohr, of Wiirzburg, Germany, Dr. F Ziegler, of Freiburg, Germany, is considering the reduplication of the model on which this atlas is based. It is expected that such models, from his studio, will be available within  
of Wiirzburg, Germany, Dr. F Ziegler, of Freiburg,  
 
Germany, is considering the reduplication of the model  
 
on which this atlas is based. It is expected that  
 
such models, from his studio, will be available within  
 
 
the year .  
 
the year .  
  
Line 93: Line 87:
 
==Editor's Preface==
 
==Editor's Preface==
  
This Atlas is planned to meet the practical need of some quick The need of
+
This Atlas is planned to meet the practical need of some quick and simple, yet full and reliable, means of aiding the student to obtain, from a few sections (or from a series of sections), a reasonably clear idea of the important central relay-station of the brain here presented. (Though representing the human brain, the atlas can be applied to the study of the brains of lower mammals.)
and simple, yet full and reliable, means of aiding the student to  
 
obtain, from a few sections (or from a series of sections), a reasonably clear idea of the important central relay-station of the brain  
 
here presented. (Though representing the human brain, the atlas  
 
can be applied to the study of the brains of lower mammals.)  
 
  
The time allotted to a course in Neurology is generally so short;
 
the sections to be studied exhibit such great special complexity of
 
structure, due to the presence and association of many different
 
centres in the narrow limits of the region; and the descriptions in
 
text-books or lectures are commonly so detailed, or so general or
 
diagrammatic; that many students get but hazy ideas of what is
 
shown in their preparations, without spending more time in the
 
effort than is reasonable.
 
  
We believe, and a number of well-known teachers in several of  
+
The time allotted to a course in Neurology is generally so short; the sections to be studied exhibit such great special complexity of structure, due to the presence and association of many different centres in the narrow limits of the region; and the descriptions in text-books or lectures are commonly so detailed, or so general or diagrammatic; that many students get but hazy ideas of what is shown in their preparations, without spending more time in the effort than is reasonable.
our large universities have agreed in this opinion, that this little
 
Atlas will offer a valuable and new remedy for the difficulties
 
stated above; and will save the student much time for real study,
 
now often spent in getting started.  
 
  
Supplied with these excellent drawings of the reconstruction, its use with , sections.
 
  
showing for the first time accurately and satisiactorily structures
+
We believe, and a number of well-known teachers in several of our large universities have agreed in this opinion, that this little Atlas will offer a valuable and new remedy for the difficulties stated above; and will save the student much time for real study, now often spent in getting started.
to be studied, the student can quickly compare his own sections
 
with the figures of the Atlas and find the parts there clearly
 
designated and explained.  
 
  
Again, if, as is usually the case, a student has only a few crosssections through this region, the Atlas, with its 48 figures of sections cut in two planes and drawn to resemble actual preparations,
 
furnishes a good supplementary series of sections for comparison.
 
  
It is thus easy to understand the many sections which are not
+
Supplied with these excellent drawings of the reconstruction, showing for the first time accurately and satisiactorily structures to be studied, the student can quickly compare his own sections with the figures of the Atlas and find the parts there clearly designated and explained.
through particularly well-marked points usually figured in textbooks; and it is possible to get a very satisfactory idea of any structure, by turning to the two series figured, to the colored plates
 
and to the index,
 
with sections of Tracts in the Spinal Cord may be more readily understood and Spinal Cord. 'traced forward into the brain with the aid of this manual.
 
The arrangement The text not only describes, in a convenient manner and fully,
 
' everything figured in the reconstruction; but the paragraphs of  
 
small print, and others referred to in the headings and index, explain just how to compare sections with the model, and how to trace
 
nerve-fibre tracts or masses of gray matter, from section to section through this region.  
 
  
The importance When it is realized that this model represents that part of the
 
f the Braku brain in which the nuclei of origin of all the true cranial nerves
 
are found; that association tracts between these centres are here
 
included; that the cells and fibre-tracts are brought into intimate
 
association, from their central position, with those of the Spinal
 
Cord, Cerebellum, and Forebrain; the usefulness of the Atlas to
 
the Anatomist, Physiologist, Pathologist, and Psychologist, whether
 
in the laboratory or in connection with lectures and demonstrations,
 
may be seen.
 
  
supplementary A short list of text-books and journals has been included, to
+
Again, if, as is usually the case, a student has only a few crosssections through this region, the Atlas, with its 48 figures of sections cut in two planes and drawn to resemble actual preparations, furnishes a good supplementary series of sections for comparison.
" permit the tracing of certain tracts of nerve-fibres further up into
 
the higher brain centres or down into the cord, and to encourage the
 
student to seek information as to the many and varied sides of  
 
Neurology from reliable sources where more extensive references
 
are to be found.  
 
  
The Editor wishes to explain that his participation in this Atlas
 
is confined to the suggestion of publishing the original research in
 
the present modified new form, and to assistance in a considerable
 
rearrangement of the text and index to facilitate ready reference.
 
He has urged this publication in order to furnish the student, in a
 
new and especially available form, a valuable guide to the ready
 
  
interpretation of his preparations.  
+
It is thus easy to understand the many sections which are not through particularly well-marked points usually figured in textbooks; and it is possible to get a very satisfactory idea of any structure, by turning to the two series figured, to the colored plates and to the index.
  
HENRY Mo E. KNOWER.
+
Tracts in the Spinal Cord may be more readily understood and Spinal Cord traced forward into the brain with the aid of this manual.
ANATOMICAL LABORATORY,
 
  
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.  
+
The text not only describes, in a convenient manner and fully, everything figured in the reconstruction; but the paragraphs of small print, and others referred to in the headings and index, explain just how to compare sections with the model, and how to trace nerve-fibre tracts or masses of gray matter, from section to section through this region.
  
  
 +
When it is realized that this model represents that part of the brain in which the nuclei of origin of all the true cranial nerves are found; that association tracts between these centres are here included; that the cells and fibre-tracts are brought into intimate association, from their central position, with those of the Spinal Cord, Cerebellum, and Forebrain; the usefulness of the Atlas to the Anatomist, Physiologist, Pathologist, and Psychologist, whether in the laboratory or in connection with lectures and demonstrations, may be seen.
  
AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
 
  
A description and the plates of a reconstruction of the medulla
+
A short list of text-books and journals has been included, to permit the tracing of certain tracts of nerve-fibres further up into the higher brain centres or down into the cord, and to encourage the student to seek information as to the many and varied sides of Neurology from reliable sources where more extensive references are to be found.
oblongata of the new-born babe was published in the " Contributions to the Science of Medicine," dedicated to William Henry
 
Welch. 1 The model was built in the Anatomical Laboratory of
 
the Johns Hopkins University at the suggestion of Dr. Franklin
 
P. Mall and Dr. Lewellys F. Barker. It was the original thought
 
that such a reconstruction would not only show graphically for the
 
first time the form and relations of the tracts and nuclei, but that
 
it would simplify for the student of anatomy a region both complex and difficult. The shape of the tracts in the cord was well
 
known, the forms of the internal capsule in the brain could be
 
fairly well imagined, but the tracts between the cord and brain
 
were too complex to give mental pictures without the aid of a
 
model. The suggestion has been made by Dr. H. Me E. Knower,
 
of the Anatomical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Medical
 
School, that the description of the model be put into a more convenient form for the student; by means of fuller references to  
 
the plates and sections; by a rearrangement of contents to make
 
the location in the model of any set of serial sections or any single
 
section of the region an easy matter; by adding a full index; and  
 
by a list of literature containing a few of the most important
 
references valuable to the student at the beginning of a study
 
of the central nervous system of man or the mammals. I am indebted to him for the arrangements for this edition.  
 
