Difference between revisions of "Book - A text-book of histology arranged upon an embryological basis (1913)"

From Embryology
m
m
Line 6: Line 6:
 
See also the 1906 first edition: {{Ref-Lewis1906}}
 
See also the 1906 first edition: {{Ref-Lewis1906}}
 
<br><br>
 
<br><br>
[[Media:1913 A Text-book of Histology - Arranged Upon an Embryological Basis.pdf|PDF]] | [https://archive.org/details/atextbookhistol00schugoog Internet Archive]
+
[[Media:1913 A Text-book of Histology - Arranged Upon an Embryological Basis.pdf|PDF version]] | [https://archive.org/details/atextbookhistol00schugoog Internet Archive]
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
[[Historic Embryology Textbooks]]
 
[[Historic Embryology Textbooks]]

Revision as of 10:35, 9 April 2020

Embryology - 4 Jun 2020    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)

A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
Mark Hill.jpg
I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Lewis FT. and Stöhr P. A Text-book of Histology Arranged upon an Embryological Basis. (1913) P. Blakiston’s Son and Co., 539 pp., 495 figs.

   Histology with Embryological Basis (1913):   Part I. 1.1. Cytology | 1.2. General Histology | 1.3. Special Histology
Part II. 2.1. The Preparation of Microscopical Specimens | 2.2. The Examination of Microscopical Specimens
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
Online Editor  
Mark Hill.jpg
This historic 1913 textbook translated by Frederic T. Lewis from the original German of Stöhr, describes histology organised upon an embryological basis. Note that linked terms within the textbook go to the modern pages and the "Online Editor" sections provide additional information.

See also the 1906 first edition: Lewis FT. Stoehr's Histology. (1906) P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Philadelphia.

PDF version | Internet Archive
Historic Embryology Textbooks

A Text-book of Histology Arranged upon an Embryological Basis

Frederick Thomas Lewis
Frederick Thomas Lewis (1875-1951)

by

Frederic T. Lewis

Of Embryology at the Harvard Medical School

and

Dr. Philipp Stöhr

Formerly Professor of Anatomy at the University of Wurzburg

Second Edition, With 495 Illustrations

Being the Seventh American Edition of Stohr's Histology

From the Fifteenth German Edition, edited by Dr. O. Schultze

Philadelphia P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 1012 Walnut Street

Copyright, 1913, By P. Blakiston's Son & Co. Printed In U.S.A. By The Maple Press York Pa

Preface

Philipp Stohr, whose Lehrbuch der Histologie is here presented with many additions and changes, was born at Wiirzburg, June 13, 1849, and died in his native city, November 4, 1911. It was his good fortune to study under the most eminent of all histologists, Albert von Kolliker, whose assistant he became in 1877, and whom he succeeded as Professor of Histology and Embryology at Wiirzburg in 1902. During these years he enriched anatomy with a whole series of important contributions, and he continued his researches until the time of his death, dealing with the relation of lymphocytes to epithelium, the degeneration of glands in the vermiform process, the development of hairs, the nature of the cells of the thymus, and many other subjects. But as stated by Professor Schultze in a memorial address (Verh. phys.-med. Ges., Wiirzburg, 1912, vol. 42), "Stohr's position as an anatomist doubtless depends upon his surpassing gifts as a teacher." He considered that the instruction of young men in an intricate science was worthy of his best efforts, and his time was freely given to preparing demonstrations, and to writing and revising his Lehrbuch der Histologie und der mikroskopischen Anatomic des Menschen.


The first edition of the Lehrbuch appeared in 1887, and the fifteenth, edited by Schultze on the basis of memoranda which Stb'hr had prepared, was published in 1912. Meanwhile the volume nearly doubled in size. It has been translated into many languages, including the Japanese, and the late editions have been issued in very large numbers. As principal characteristics of the book, there may be mentioned, first, its clear and concise style, somewhat dogmatic because of the omission of essentially all references to authorities. Since Stohr considered that adequate references would be impossible in a book of small size, he omitted them altogether. Second, the almost entire absence of borrowed illustrations. As Schultze remarks, Stohr possessed unusual artistic talent, and many of the excellent figures were drawn by Stohr himself. Third, the full directions for the preparation of every specimen illustrated. In addition to these special characteristics, the book has the advantages of being essentially a resum6 of Kolliker's exhaustive Gewebelehre, adapted to the use of students.


The first American edition of Stohr's Histology was edited by Dr. Alfred Schaper, at that time Demonstrator of Histology and Embryology at the Harvard Medical School, and was published by Messrs. P. Blakiston, Son & Co. in 1896. This edition was essentially a literal translation, to which Dr. Schaper added a chapter on the placenta and membranes; a corresponding chapter was later incorporated in the German Lehrbuch. In the four American editions which followed, Dr. Schaper made a limited number of further additions, and supplied some excellent drawings of his own.


