Difference between revisions of "Book - A Text-book of Embryology"

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{{Ref-Heisler1907}}
 
[[File:Heisler_1907.jpg|thumb|400px|title page]]
 
[[File:Heisler_1907.jpg|thumb|400px|title page]]
A TEXT-BOOK  
+
<center>A TEXT-BOOK</center>
  
OF
 
  
 +
<center>OF</center>
  
EMBRYOLOGY
 
  
 +
<center>EMBRYOLOGY</center>
  
FOR STUDENTS OF MEDICINE
 
  
 +
<center>FOR STUDENTS OF MEDICINE</center>
  
  
BY
 
  
John Clement Heisler, M.D.
+
<center>BY</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
<center>John Clement Heisler, M.D.</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
<center>(1907)</center>
 +
 
  
(1907)
 
  
 
{{Historic Disclaimer}}
 
{{Historic Disclaimer}}
 +
 +
  
 
==Preface to the Third Edition ==
 
==Preface to the Third Edition ==
Line 35: Line 43:
 
==Preface==
 
==Preface==
  
The facts of embryology having acquired in recent years such great interest in connection with the teaching and with the proper comprehension of human anatomy, it is of first importance to the student of medicine that a concise and yet sufficiently full text-book upon the subject be available. It was with the aim of presenting such a book that this volume was written, the author, in his experience as a teacher of anatomy, having been impressed with the fact that students were seriously handicapj>ed in their study of the subject of embryology by the lack of a text-book full enough to be intelligible, and yet without that minuteness of detail which characterizes the larger treatises, and which so often serves only to confuse and discourage the beginner.  
+
The facts of embryology having acquired in recent years such great interest in connection with the teaching and with the proper comprehension of human anatomy, it is of first importance to the student of medicine that a concise and yet sufficiently full text-book upon the subject be available. It was with the aim of presenting such a book that this volume was written, the author, in his experience as a teacher of anatomy, having been impressed with the fact that students were seriously handicapped in their study of the subject of embryology by the lack of a text-book full enough to be intelligible, and yet without that minuteness of detail which characterizes the larger treatises, and which so often serves only to confuse and discourage the beginner.  
 +
 
  
 
In the arrangement of the subject-matter of the book, it has been the aim not only to present a connected story of human development, but also to make each chapter as nearly as possible complete in itself, for the sake of convenience of reference. It is for this reason that some repetitions occur in the text. The frequent allusions to certain facts of comparative embryology are rendered necessary by the very nature of the subject, but it has been the writer's aim to make these allusions as simple and as easily intelligible as possible.  
 
In the arrangement of the subject-matter of the book, it has been the aim not only to present a connected story of human development, but also to make each chapter as nearly as possible complete in itself, for the sake of convenience of reference. It is for this reason that some repetitions occur in the text. The frequent allusions to certain facts of comparative embryology are rendered necessary by the very nature of the subject, but it has been the writer's aim to make these allusions as simple and as easily intelligible as possible.  
 +
  
 
In the selection of the illustrations, great care has been exercised to employ those of the greatest teaching value, and to arrange them, with reference to any one chapter, as nearly as possible in proper chronological sequence. Due acknowledgement is made in each case for every illustration borrowed from other works.  
 
In the selection of the illustrations, great care has been exercised to employ those of the greatest teaching value, and to arrange them, with reference to any one chapter, as nearly as possible in proper chronological sequence. Due acknowledgement is made in each case for every illustration borrowed from other works.  
 +
  
 
With few exceptions, no attempt has been made to cite authorities in the text, and the author would here express his obligations to the writings of His, O. Hertwig, Kolliker, Schultze, Bonnet, Balfour, Marshall, Piersol, Minot, Tourneux, and many others.  
 