  
I wish to thank Dr. John Hewetson for the material which
 
made the model possible. Both series were unbroken, and so admirably prepared that any omissions in the model are due not to the material, but to the nature of the structures in question.
 
I am greatly indebted to Mr. Max Broedel for the beautiful illustrations of the model. They are so accurate and clear as to be
 
equal in value to the model itself. It is through the kindness of
 
Dr. Henry M. Hurd that the plates of these drawings can be used
 
for the present edition. Dr. Franklin P. Mall controlled the construction of the model, Dr. Lewellys F. Barker its study. I acknowledge with thanks their unfailing help and interest.
 
  
 +
The Editor wishes to explain that his participation in this Atlas is confined to the suggestion of publishing the original research in the present modified new form, and to assistance in a considerable rearrangement of the text and index to facilitate ready reference. He has urged this publication in order to furnish the student, in a new and especially available form, a valuable guide to the ready interpretation of his preparations.
  
  
1 Model of the Medulla, Pons and Midbrain of a New-born Babe, by Florence R. Sabin. Contributions to the Science of Medicine, and vol. ix of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports.
+
Henry Mc E. Knower. Anatomical Laboratory,
  
 +
Johns Hopkins University.
  
 +
==Author's Preface==
  
==Contents==
+
A description and the plates of a reconstruction of the medulla oblongata of the new-born babe was published in the " Contributions to the Science of Medicine," dedicated to William Henry Welch.<ref> Model of the Medulla, Pons and Midbrain of a New-born Babe, by Florence R. Sabin. Contributions to the Science of Medicine, and vol. ix of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports.</ref> The model was built in the Anatomical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University at the suggestion of Dr. Franklin P. Mall and Dr. Lewellys F. Barker. It was the original thought that such a reconstruction would not only show graphically for the first time the form and relations of the tracts and nuclei, but that it would simplify for the student of anatomy a region both complex and difficult. The shape of the tracts in the cord was well known, the forms of the internal capsule in the brain could be fairly well imagined, but the tracts between the cord and brain were too complex to give mental pictures without the aid of a model. The suggestion has been made by Dr. H. Me E. Knower, of the Anatomical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Medical School, that the description of the model be put into a more convenient form for the student; by means of fuller references to the plates and sections; by a rearrangement of contents to make the location in the model of any set of serial sections or any single section of the region an easy matter; by adding a full index; and by a list of literature containing a few of the most important references valuable to the student at the beginning of a study of the central nervous system of man or the mammals. I am indebted to him for the arrangements for this edition.
  
Chapter I.
 
  
Introductory
+
I wish to thank Dr. John Hewetson for the material which made the model possible. Both series were unbroken, and so admirably prepared that any omissions in the model are due not to the material, but to the nature of the structures in question. I am greatly indebted to Mr. Max Broedel for the beautiful illustrations of the model. They are so accurate and clear as to be equal in value to the model itself. It is through the kindness of Dr. Henry M. Hurd that the plates of these drawings can be used for the present edition. Dr. Franklin P. Mall controlled the construction of the model, Dr. Lewellys F. Barker its study. I acknowledge with thanks their unfailing help and interest.
 +
I wish to thank Dr. John Hewetson for the material which made the model possible. Both series were unbroken, and so admirably prepared that any omissions in the model are due not to the material, but to the nature of the structures in question.
 +
I am greatly indebted to Mr. Max Broedel for the beautiful illustrations of the model. They are so accurate and clear as to be
 +
equal in value to the model itself. It is through the kindness of
 +
Dr. Henry M. Hurd that the plates of these drawings can be used
 +
for the present edition. Dr. Franklin P. Mall controlled the construction of the model, Dr. Lewellys F. Barker its study. I acknowledge with thanks their unfailing help and interest.
  
Method Of Using Atlas
 
  
Chapter Ii. The Long Tracts.
 
 
A. In The Medulla (Medulla Sheet)
 
 
B. In The Pons And Midbrain (Lemnisci And Formatio Reticularis)
 
 
Chapter Iii. The Columns Of The Spinal Cord.
 
 
A. Ventrolateral Column
 
 
(A) Ventral Part
 
 
(&) Dorsal Part
 
 
B. Dorsal Column
 
 
Chapter Iv. Cerebellar Peduncles.
 
 
Inferior Peduncle, Or Corpus Restiforme
 
 
Superior Peduncle, Or Brachium Conjunctivum
 
 
Chapter V. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei. Median Group (Red In Model).
 
 
(A) N. Hypoglossus, XII
 
 
Nucleus N., XII
 
 
(&) N. Abducens, VI
 
 
Nucleus N., VI
 
 
(C) N. Trochlearis, IV
 
 
Nucleus N., Iv 56
 
 
(D) N. Oculomotorius, III
 
 
Nucleus N., III
 
 
Chapter Vi. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei (Continued). Lateral Group.
 
 
A. Motor Nerves (Red In Model)
 
 
(A) N. Accessprius, XI
 
 
Nucleus N., XI. 
 
 
 
(B) N. Glossopharyngeus Et N. Vagus, Ix And X
 
 
Nucleus N., Ix And X
 
 
(C) N. Facialis, VII
 
 
Nucleus N., VII
 
 
(D) N. Trigeminus, V
 
 
Nucleus N., V
 
 
B. Sensory Nerves (Blue In Model)
 
 
(A) N. Glossopharyngeus Et N. Vagus, Ix And X
 
 
Nucleus N. , Ix And X
 
 
(&) N. Trigeminus, V
 
 
Nucleus N., V
 
 
(C) N. Vestibuli, Viii
 
 
Nuclei N. Vestibuli
 
 
(D) N. Cochleae, Viii
 
 
Nuclei N. Cochlese
 
 
Chapter Vii. The Inferior And Accessory Olives 86
 
 
Chapter Viii. The Midbrain.
 
 
1. Relation Of Its Structures To The Central Fibre Mass
 
 
2. The Nucleus Ruber (Red Nucleus) And Its Capsule
 
 
3. The Fasciculus Retroflexus (Meynerti)
 
 
4. The Decussatio Tegmenti Dorsalis (Meynerti)
 
 
5. The Decussatio Tegmenti Ventralis Of Forel
 
 
6. Stratum Album Prof Undum (Deep White Layer)
 
 
7. Substantia Centralis Grisea (Central Gray Matter)
 
 
8. The Pyramidal Tract
 
 
9. Substantia Nigra
 
 
Chapter Ix. The Formatio Reticularis Alba And Grisea
 
 
General Summary of what Is shown In Reconstruction
 
 
References To Literature
 
 
==List of Illustrations==
 
 
 
FIGURES : PAGE
 
 
1. Transverse Section of the Spinal Cord. Outline 36
 
 
2. Diagram of Medial Accessory Olive 91
 
 
3-24. Series of Horizontal (frontal) Sections, including Medulla and Midbrain 125-132
 
 
25-51. Series of Transverse Sections from the Cord to the Midbrain. .133-145
 
 
52. Diagram of the Model giving Levels of Sections here Figured 146
 
 
PLATES following page 146
 
 
I. The Inferior Olive.
 
II. View of the Lateral Surface of the Reconstruction.
 
 
III. View of the Dorsal Surface of the Reconstruction.
 
 
IV. First Dissection of the Reconstruction. Lateral view, showing
 
 
Fibre Tracts, &c., and the Sensory Nuclei of Cerebral Nerves.
 