After the death of Dr. Schaper, Professor Stohr generously consented to allow more extensive modifications, provided that he should not be held responsible for them, as stated in the following note:


In the new edition of the American translation of my handbook a number of additions and changes have been made by the translator with my permission. It is therefore reasonable that I should not take the same responsibility for the translation as for the text of the German original, and I would ask those of my colleagues who wish to question the correctness of my assertions in their papers, to convince themselves, by making comparisons with my last German edition, that the paragraphs in question were written by me.

(Signed)

Philipp Stohr.

At the suggestion of Professor Minot, the writer undertook to prepare the sixth American edition. Because of the great importance of embryological interpretations in understanding adult tissues, it was decided to arrange the text-book on an embryological basis, but this necessitated more radical changes than were originally contemplated. In describing the result, Professor Stohr wrote that the character of his book had been completely changed. "With all that has been left out of some parts and added to other parts, it may without exaggeration be said that with the appearance of this sixth American edition my book has ceased to exist in America."


The writer, therefore, must assume the principal responsibility for the book in its present form. There are certain sections, as those on hair, the eye, and the ear, which are largely literal translations, but elsewhere Stohr's text has been freely paraphrased. Of the 376 figures which illustrate the i5th German edition, 275 will be found in the following pages; 220 additional figures have been supplied from other sources, and of these 95 are original. Although the changes in the text are relatively greater than in the figures, much of the work is clearly Professor Stohr's, and in order to give full credit for the part which has been retained, this edition is published as of joint authorship. The changes which have been introduced are designed to make the text-book more useful in certain American schools where it has been adopted, and the nature of these changes may be explained as follows.


First, the book has been arranged on an embryological basis and has become the only available text-book in so far as the writer is aware in which the development of each organ is described as an introduction to the study of its microscopic structure in the adult. This method of presentation is believed to be interesting, logical, and pedagogically practicable. It proceeds from simple arrangements to those which are complex, and it emphasizes fundamental features in distinction from those which are secondary.


Secondly, a large number of citations and references to original papers, both ancient and modern, have been inserted. Since the most obvious facts of anatomy were observed first and details were learned subsequently, an historical presentation serves to differentiate between the important and the trivial, being comparable in this respect with an embryological presentation. At the same time it is shown that anatomy has been a subject of absorbing interest, and its possibilities are by no means exhausted, contrary to an opinion often expressed. Thus in 1821, when Charles Bell made his great discoveries concerning nerves, he stated that scientists had often remarked to him " In your department we can hope for nothing new. After so many eminent men in a succession of ages have laboured on your subject, no further discovery can be expected." Similarly, forty years later, an American professor of anatomy described his science as "a well reaped field"; shortly after this, the discovery of the islands in the pancreas was announced, and they constituted an essentially new and important organ. Thus while morphology continues to be discredited as an effete and superficial science, dealing merely with shapes and relations, it still reveals new structures in the human body, some of which are of obvious significance, whereas others await explanations by the physiologists and chemists. In order that students may have an idea of the important work now being done by anatomists, references to a selection of recent papers have been introduced in this edition. American publications have perhaps been given particular prominence, but this is because they are more accessible to the students for whom this book is written.


As a third modification, microscopic technique is described in a single chapter, revised by Mr. L. G. Lowrey, now in charge of the instruction in this subject at the Harvard Medical School. It furnishes directions for a brief but practical course in microscopic technique, especially adapted to the needs of medical students.


In preparing this edition, the writer has received valuable assistance from many sources. The account of the rectum was written by Dr. F. P. Johnson, and Professor Huber has assisted in revising the description of the kidney. The account of spermatogenesis is based on specimens made by Dr. Scammon, and important illustrations have been supplied by Professors Mark, Mallory, Minot, and Mall. Numerous crude figures in the earlier edition have been replaced by excellent drawings made by Miss Mabel Herford. To these and to many others who have offered suggestions, the author makes grateful acknowledgment. Messrs. P. Blakiston's Son & Co. have supplied several figures from their anatomical publications, and have endeavored to maintain the high standard of press work which has characterized previous editions.


Frederic T. Lewis.

Cambridge, Massachusetts, September, 1913.

