Book - A Text-book of Embryology

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A TEXT-BOOK

OF


EMBRYOLOGY


FOR STUDENTS OF MEDICINE


BY

John Clement Heisler, M.D.

(1907)

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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Preface to the Third Edition

The great activity along the lines of embrvological research during the past half-dozen years has brought forth much literature and some new facts. In some cases existing views have thereby been modified or set aside; in others, they have been more firmly established. In presenting the third edition of this book the effort has been made so to revise the text as to harmonize it with the results of recent researches. To this end, certain of the sections have been practically rewritten, while others have been slightly altered, and still others have been merely somewhat amplified. Where changes have been made the authorities therefor have usually been cited. The revised portions of the book include the sections dealing with the ovum, the spermatozoon, the blastodermic vesicle, the amnion, the vascular system, the pancreas, the spleen, the larynx, the thymus, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal, the kidney, the spinal cord, the vitreous, the musculature, and the vertebral column.

J. C. H.

3829 Walnut St., Philadelphia, March, 1907.


Preface

The facts of embryology having acquired in recent years such great interest in connection with the teaching and with the proper comprehension of human anatomy, it is of first importance to the student of medicine that a concise and yet sufficiently full text-book upon the subject be available. It was with the aim of presenting such a book that this volume was written, the author, in his experience as a teacher of anatomy, having been impressed with the fact that students were seriously handicapj>ed in their study of the subject of embryology by the lack of a text-book full enough to be intelligible, and yet without that minuteness of detail which characterizes the larger treatises, and which so often serves only to confuse and discourage the beginner.

In the arrangement of the subject-matter of the book, it has been the aim not only to present a connected story of human development, but also to make each chapter as nearly as possible complete in itself, for the sake of convenience of reference. It is for this reason that some repetitions occur in the text. The frequent allusions to certain facts of comparative embryology are rendered necessary by the very nature of the subject, but it has been the writer's aim to make these allusions as simple and as easily intelligible as possible.

In the selection of the illustrations, great care has been exercised to employ those of the greatest teaching value, and to arrange them, with reference to any one chapter, as nearly as possible in proper chronological sequence. Due acknowledgement is made in each case for every illustration borrowed from other works.

With few exceptions, no attempt has been made to cite authorities in the text, and the author would here express his obligations to the writings of His, O. Hertwig, Kolliker, Schultze, Bonnet, Balfour, Marshall, Piersol, Minot, Tourneux, and many others.

J. C. H.

3829 Walnut St., Philadelphia,


Contents

  1. CHAPTER I. The Male and Female Sexual Elements ; Maturation ; Ovulation; Menstruation; Fertilization
    1. The Spermatozoon
    2. The Ovum
    3. The Hen's egg
    4. Oogenesis
    5. Maturation of the Ovum
    6. Ovulation
    7. Menstruation
    8. The Relation of Menstruation to Ovulation and Conception
    9. Fertilization
    10. Artificial Fertilization
  2. CHAPTER II The Segmentation of the Ovum and Formation of the Blastodermic Vesicle
    1. Segmentation
    2. The Stage of the Blastula
  3. CHAPTER III. The Germ-layers and the Primitive Streak
    1. The Two-layered Stage of the Blastodermic Vesicle
    2. The Embryonal Area
    3. The Primitive Streak
    4. The Development of the Mesoderm
    5. The Derivatives of the Germ-lavers
  4. CHAPTER IV. The Beginning Differentiation of the Embryo; the Neural Canal ; The Chorda Dorsalis ; the Mesoblastic Somites
    1. The Neural or Medullary Canal
    2. The Notoohord or Chorda Dorsalis
    3. The Neurenteric Canal
    4. The Somites or Primitive Segments
  5. CHAPTER V. The Formation of the Body-wall, of the Intestinal Canal, and of the Fetal Membranes
    1. The Formation op the Body-wall and of the Intestinal Canal op the Embryo
    2. The Amnion
    3. The Yolk-sac
    4. The Allantois
    5. The Chorion
  6. CHAPTER VI. The Decidual and the Embedding of the Ovum; the Placenta; the Umbilical Cord
    1. The Decidua and the Embedding of the Ovum
    2. The Placenta
    3. The Umbilical Cord
    4. Relations of the Fetal Membranes at Birth
  7. CHAPTER VII. The Further Development of the External Form of the Body
    1. The Stage of the Ovum
    2. The Stage of the Embryo
    3. The Visceral Arches and Clefts
    4. The Stage of the Fetus
  8. CHAPTER VIII. The Development of the Connective Tissues of the Body, and of the Lymphatic System
    1. The Connective Tissues
    2. The Development of the Lymphatic System
  9. CHAPTER IX. The Development of the Face and the Mouth Cavity
    1. The Evolution of the Face
    2. The Mouth
    3. The Teeth
    4. The Salivary Glands
    5. The Tongue
    6. The Nose
  10. CHAPTER X. The Development of the Vascular System
    1. The Vitelline Circulation and the Origin of the Blood
    2. The Development of the Heart
    3. The Metamorphosis of the Single into the Double Heart
    4. The Valves of the Heart
    5. The Allantok- and the Placental Circulation
    6. The Fetal Arterial System
    7. The Fetal Venous System
    8. The Formation of the Pericardium, the Pleura and the Diaphragm
    9. The Portal Circulation
    10. The Final Stage of the Fetal Vascular System
  11. CHAPTER XI. The Development of the Digestive System
    1. The Mouth
    2. The Pharynx
    3. The Tongue
    4. The Tonsil
    5. The Anus
    6. The Differentiation of the Alimentary Canal into Separate Regions
    7. Increase in Length and Further Subdivision
    8. Alteration in the Relative Position of Parts, and Further Development
    9. Histological Alterations
    10. Meckel's Diverticulum
    11. The Development of the Liver
    12. The Gall-bladder
    13. The Ligaments of the Liver
    14. The Development of the Pancreas
    15. The Development of the Spleen
    16. The Evoution of the Peritoneum
  12. CHAPTER XII. The Development of the Respiratory System