V. Second Dissection of the Reconstruction. Lateral view, showing
 
 
Fibre Tracts, &c., and Motor Nuclei of Cerebral Nerves.
 
VI. Third Dissection of the Reconstruction. Lateral view, showing
 
 
the Long Tracts of the Medulla.
 
 
VII. Fourth Dissection of the Reconstruction. Dorsomedian view,
 
showing the Long Fibre Tracts as Related to Nuclei of Cerebral Nerves and to other Structures.
 
 
VIII. View of the Midbraiu from Above, showing Relations of Fibre Tracts.
 
 
 
==Literature==
 
 
 
This list is designed to meet the needs of the student beginning the Study of the Central Nervous System. (It does not represent the full bibliography considered in writing the original article.)
 
 
For the development of the Central Nervous System:
 
 
His, W. Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol., Anat. Abth., Leipz., 1893.
 
 
For a comprehensive text-book on the Nervous System:
 
 
VAN GEHUCHTEN, A. Anatome du Systeme Nerveux De L'Homme. 1897.
 
 
For general text-books :
 
 
Nervensystem. Prof. Dr. H. Ziehen (Jena), 1899; from Dr. Karl von Bardeleben's Anatomie des Menschen.
 
OBERSTEINER, H. Anleitung beim Studium der Nervosen Centralorgane. 1896.
 
 
QUAIN'S Anatomy. Vol. in, Pt. i. The Spinal Cord and Brain. Edited by Schafer and Thane. 1895. Also Quain's Anatomy. Vol. m, Pt. n. The Peripheral Nerves.
 
 
For the development and scope of the Neurone Conception, with a full review of modern investigation and with complete literature :
 
 
BARKER, L. F. The Nervous System. 1899.
 
 
For a detailed Anatomy of the Cord and Brain :
 
 
v. KOELLIKER, A. Handbuch der Gewebelehre, Bd. n.
 
 
Leipz., 1896.
 
For the Anatomy of the Spinal Cord :
 
 
VON LENHOSSE'K, M.
 
 
For the Tracts as studied by the Method of Successive Myelenization:
 
 
FLECHSIG, P. Die Leitungsbahnen im Gehirn und Eiickenmark. Leipzig (1876).
 
 
For the Midbrain :
 
 
FOREL, A. Arch. f. Psychiat., Berl., Bd. vn (1877), S. 393495.
 
 
For a study of the details of the Medulla Oblongata by the Golgi
 
Method:
 
 
RAMO'N Y CAJAL. Beitrag zur Studium der Medulla Oblongata. Deutsche Uebersetz. von Bresler, Leipzig (1896).
 
For the Acustic Nerve and its central path :
 
 
HELD. Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys., Anat. Abth., Leipzig (1891).
 
For the paths in the cord and brain, especially Medulla and Midbrain :
 
 
v. BECHTEREW, W. Die Leitungsbahnen im Gehirn und
 
 
TMickenmark. Leipzig (1894).
 
For Comparative Anatomy:
 
 
EDINGER, L. Yorlesungen iiber den Bau der Nervb'sen Cen
 
tralorgane. Leipzig, 1893.
 
Journals of Current Contributions:
 
 
Le Neuraxe, Van Gehuchten, Lou vain.
 
 
Journal of Comparative Neurology, C. J. Herrick, Granville,
 
 
Ohio, U. S. A.
 
Brain, London, England.
 
 
Arch, fiir Psychiatric und Nervenkrankheiten, Berlin, Germany.
 
 
 
==Abbreviations==
 
 
o, Fibres running from region of lemniscus lateralis toward the dorsal border of brachium conjunctivum.
 
 
A. c. (or Aq. c., or Aq. cer.), Aquaeductus cerebri. Silvian.
 
#, Decussating portion of root of N. trigeminus. N. V.
 
 
B. c. (or Br. conj., or Brach. conj.), Brachium conjunctivum. Superior
 
cerebellar peduncle.
 
 
B. c. (d.), Brachium conjunctivum (dorsal bundle).
 
 
C. a., Columna anterior (Columna ventralis). Ventral column.
 
C. c., Canalis centralis.
 
 
C. i. (or Coll. inf.), Colliculus inferior. Inferior Corpora Quadrigemina.
 
 
C. p., Cornmissura posterior cerebri.
 
 
C. r. (or Corp. rest.), Corpus restiforme. Inferior peduncle.
 
 
C. s. (or Coll. s., or Coll. sup.), Colliculus superior. Superior Corpora
 
Quadrigemina.
 
 
C. t., Corpus trapezoideum.
 
 
D. b. c. (or Dec. B. c., or Dec. Br. Conj.), Decussatio brachii conjunctivi.
 
Decussation of superior cerebellar peduncle.
 
 
D. betw. nu. c. i., Decussation between nuclei colliculi inferioris.
 
 
D. c. n. r., Capsula dorsalis of the nucleus ruber. (Red nucleus.)
 
 
Dec. Beet., Commissure between Bechterew's nuclei. (Superior vestibular nucleus.)
 
 
Dec. 1., Decussatio lemniscorum.
 
 
D. p., Decussatio pyramidum.
 
 
D. rel. to N. V. (Same as /?.), Decussation related to N. trigeminus.
 
 
D. t. v. F., Decussatio tegmenti ventralis, of Forel.
 
 
D. t. Vide F. to d. M.
 
 
D. t. d. M., Decussatio tegmenti dorsalis Meynerti.
 
 
F. a. i., Fibrae areuatse internae.
 
 
F. a. i. (d.) (or F. a. i. (Dec. 1.)), Fibrse arcuatae internae (distal
 
bundle) or Decussatio lemniscorum.
 
 
F. a. i. (p.) (or F. a. i. (cun.)), Fibrae arcuatae internae (proximal
 
bundle).
 
 
F. a. i. (vest.) , Fibrae arcuatae internae, pertaining to central vestibular
 
paths.
 
 
F. a. e., Fibrae arcuatae externae.
 
 
F. betw. B. c. & h. 1. Vide a.
 
 
F. B. c. d. Vide B. c. (d.).
 
 
F. c. (or F. cu., or Fa. cun.), Fasciculus cuneatus. Column of Burdach.
 
 
F. c. s. (or F. do.), Fasciculus cerebellospinalis. Direct cerebellar
 
tract.
 
 
F. c. to Fr., Fibres from fasciculus cuneatus to forma tio reticularis.
 
Column of Burdach.
 
 
F. fr. d. M., Fibres from Decussatio tegmenti dorsalis Meynerti.
 
 
F. fr. f. 1. (1.), Fibres from fasciculus lateralis (lateral group).
 
Lateral column.
 
 
F. fr. f. 1. (m.), Fibres from fasciculus lateralis (medial group).
 
 
F. fr. 1. m. to s. n., Fibres from lemniscus medialis to substantia nigra.
 
 
F. g. (or Fa. gr.), Fasciculus gracilis. Column of Goll.
 
 
F. L, Fossa interpedunculare.
 
 
Fib. arc. int. Vide F. a. i. (p.).
 