Contents

Part I

Part I. Microscopic Anatomy

1.1. Cytology

  • The Cell
    • Protoplasm
    • Nucleus
    • Centrosome
    • Cell Wall
    • Form and Size of Cells
  • Cytomorphosis
  • Vital Phenomena
    • Amoeboid Motion.
  • Formation And Reproduction Of Cells
    • Amitosis
    • Mitosis
    • Spermatogenesis
    • Oogenesis
    • Fertilization

1.2. General Histology

  • Hlstogenesis
    • Segmentation and the Formation of the Germ Layers
    • The Fundamental Tissues
  • Epithelium
    • Shapes of Epithelial Cells and the Number of Layers
    • Peripheral Differentiation
    • Processes of Secretion
    • The Nature and Classification of Glands
  • Mesenchymal Tissues
    • Reticular Tissue
    • Mucous Tissue
    • Connective Tissue
    • Adipose Tissue
    • Tendon
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
    • Joints
    • Teeth (including the Ectodermal Enamel Organs)
  • Muscular Tissue
    • Smooth Muscle
    • Skeletal Muscle
    • Cardiac Muscle
  • Nervous Tissue
    • General Features
    • Development of The spinal nerves
    • Development of The sympathetic system
    • Development of The cerebral nerves.
    • Structure of Nervous tissue
    • Ganglia
    • Nerves
    • Nerve Endings
  • Vascular Tissue
    • Blood Vessels
    • General features
    • Development
    • Capillaries
    • Arteries
    • Veins
    • The Heart
    • Lymphatic Vessels
    • Blood
      • Red corpuscles
      • White corpuscles
      • Blood plates
      • Plasma
      • Lymph

1.3. Special Histology

  • Blood Forming And Blood Destroying Organs
    • Bone Marrow
    • Lymph Nodules and Lymph Glands
    • Haemolymph Glands
    • Spleen
  • The Entodermal Tract
    • Mouth and Pharynx
      • Development
      • Tonsils
      • Thymus
      • Thyreoid Gland
      • Parathyreoid Glands
      • Glomus Caroticum
      • Tongue
      • Oral and Pharyngeal Cavities
      • Glands of the Oral Cavity
    • Digestive Tube
      • Development
      • OEsophagus
      • Stomach
      • Duodenum
      • Jejunum and Ileum
      • Mesentery and Peritoneum
      • Vermiform Process
      • Caecum and Colon
      • Rectum.
    • Liver
    • Pancreas
  • Respiratory Apparatus
    • Development
    • Larynx
    • Trachea and Bronchi
    • Lungs
    • Pleura
  • Urinary Organs
    • Wolffian Bodies and Wolffian Ducts
    • Kidney
    • Renal Pelvis and Ureter
    • Bladder
    • Urethra (in the female)
  • Male Genital Organs
    • Development and General Features
    • Testis
    • Epididymis
    • Ductus deferens
    • Seminal Vesicles and Ejaculatory Ducts
    • Appendices and Paradidymis
    • Prostate
    • Urethra and Penis
  • Female Genital Organs
    • Development and General Features
    • Ovary
    • Uterine Tubes
    • Uterus
    • Menstruation
    • Decidual Membranes of the Uterus and Embryo
      • Development and General Features.
      • Decidua vera, Amnion and Chorion laeve.
      • Placenta.
      • Umbilical Cord.
    • Vagina and External Genital Organs.
  • Skin
    • Nails
    • Hair
    • Sebaceous Glands
    • Sweat Glands
    • Mammary Glands
  • Suprarenal Glands
  • Central Nervous System
    • Spinal Cord
      • Development and General Features
      • Adult Structure
    • Brain
      • Development and General Features
      • Medulla Oblongata
      • Cerebellum
      • Hemispheres
      • Hypophysis
      • Pineal Body
      • Meninges
  • Eye
    • Development and General Anatomy
    • Retina
    • Optic Nerve
    • Lens
    • Vitreous Body
    • Tunica Vasculosa
    • Tunica Fibrosa
    • Vessels, Chambers, and Nerves
    • Eyelids
    • Lachrymal Glands
  • Ear
    • Development and General Anatomy
    • Sacculus, Utriculus, and Semicircular Ducts
    • Cochlea
    • Nerves of the Labyrinth
    • Vessels of the Labyrinth
    • Middle Ear
    • External Ear
  • Nose

Part II

Part II. Microscopical Technique

2.1. The Preparation of Microscopical Specimens

  • Fresh Tissues
  • Permanent Preparations
  • General Stains
  • Selective Stains
  • Isolation
  • Permanent Preparations
  • Fixation
  • Decalcification
  • Imbedding
  • Cutting and Handling Sections
  • Staining
  • Clearing and Mounting
  • Slides And Cover Glasses
  • Injections
  • Special Methods

2.2. The Examination of Microscopical Specimens


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
   Histology with Embryological Basis (1913):   Part I. 1.1. Cytology | 1.2. General Histology | 1.3. Special Histology
Part II. 2.1. The Preparation of Microscopical Specimens | 2.2. The Examination of Microscopical Specimens

Reference: Lewis FT. and Stöhr P. A Text-book of Histology Arranged upon an Embryological Basis. (1913) P. Blakiston’s Son and Co., 539 pp., 495 figs.


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, June 4) Embryology Book - A text-book of histology arranged upon an embryological basis (1913). Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_A_text-book_of_histology_arranged_upon_an_embryological_basis_(1913)

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G