The Thyroid, the Parathyroid, and the Thymus Bodies

  1. CHAPTER XIII. The Development of the Genito-urinary System

The Development of the Kidney and the Ureter

The Mesonepliros or Wolffian Body

The Metanephros or Permanent Kidney

The Suprarenal Bodies

The Development of the Internal Generative Organs

The Indifferent Type

The Male Type

The Female Type

The Bladder and the Prostate Gland

The External Organs of (t feneration

The Female External Genitals

The Male External Genitals

Summary


  1. CHAPTER XIV. The Development of the Skin and its Appendages

The Skin 2G8

The Appendages of the Skin 270

The Nails 270

The Hair 271

The Sebaceous and Sweat Glands 273

The Mammary Gland 274


  1. CHAPTER XV. The Development of the Nervous System

The Development of the Spinal Cord 281

The Development of the Brain 286

The Fifth Brain-vesicle

The Hind-brain Vesicle

The Mid-brain Vesicle

The Inter-brain Vesicle

The Fore-brain Vesicle

The Development of the Peripheral Nervous System

The Development of the Sympathetic System

The Carotid Body, the Coccygeal Body, and the Organs of Zuckeikandl


  1. CHAPTER XVI. The Development of the Sense Organs

The Deveix)pment of the Eye

The Retina and Optic Nerve

The Crystalline Iens

The Vitreous Body

The Middle and Outer Tunics of the Eye

The Eyelids and the Lacrimal Apparatus

The Development of the Organ of Hearing

The Internal Ear

The Middle and External Ear

The Development of the Nope


  1. CHAPTER XVII. The Development of the Muscular System

The Striated or Voluntary Muscle 363

The Muscles of the Trunk Proper 363

The Metamorphosis of the Muscle-plate 366

The Branchial Muscles 369

The Muscles of the Extremities 370

The Involuntary or Unstriated Muscular Tissue .... 371

The Cardiac Muscle 371

The Development of the Skeleton and of the Limbs .... 372

The Axial Skeleton 373

The Development of the Trunk 373

The Stage of the Chorda 373

The Membranous Stage 374

The Cartilaginous Stage 377

The Osseous Stage 379

The Development of the Ribs and Steraum 382

The Development of the Head Skeleton 384

The Membranous Cranium liSo

The Cartilaginous Cranium 38()

The Osseoufi Stage 389

The Appendicular Skeleton 402

The Pectoral and Pelvic (iirdles 403

The Bones of the Extremities

The Development of the Limbs

The Position of the Limbs

Tabulated Chronology of Development

Inde



Heisler JC. A text-book of embryology for students of medicine. 3rd Edn. (1907) W.B. Saunders Co. London.

Heisler 1907: 1 Male and Female Sexual Elements - Fertilization | 2 Ovum Segmentation - Blastodermic Vesicle | 3 Germ-layers - Primitive Streak | 4 Embryo Differentiation - Neural Canal - Somites | 5 Body-wall - Intestinal Canal - Fetal Membranes | 6 Decidual Ovum Embedding - Placenta - Umbilical Cord | 7 External Body Form | 8 Connective Tissues - Lymphatic System | 9 Face and Mouth | 10 Vascular System | 11 Digestive System | 12 Respiratory System | 13 Genito-urinary System | 14 Skin and Appendages | 15 Nervous System | 16 Sense Organs | 17 Muscular System | 18 Skeleton and Limbs

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

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