 
F. 1., Fasciculus lateralis.
 
 
F. 1. m. (or Fasc. 1. med.), Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis. Posterior longitudinal bundle.
 
 
F. 1. p., Fasciculus lateralis proprius. Lateral ground bundle.
 
 
F. 1. p. (d.), (or F. 1. p. (4)), Bundle continuous with fasciculus lateralis of the cord.
 
 
F. p. (or F. Py.), Fasciculi longitudinales pyramidales. (In Fig. 36
 
F. p. is Fibrse pontis.) Pyramidal tract.
 
 
F. r. a., Formatio reticularis alba.
 
 
F. r. M. (or Fasc. retrof.), Fasciculus retroflexus Meynerti.
 
 
F. sc. dl., Fasciculus cerebellospinalis dorsolateralis. Direct cerebellar tract.
 
 
F. to d. M. (or F. to d. t. d.), Fibres to decussatio tegmenti dorsalis
 
Meynerti.
 
 
F. v. c. (i.), Fibres connecting vestibular area with cerebellum (inner
 
or medial group).
 
 
F. v. c. (o.), Fibres relating the vestibular area with the cerebellum
 
(outer or lateral bundle).
 
 
F. v. 1., Fasciculus ventrolateralis. Ventrolateral column.
 
 
F. v. p., Fasciculus ventralis proprius. Ventral ground bundle.
 
 
L. c. nu. r., Capsula lateralis nuclei rubri.
 
 
L. 1. (or Lemn. lat.), Lemniscus lateralis.
 
 
L. m., Lemniscus medialis.
 
 
L. nu. r., Lectus nuclei rubri. Bed of red nucleus.
 
 
L. s., Lemniscus superior.
 
 
Med. obi., Medulla oblongata.
 
 
Mesenc., Mesencephalon.
 
 
Mot. V. Vide N. V (m.).
 
 
N. c. Vide N. VIII (Coch.).
 
 
N. 1. 1., Nucleus lemnisci lateralis.
 
 
N. Ill, Eadix N. oculomotorii.
 
 
N. IV (or N. troch.), Eadix N. trochlearis.
 
 
N. V, Eadix N. trigemini.
 
 
N. V (dec.). Vide/?.
 
 
N. V (m.), or N. Mot. V, Eadix N. trigemini (motor).
 
 
N. V (s.) (or N. Sen. V), Eadix N. trigemini (sensory).
 
 
N. VI, Eadix N. abducentis.
 
 
N. VII, Eadix N. facialis.
 
 
N. VII p. p. (or VII (a.)), Eadix N. facialis, pars prima.
 
 
N. VII p. s. (or N. VII (c.)), Eadix N. facialis, pars secunda.
 
 
N. VII g. (i.) (or N. VII (b.)), Eadix N. facialis genu internuin.
 
 
N. VIII (coch.) (or N. c.), Eadix N. cochleae.
 
 
N. VIII (vest.) (or N. vest.), Eadix N. vestibuli.
 
 
N. IX & X, Eadices N. glossopharyngei et vagi.
 
 
N. XI, Eadix N. accessorii.
 
 
N. XI p. p., Eadix N. accessorii, pars prima.
 
 
N. XI p. s., Eadix N. accessorii, pars secunda.
 
 
N. XII, Eadix N. hypoglossi.
 
 
Nu. a., Nucleus arcuatus.
 
 
Nu. a. c., Nucleus alae cinerese.
 
 
Nu. c., Nucleus coluxnnaris.
 
 
Nu. c. i., Nucleus colliculi inferioris, Figs. 43 and 44. In Fig. 13, Nu.
 
e. i. = Nucleus centralis inferior.
 
 
Nu. com., Nucleus commissuralis.
 
 
Nu. c. p., Nucleus commissurse posterior, or nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis. Posterior longitudinal bundle.
 
 
Nu. c. s. (1.), Nucleus centralis superior, pars lateralis.
 
 
Nu. c. s. (m.), Nucleus centralis superior, pars medialis.
 
 
Nu. d., Nucleus dentatus.
 
 
Nu. f. c. (or Nu. f. cu., or Nuc. f. cun.), Nucleus funiculi cuneati.
 
 
Nu. f. c. (1.), Nucleus funiculi cuneati lateralis (Blumenau).
 
 
Nu. f. g. (or Nucl. f. gr.), Nucleus funiculi gracilis.
 
 
Nu. f. 1. m., Nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis or nucleus commissurae posterioris (oberer Oculomotoriuskern or Darkschewitsch) .
 
 
Nu. g., Nucleus globosus.
 
 
Nu. 1. s., Nucleus lateralis superior of Flechsig.
 
 
Nu. N. c. d. (or Nu. N. cochl. cl.), Nucleus N. cochleae dorsalis.
 
 
Nu. N. c. v., Nucleus N. cochleae ventralis.
 
 
Nu. N. v. 1. (or Nu. N. vest. 1.), Nucleus N. vestibuli lateralis.
 
 
Nu. N. v. m. (or Nu. N. vest, m.), Nucleus N. vestibuli medialis
 
(Schwalbe).
 
 
Nu. N. v. s. (or Nu. N. vest, s.), Nucleus N. vestibuli superior (von
 
Bechterew).
 
 
Nu. N. Ill, Nucleus N. oculomotorii.
 
 
Nu. N. Ill, 1., (or Nu. N. Ill (a.)), Nucleus N. oculomotorii, pars lateralis.
 
 
Nu. N. Ill, m. (or Nu. N. Ill (b.)), Nucleus oculomotorii (medial nucleus).
 
 
Nu. N. IV, Nucleus N. trochlearis.
 
 
Nu. N. V, Nucleus N. trigemini.
 
 
Nu. m. m. N. V, Nuclei motorii minores N. trigemini.
 
 
Nu. m. p. N. V, Nucleus motorius princeps N. trigemini.
 
 
Nu. N. VI (or Nucl. N. abd.), Nucleus N. abducentis.
 
 
Nu. N. VII, Nucleus N. facialis.
 
 
Nu. N. XII (or Nucl. N. hyp.), Nucleus N. hypoglossi.
 
 
Nu. N. XII, a. K., Nucleus of Holler.
 
 
Nu. o. a. d., Nucleus olivaris accessorius dorsalis. Accessory olive.
 
 
Nu. of r., Nucleus of the roof.
 
 
Nu. o. a. m., Nucleus olivaris accessorius medialis.
 
 
Nu. o. i., Nucleus olivaris inferior. Olive.
 
 
Nu. o. s., Nucleus olivaris superior. Superior olive.
 
 
Nu. o. s. 2, Nucleus olivaris superior, at its junction with the nucleus
 
lemnisci lateralis.
 
 
Nu. r., Nucleus ruber. Eed nucleus.
 
 
Nu. r. t., Nucleus reticularis tegmenti.
 
 
Nu. t. s. (or Nu. tr. sol.), Nucleus tractus solitarii.
 
 
Nu. x. of 1. c. of nu. r., Nucleus capsulse lateralis nuclei rubri.
 
 
Nu. y., Anterolateral extremity of nucleus of N. vest, medialis.
 
 
P. f., Pedunculus flocculi.
 
 
Py., Pyramis. Pyramid.
 
 
R. d. N. V, Radix descendens (mesencephalica) N. trigemini.
 
 
R. d. N. vest, (or Rad. desc. N. vest.), Radix descendens N. vestibuli.
 
 
R. 1., Recessus lateralis ventriculi quarti. Lateral recess of fourth
 
ventricle.
 
 
S. 1., Transverse series.
 
 
S. 2., Horizontal series.
 
 
S. a., Striae acusticse.
 
 
S. a. p. (or St. a. p., or Str. alb. p., or St. alb. p.), Stratum album profundum.
 
 
Sen. V. Vide N. V. (s.).
 
 
S. f., Substantia ferruginea.
 
 
S. g. (or Sub. gel., or Sub. gel. Rolandi), Substantia gelatinosa Rolandi.
 
 
S. i. 1. (or St. i. 1.), Stratum interolivare lemnisci. (In Fig. 20 extend
 
the line through the olive.)
 
 
S. n., Substantia nigra.
 
 
St. g. c. (or St. gr. c.), Stratum griseum centrale. Central gray
 
matter.
 
 
T. fr. D. to c. (or Tr. fr. nu. D.), Tract from Deiters' nucleus to the
 
funiculus lateralis to lateral column.
 
 
T. s. ( (or Tr. s., or Tr. sol.), Tractus solitarius.
 
 
T. s. N. V (or T. s. n. t., or Tr. s. n. t., or Tr. s. N. V), Tractus spinalis
 
N. trigemini.
 
 
V. q., Ventriculus quartus.
 
 
 
 
 
==Description of Figures and Plates==
 
 
Figs. 3-24. Series of horizontal sections passing through the medulla,
 
pons and midbrain of a new-born babe. The series is traced from the
 
dorsal to the ventral surface. The following sections, Figs. 6, 7, 9, 12, 13,
 
16 and 19 are after Barker, L. F.: The Nervous System and its Constituent Neurones. D. Appleton & Co., 1899. (Preparations by Dr. John
 
Hewetson.)
 
 
Figs. 25-51. Series of transverse sections passing through the medulla, pons and midbrain of a new-born babe. The series is traced from
 
the spinal cord toward the cerebrum. The following sections, Figs. 25,
 
28, 31, 33, 35, 36, 39, 41, 42, 46 and 49 are after Barker, L. F.: Op. cit.
 
(Preparations by Dr. John Hewetson.)
 
 
Fig. 52. KEY TO PLANES OF SECTIONS.
 
 
PLATE I.
 
 
Fig. 1. View of the dorsolateral and lateral surfaces of the nucleus
 
olivaris inferior.
 
F. dl. Facies dorsolateralis.
 
F. 1. Facies lateralis.
 
F. p. Fissura prima.
 
F. s. Fissura secunda.
 
F. t. Fissura tertia.
 
F. q. Fissura quarta.
 
L. p. Lobus primus.
 
L. s. Lobus secundus.
 
L. t. Lobus tertius.
 
L. q. Lobus quartus.
 
 
Fig. 2. View of the ventral surface of the nucleus olivaris superior.
 
S. p. Sulcus primus.
 
S. s. Sulcus secundus.
 
S. t. Sulcus tertius.
 
 
PLATE II.
 
 
View of the model from the lateral surface. This view is designed to
 
relate the model to the cord, the cerebellum and the cerebrum. The
 
cut edge of the cord shows on the extreme right. The following points
 
will make the position of the model clear: the dorsal and lateral funiculi
 
and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, the cerebellum, the fourth ventricle, the inferior and superior colliculi and the third ventricle.
 
 
The color system is as follows: all fibres are in white and black, all
 
nuclei in colors. Red represents the nuclei of the motor cerebral
 
nerves, blue the nuclei of the sensory cerebral nerves and yellow all
 
other nuclei.
 
 
Nu. et Radix N. vestibuli: The nucleus is distinguishable from the root
 
by its color. The ascending and descending parts of the root are to be
 
determined by their relation to the entering root-bundle of the nerve.
 
The part of the vestibular nucleus distal to the nucleus N. abducentis is
 
the nucleus N. vestibuli medialis; the part proximal, is the nucleus N.
 
vestibuli superior. The nucleus N. vestibuli lateralis (Deiters'), (pars
 
lateralis) lies in the vestibular tract just dorsal to the corpus restiforme.
 
9
 
 
 
 
122 DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES AND PLATES
 
 
PLATE III.
 
 
View of the model from the dorsal surface. On the right side is
 
shown the floor of the fourth ventricle; on the left, the structures
 
beneath are exposed. The position of these structures can be related
 
to the dorsal funiculi of the spinal cord, the fourth ventricle, and the
 
inferior and superior colliculi.
 
 
Nu. et Radix N. vestibuli: To be distinguished by the colors. The ascending root is marked by the most proximal of the three lines on the
 
figure; the descending by the most distal line, while the nucleus N.
 
vestibuli medialis is indicated by the middle of the three lines. The
 
nucleus N. vestibuli superior is continuous with the medial nucleus and
 
lies opposite the ascending root. The nucleus 1ST. vestibuli lateralis
 
consists of two parts, one between the corpus restiforme and the
 
ascending root, the other in the notch between the medial and superior
 
nuclei.
 
 
Nucleus N. cochlew dor sails: The more proximal of the two lines points
 
to the striae acusticae.
 
 
Traotus solitarius et Nu. alas cinerce: The former is in black and white,
 
the latter in blue.
 
 
PLATE IV.
 
 
View of the model from the lateral aspect. After removing from
 
Plate i, the following structures: the corpus restiforme, the substantia
 
nigra and the medial, lateral and superior lemnisci. The view is designed to show (1) the sensory nerves and their nuclei, and (2) the midbrain. The nuclei of the dorsal funiculi represent a way-station for the
 
sensory fibres from the spinal cord; the sensory cerebral nerves are
 
represented by the nuclei nervi glossopharyngei, vagi, vestibuli et trigemini. These include all of the sensory nerves of the region of the model
 
except the N. cochleae, which was removed with the corpus restiforme.
 
 
Radix N. trigemini (Sens.) : The proximal line runs to the root bundle,
 
the distal to the tractus spinalis N. trigemini.
 
 
Tract from Betters' nucleus to F. i. (3), and Fasciculus lateraMs (4): The
 
numbers are explained in the text.
 
 
PLATE V.
 
 
View of the model from the lateral aspect. The sensory nerves of
 
Plate iv have been removed and all of the motor cerebral nerves except
 
the N. trochlearis are now shown.
 
 
Fasciculus lateralis (2), and Fasciculus lateralis (3): The numbers are
 
explained in the text.
 
 
PLATE VI.
 
 
View of the lateral surface of the medulla sheet. The view can be related to Plates n, iv and v, by the position of the nucleus N. abducentis.
 
Fasciculus ventrolateralis (1): The number is explained in the text.
 
 
PLATE VII.
 
 
View of the model from a dorsomedian aspect. This view is designed
 
to show the central fibre mass, that is, the medulla, pontal and midbrain sheets, together with the corpus trapezoideum.
 
 
. Fibres running from Lemniscus lateralis to the brachium conjunctivum.
 
 
 
 
DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES AND PLATES 123
 
 
PLATE VIII.
 
 
View of the midbrain from the superior or cerebral aspect. This
 
view can be understood by comparing 1 it with Plates n, iv and v, which
 
show the stratum profundum album, the lemniscus superior and the
 
capsula nuclei rubri from the lateral aspect.
 
 
7 is a space in the model, in the stratum profundum album where
 
fibres of the formatio reticularis alba are related to the substantia
 
centralis grisea.
 
 
Fasciculus ventrolateralis (1) : The number is explained in the text.
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 38, 56 and 62.
 
 
 
 
 
(126)
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 66, 72 and 74.
 
 
 
 
 
Q26)
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 80, 86 and 94.
 
 
 
 
 
(127)
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 100, 108, 114 and 116.
 
 
 
 
 
(128)
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 122 and 126.
 
 
 
 
 
 
(129)
 
 
 
 
HOKIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 128 and 136.
 
 
 
 
 
J
 
 
~
 
 
 
 
 
(130)
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 146 and 162.
 
 
 
 
 
 
(131)
 
 
 
 
HOEIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 170, 180 and 202.
 
 
 
 
 
 
be
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTIONS 20-84.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
be
 
 
 
 
 
CKOSS-SECTIONS 94-146.
 
 
 
 
 
f
 
 
 
 
 
 
(134)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTION 158.
 
 
 
 
 
(135)
 
 
 
 
CEOSS-SECTION 170.
 
 
 
 
 
N_^JJ
 
 
 
 
(136)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTION 182.
 
 
 
 
 
(137)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTION 190.
 
 
 
 
 
p ml
 
 
 
 
(138)
 
 
 
 
CKOSS-SECTIONS 200 and 212.
 
Na.mp.n.T.
 
 
 
 
B.c.
 
 
 
 
 
C.t.
 
 
 
 
Urn.
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 38, Series II, Section No. 200.
 
 
 
 
 
I(SPflS)
 
 
 
 
Lm.,
 
 
 
 
Fig. 39, Series II, Section No. 212.
 
 
(139)
 
 
 
 
CKOSS-SECTIONS 254 and 268.
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 40, Series II, Section No. 254.
 
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 41, Series II, Section No. 268.
 
 
 
 
(140)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTIONS 290 and 304.
 
 
 
 
Nu.
 
 
 
 
St.gr.
 
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 42, Series II, Section No. 290.
 
 
 
 
D.betw.nax.L
 
 
NiLcl.
 
 
 
 
 
11
 
 
 
 
Fig. 43, Series II, Section No. 304.
 
(141)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTIONS 316 and 330.
 
 
 
 
S.CL.p,.
 
 
NU.C.L
 
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 44, Series II, Section No. 316.
 
 
 
 
a
 
 
 
 
 
JS.a.p
 
A.C-.
 
 
 
 
N n
 
 
Ill .J-V
 
 
 
Fig. 45, Series II, Section No. 330.
 
 
 
 
(142)
 
 
 
 
CEOSS-SECT1ONS 338 and 354.
 
 
 
 
 
Bec.Br.Con].
 
J
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 46, Series II, Section No. 338.
 
 
 
 
 
n.m
 
 
 
 
-S.n.
 
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 47, Series II, Section No. 354.
 
 
 
 
(143)
 
 
 
 
CKOSS-SECT1ONS 372 and 384.
 
 
 
 
L.S,
 
 
 
 
 
NHL
 
 
Fig. 48, Series II, Section No. 372.
 
 
 
 
Aq.cer.
 
 
 
 
St. gr. c
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 49, Series II, Section No. 384.
 
 
 
 
(144)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTIONS 396 and 420.
 
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 50, Series II, Section No. 396.
 
 
 
 
 
TtM.
 
 
JUL
 
 
Fig-. 51, Series II, Section No. 420.
 
 
 
 
(145)
 
 
 
 
GUIDE TO SECTIONS IN SERIES 1 and 2.
 
 
 
 
 
(146)
 
 
 
 
INFERIOR OLIVE.
 
 
 
 
PLATE I.
 
 
 
 
Lateral Surface.
 
 
 
 
T.i
 
 
 
 
Dorsal
 
 
 
 
 
Veatrul
 
 
 
 
FIG. 1.
 
 
 
 
Ventral Surface.
 
 
 
 
Lateral
 
 
 
 
 
Mesial
 
 
 
 
FIG. 2.
 
 
 
 
LATERAL SURFACE a
 
OF MODEL. |
 
 
!~
 
 
 
 
PLATE II.
 
 
 
 
 
s I
 
 
26
 
 
III
 
 
 
 
i o
 
 
I!
 
 
 
 
I
 
 
6"
 
11
 
 
 
 
DORSAL SURFACE OF MODEL.
 
 
 
 
PLATE III.
 
 
 
 
Stratum album
 
profundum
 
 
 
 
Nucleus N. oculomotor!!
 
 
 
 
Commissurae nuclei coll;
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus retroflexus (Meynerti)
 
 
 
 
Lemniscus medialls...
 
 
 
 
Nucleus colliculi inferloris . .
 
 
 
 
Radix N. trochlearls __
 
A
 
 
Brachium conjunctivum
 
 
Radix descendens
 
 
N. trigemini
 
 
Locus caeruleus.
 
 
Radix N. trigemini (Mot.)
 
Radix N. trigemini (Sens.) ,
 
 
 
 
Nucleus motorius
 
princeps N. trigemini
 
 
 
 
Nucleus N. trigemini (Sens.)
 
 
Nucleus N.
 
 
vestibuli lateralis f|
 
 
Corpus restiforme
 
 
 
 
Nucleus et radix
 
N. vestibuli
 
 
 
 
Nucleus N. cochleae dorsalis
 
 
 
Corpus restiforme
 
 
 
Tractus solitarius et
 
nucleus alae cinereae ""
 
 
 
 
Nucleus funiculj cuneati .-"''
 
 
Fasciculus cuneatus .
 
Nucleus funiculi gracills ....
 
 
Fasciculus gracilis
 
 
 
 
 
Nucleus N.
 
 
 
 
.Substantia fei
 
.Ventriculus qu
 
 
 
 
Brachium con;
 
 
 
 
Corpus restiforme
 
 
 
 
-Radix N. facial!
 
--Nucleus N. abd
 
 
 
 
- fasciculus long
 
 
 
 
--Nucleus olivaris i
 
 
 
 
--Nucleus N. hypog
 
 
 
 
INTERIOR OF MODEL FROM SIDE (one layer removed).
 
 
 
 
PLATE IV.
 
 
 
 
<
 
 
 
 
 
FURTHER DISSECTION OF INTERIOR OF MODEL FROM SIDES.
 
 
 
 
PLATE V.
 
 
 
 
 
LATERAL VIEW OF MEDULLA SHEET.
 
 
 
 
PLATE VI.
 
 
 
 
 
RELATIONS OF LONG TRACTS.
 
 
 
 
Capsula
 
superior
 
nuclei rubri
 
 
 
 
PLATE VII.
 
 
 
 
Radix N. oculomotor! i
 
Nucleus ruber
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus retroflexus (Meynerti)
 
 
 
 
Lemniscus lateralis*
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis-
 
Formatio reticularis alba -,Nucleus olivaris superior^
 
 
Radix N. facialiSx \
 
 
Nucleus N. abducentis -s^.-l
 
 
 
 
Striae acusticseNucleus N. cochleae dorsalis
 
 
 
Radix N. vestibuli
 
 
Corpus trapezoideum'' ,*'*'
 
 
Radix N. cochleae- '
 
Nucleus olivaris inferior -;'''
 
 
Nucleus funiculi cuneati
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus cuneatus to
 
formatio reticularis
 
 
 
 
Nucleus funiculi gracilis
 
 
 
 
 
Lemniscus
 
 
medialis
 
 
 
 
Corpus
 
,- 'trapezoideu
 
 
 
 
^Nucleus oli'
 
' superior
 
 
 
 
Stratum interolivare lemnis
 
--- Nucleus N. hypoglossi
 
 
 
 
Nucleus olivaris accessorius rr
 
"Decussatio lemniscorum
 
 
 
 
Canalis centralis
 
Substantia gelatinosa (Rolandi)
 
 
 
 
THE MIDBRAIN FROM ABOVE.
 
 
 
 
PLATE VIII.
 
 
 
 
Commissure between Bechterew's nuclei
 
Corpus trapezoideum and nucleus olivaris superior,
 
 
 
 
Brachium conjunctivum (dorsal bundle)
 
 
 
 
Brachium conjunctivum
 
 
 
 
Decussatio
 
tegmenti dorsalis .
 
 
 
 
Capsula dorsalis nuclei rubri
 
 
 
 
Decussatio tegmenti dorsalis
 
 
 
 
Decussatio tegmenti ventralis
 
 
 
 
 
Nucleus N. abducentis
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis
 
 
Nucleus reticularis Kucleus colliculi inferioris
 
 
 
 
Capsula nuclei
 
colliculi inferioris
 
 
 
 
Position of nucleus
 
N. trochlearis
 
Lemniscus superior
 
V
 
 
Position of nucleus
 
N. oculomotor!!
 
^Stratum album profundui
 
 
7' Lemniscus medialis
 
Commissura posterior
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus retroflexus
 
(Meynerti)
 
  
 +
<references/>
  
 +
==Contents==
  
tiapsula superior nuclei rubrl
+
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_1|Chapter I. Introductory]]
 +
:Method Of Using Atlas
 +
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_2|Chapter II. The Long Tracts]]
 +
:A. In The Medulla (Medulla Sheet)
 +
:B. In The Pons And Midbrain (Lemnisci And Formatio Reticularis)
 +
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_3|Chapter III. The Columns Of The Spinal Cord]]
 +
:A. Ventrolateral Column
 +
::(A) Ventral Part
 +
::(B) Dorsal Part
 +
:B. Dorsal Column
 +
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_4|Chapter IV. Cerebellar Peduncles]]
 +
:Inferior Peduncle, Or Corpus Restiforme
 +
:Superior Peduncle, Or Brachium Conjunctivum
 +
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_5|Chapter V. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei]]
 +
:Median Group (Red In Model).
 +
::(A) N. Hypoglossus, XII Nucleus N., XII
 +
::(B) N. Abducens, VI Nucleus N., VI
 +
::(C) N. Trochlearis, IV Nucleus N., Iv 56
 +
::(D) N. Oculomotorius, III Nucleus N., III
 +
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_6|Chapter VI. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei (Continued). Lateral Group]]
 +
:A. Motor Nerves (Red In Model)
 +
::(A) N. Accessprius, XI Nucleus N., XI. 
 +
::(B) N. Glossopharyngeus Et N. Vagus, Ix And X Nucleus N., Ix And X
 +
::(C) N. Facialis, VII Nucleus N., VII
 +
::(D) N. Trigeminus, V Nucleus N., V
 +
:B. Sensory Nerves (Blue In Model)
 +
::(A) N. Glossopharyngeus Et N. Vagus, Ix And X Nucleus N. , Ix And X
 +
::(B) N. Trigeminus, V Nucleus N., V
 +
::(C) N. Vestibuli, Viii Nuclei N. Vestibuli
 +
::(D) N. Cochleae, Viii Nuclei N. Cochlese
 +
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_7|Chapter VII. The Inferior And Accessory Olives]]
  
 +
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_8|Chapter VIII. The Midbrain]]
 +
# Relation Of Its Structures To The Central Fibre Mass
 +
# The Nucleus Ruber (Red Nucleus) And Its Capsule
 +
# The Fasciculus Retroflexus (Meynerti)
 +
# The Decussatio Tegmenti Dorsalis (Meynerti)
 +
#  The Decussatio Tegmenti Ventralis Of Forel
 +
# Stratum Album Prof Undum (Deep White Layer)
 +
# Substantia Centralis Grisea (Central Gray Matter)
 +
# The Pyramidal Tract
 +
# Substantia Nigra
  
 +
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_1|Chapter IX. The Formatio Reticularis Alba And Grisea]]
  
/ Nucleus
+
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain - Reconstruction General Summary|General Summary of what Is shown In Reconstruction]]
Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis fasciculi
 
  
longitudinalis
+
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_-_References|References To Literature]]
medialis
 
  
 +
[[Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain_-_Figures|Figures]]
  
  
Lectus nuclei rubri
 
  
 
{{Sabin1901 footer}}
 
{{Sabin1901 footer}}
  
 
[[Category:Florence Sabin]]
 
[[Category:Florence Sabin]]

Latest revision as of 07:27, 10 November 2017

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Sabin FR. and Knower H. An atlas of the medulla and midbrain, a laboratory manual (1901) Baltimore: Friedenwald.

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This 1901 book by Florence Rena Sabin (1871 - 1953) and her collaborator presents one of the very earliest atlases of the human central nervous system, describing the midbrain and brainstem. This atlas was extremely useful for later researchers attempting to both understand the development and mapping of the midbrain and medulla. Florence Sabin later work was as a key historic researcher in early 1900's establishing our early understanding of both vascular and lymphatic development in the embryo.



Modern Notes: Medulla | Mesencephalon | Florence Sabin

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mesencephalon (midbrain) mesencephalon tectum, Cerebral peduncle, cerebral aqueduct, pons
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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

An Atlas Of The Medulla And Midbrain

Sabin1901 titlepage.jpg
Florence Rena Sabin (1871 - 1953)
Florence Rena Sabin (1871-1953)

By Florence R. Sabin


A Laboratory Manual

Illustrated With Seven Colored Plates, One Black Plate And Fifty-Two Figures


Edited By


Henry McE. Knower, PH.D.

Instructor in Anatomy in the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.


Baltimore, Md., U. S. A.

The Friedenwald Company

Publishers

1901


Copyright, 1901, By Florence R. Sabin


The Friedenwald Company Baltimore, Md M U. S. A.

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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Editor's Preface

This Atlas is planned to meet the practical need of some quick and simple, yet full and reliable, means of aiding the student to obtain, from a few sections (or from a series of sections), a reasonably clear idea of the important central relay-station of the brain here presented. (Though representing the human brain, the atlas can be applied to the study of the brains of lower mammals.)


The time allotted to a course in Neurology is generally so short; the sections to be studied exhibit such great special complexity of structure, due to the presence and association of many different centres in the narrow limits of the region; and the descriptions in text-books or lectures are commonly so detailed, or so general or diagrammatic; that many students get but hazy ideas of what is shown in their preparations, without spending more time in the effort than is reasonable.


We believe, and a number of well-known teachers in several of our large universities have agreed in this opinion, that this little Atlas will offer a valuable and new remedy for the difficulties stated above; and will save the student much time for real study, now often spent in getting started.


Supplied with these excellent drawings of the reconstruction, showing for the first time accurately and satisfactorily structures to be studied, the student can quickly compare his own sections with the figures of the Atlas and find the parts there clearly designated and explained.


Again, if, as is usually the case, a student has only a few cross-sections through this region the Atlas with its 48 figures of sections.


At the urgent solicitation of Professor Ph. Stohr, of Wiirzburg, Germany, Dr. F Ziegler, of Freiburg, Germany, is considering the reduplication of the model on which this atlas is based. It is expected that such models, from his studio, will be available within the year .



Florence R. Sabin, M. D


May 31, 1901.



Editor's Preface

This Atlas is planned to meet the practical need of some quick and simple, yet full and reliable, means of aiding the student to obtain, from a few sections (or from a series of sections), a reasonably clear idea of the important central relay-station of the brain here presented. (Though representing the human brain, the atlas can be applied to the study of the brains of lower mammals.)


The time allotted to a course in Neurology is generally so short; the sections to be studied exhibit such great special complexity of structure, due to the presence and association of many different centres in the narrow limits of the region; and the descriptions in text-books or lectures are commonly so detailed, or so general or diagrammatic; that many students get but hazy ideas of what is shown in their preparations, without spending more time in the effort than is reasonable.


We believe, and a number of well-known teachers in several of our large universities have agreed in this opinion, that this little Atlas will offer a valuable and new remedy for the difficulties stated above; and will save the student much time for real study, now often spent in getting started.


Supplied with these excellent drawings of the reconstruction, showing for the first time accurately and satisiactorily structures to be studied, the student can quickly compare his own sections with the figures of the Atlas and find the parts there clearly designated and explained.


Again, if, as is usually the case, a student has only a few crosssections through this region, the Atlas, with its 48 figures of sections cut in two planes and drawn to resemble actual preparations, furnishes a good supplementary series of sections for comparison.


It is thus easy to understand the many sections which are not through particularly well-marked points usually figured in textbooks; and it is possible to get a very satisfactory idea of any structure, by turning to the two series figured, to the colored plates and to the index.

Tracts in the Spinal Cord may be more readily understood and Spinal Cord traced forward into the brain with the aid of this manual.

The text not only describes, in a convenient manner and fully, everything figured in the reconstruction; but the paragraphs of small print, and others referred to in the headings and index, explain just how to compare sections with the model, and how to trace nerve-fibre tracts or masses of gray matter, from section to section through this region.


When it is realized that this model represents that part of the brain in which the nuclei of origin of all the true cranial nerves are found; that association tracts between these centres are here included; that the cells and fibre-tracts are brought into intimate association, from their central position, with those of the Spinal Cord, Cerebellum, and Forebrain; the usefulness of the Atlas to the Anatomist, Physiologist, Pathologist, and Psychologist, whether in the laboratory or in connection with lectures and demonstrations, may be seen.


A short list of text-books and journals has been included, to permit the tracing of certain tracts of nerve-fibres further up into the higher brain centres or down into the cord, and to encourage the student to seek information as to the many and varied sides of Neurology from reliable sources where more extensive references are to be found.


The Editor wishes to explain that his participation in this Atlas is confined to the suggestion of publishing the original research in the present modified new form, and to assistance in a considerable rearrangement of the text and index to facilitate ready reference. He has urged this publication in order to furnish the student, in a new and especially available form, a valuable guide to the ready interpretation of his preparations.


Henry Mc E. Knower. Anatomical Laboratory,

Johns Hopkins University.

Author's Preface

A description and the plates of a reconstruction of the medulla oblongata of the new-born babe was published in the " Contributions to the Science of Medicine," dedicated to William Henry Welch.[1] The model was built in the Anatomical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University at the suggestion of Dr. Franklin P. Mall and Dr. Lewellys F. Barker. It was the original thought that such a reconstruction would not only show graphically for the first time the form and relations of the tracts and nuclei, but that it would simplify for the student of anatomy a region both complex and difficult. The shape of the tracts in the cord was well known, the forms of the internal capsule in the brain could be fairly well imagined, but the tracts between the cord and brain were too complex to give mental pictures without the aid of a model. The suggestion has been made by Dr. H. Me E. Knower, of the Anatomical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Medical School, that the description of the model be put into a more convenient form for the student; by means of fuller references to the plates and sections; by a rearrangement of contents to make the location in the model of any set of serial sections or any single section of the region an easy matter; by adding a full index; and by a list of literature containing a few of the most important references valuable to the student at the beginning of a study of the central nervous system of man or the mammals. I am indebted to him for the arrangements for this edition.


I wish to thank Dr. John Hewetson for the material which made the model possible. Both series were unbroken, and so admirably prepared that any omissions in the model are due not to the material, but to the nature of the structures in question. I am greatly indebted to Mr. Max Broedel for the beautiful illustrations of the model. They are so accurate and clear as to be equal in value to the model itself. It is through the kindness of Dr. Henry M. Hurd that the plates of these drawings can be used for the present edition. Dr. Franklin P. Mall controlled the construction of the model, Dr. Lewellys F. Barker its study. I acknowledge with thanks their unfailing help and interest. I wish to thank Dr. John Hewetson for the material which made the model possible. Both series were unbroken, and so admirably prepared that any omissions in the model are due not to the material, but to the nature of the structures in question. I am greatly indebted to Mr. Max Broedel for the beautiful illustrations of the model. They are so accurate and clear as to be equal in value to the model itself. It is through the kindness of Dr. Henry M. Hurd that the plates of these drawings can be used for the present edition. Dr. Franklin P. Mall controlled the construction of the model, Dr. Lewellys F. Barker its study. I acknowledge with thanks their unfailing help and interest.


  1. Model of the Medulla, Pons and Midbrain of a New-born Babe, by Florence R. Sabin. Contributions to the Science of Medicine, and vol. ix of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports.

Contents

Chapter I. Introductory

Method Of Using Atlas

Chapter II. The Long Tracts

A. In The Medulla (Medulla Sheet)
B. In The Pons And Midbrain (Lemnisci And Formatio Reticularis)

Chapter III. The Columns Of The Spinal Cord

A. Ventrolateral Column
(A) Ventral Part
(B) Dorsal Part
B. Dorsal Column

Chapter IV. Cerebellar Peduncles

Inferior Peduncle, Or Corpus Restiforme
Superior Peduncle, Or Brachium Conjunctivum

Chapter V. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei

Median Group (Red In Model).
(A) N. Hypoglossus, XII Nucleus N., XII
(B) N. Abducens, VI Nucleus N., VI
(C) N. Trochlearis, IV Nucleus N., Iv 56
(D) N. Oculomotorius, III Nucleus N., III

Chapter VI. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei (Continued). Lateral Group

A. Motor Nerves (Red In Model)
(A) N. Accessprius, XI Nucleus N., XI.
(B) N. Glossopharyngeus Et N. Vagus, Ix And X Nucleus N., Ix And X
(C) N. Facialis, VII Nucleus N., VII
(D) N. Trigeminus, V Nucleus N., V
B. Sensory Nerves (Blue In Model)
(A) N. Glossopharyngeus Et N. Vagus, Ix And X Nucleus N. , Ix And X
(B) N. Trigeminus, V Nucleus N., V
(C) N. Vestibuli, Viii Nuclei N. Vestibuli
(D) N. Cochleae, Viii Nuclei N. Cochlese

Chapter VII. The Inferior And Accessory Olives

Chapter VIII. The Midbrain

  1. Relation Of Its Structures To The Central Fibre Mass
  2. The Nucleus Ruber (Red Nucleus) And Its Capsule
  3. The Fasciculus Retroflexus (Meynerti)
  4. The Decussatio Tegmenti Dorsalis (Meynerti)
  5. The Decussatio Tegmenti Ventralis Of Forel
  6. Stratum Album Prof Undum (Deep White Layer)
  7. Substantia Centralis Grisea (Central Gray Matter)
  8. The Pyramidal Tract
  9. Substantia Nigra

Chapter IX. The Formatio Reticularis Alba And Grisea

General Summary of what Is shown In Reconstruction

References To Literature

Figures



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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain (1901): Chapter I. Introductory | Chapter II. The Long Tracts | Chapter III. The Columns Of The Spinal Cord | Chapter IV. Cerebellar Peduncles | Chapter V. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei | Chapter VI. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei (Continued). Lateral Group | Chapter VII. The Inferior And Accessory Olives | Chapter VIII. The Midbrain | Chapter IX. The Formatio Reticularis Alba And Grisea | General Summary of what Is shown In Reconstruction | References To Literature | Abbreviations | Description of Figures and Plates


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, May 13) Embryology Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_An_Atlas_of_the_Medulla_and_Midbrain

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