With few exceptions, no attempt has been made to cite authorities in the text, and the author would here express his obligations to the writings of His, O. Hertwig, Kolliker, Schultze, Bonnet, Balfour, Marshall, Piersol, Minot, Tourneux, and many others.  
 +
  
 
J. C. H.  
 
J. C. H.  
  
 
3829 Walnut St., Philadelphia,
 
3829 Walnut St., Philadelphia,
 
  
 
==Contents==
 
==Contents==
  
  
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_1|CHAPTER I.]]
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_1|CHAPTER I.]] The Male and Female Sexual Elements ; Maturation ; Ovulation; Menstruation; Fertilization
 
+
## The Spermatozoon  
The Male and Female Sexual Elements ; Maturation ; Ovulation; Menstruation; Fertilization
+
## The Ovum  
# The Spermatozoon  
+
## The Hen's egg  
# The Ovum  
+
## Oogenesis  
# The Hen's egg  
+
## Maturation of the Ovum  
# Oogenesis  
+
## Ovulation
# Maturation of the Ovum  
+
## Menstruation
# Ovulation
+
## The Relation of Menstruation to Ovulation and Conception  
# Menstruation
+
## Fertilization
# The Relation of Menstruation to Ovulation and Conception  
+
## Artificial Fertilization
# Fertilization
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_2|CHAPTER II]] The Segmentation of the Ovum and Formation of the Blastodermic Vesicle
# Artificial Fertilization
+
## Segmentation
 
+
## The Stage of the Blastula  
 
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_3|CHAPTER III.]] The Germ-layers and the Primitive Streak
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_2|CHAPTER II]]
+
## The Two-layered Stage of the Blastodermic Vesicle
 
+
## The Embryonal Area
The Segmentation of the Ovum and Formation of the Blastodermic Vesicle
+
## The Primitive Streak
# Segmentation
+
## The Development of the Mesoderm
# The Stage of the Blastula  
+
## The Derivatives of the Germ-lavers
 
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_4|CHAPTER IV.]] The Beginning Differentiation of the Embryo; the Neural Canal ; The Chorda Dorsalis ; the Mesoblastic Somites
 
+
## The Neural or Medullary Canal
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_3|CHAPTER III.]]
+
## The Notoohord or Chorda Dorsalis
 
+
## The Neurenteric Canal
The Germ-layers and the Primitive Streak
+
## The Somites or Primitive Segments
# The Two-layered Stage of the Blastodermic Vesicle
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_5|CHAPTER V.]] The Formation of the Body-wall, of the Intestinal Canal, and of the Fetal Membranes
# The Embryonal Area
+
## The Formation op the Body-wall and of the Intestinal Canal op the Embryo
# The Primitive Streak
+
## The Amnion
# The Development of the Mesoderm
+
## The Yolk-sac
# The Derivatives of the Germ-lavers
+
## The Allantois
 
+
## The Chorion
 
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_6|CHAPTER VI.]] The Decidual and the Embedding of the Ovum; the Placenta; the Umbilical Cord  
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_4|CHAPTER IV.]]
+
## The Decidua and the Embedding of the Ovum  
 
+
## The Placenta
The Beginning Differentiation of the Embryo; the Neural Canal ; The Chorda Dorsalis ; the Mesoblastic Somites
+
## The Umbilical Cord
# The Neural or Medullary Canal
+
## Relations of the Fetal Membranes at Birth
# The Notoohord or Chorda Dorsalis
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_7|CHAPTER VII.]] The Further Development of the External Form of the Body
# The Neurenteric Canal
+
## The Stage of the Ovum
# The Somites or Primitive Segments
+
## The Stage of the Embryo
+
## The Visceral Arches and Clefts
 
+
## The Stage of the Fetus
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_5|CHAPTER V.]]
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_8|CHAPTER VIII.]] The Development of the Connective Tissues of the Body, and of the Lymphatic System
 
+
## The Connective Tissues
The Formation of the Body-wall, of the Intestinal Canal, and of the Fetal Membranes
+
## The Development of the Lymphatic System
# The Formation op the Body-wall and of the Intestinal Canal op the Embryo
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_9|CHAPTER IX.]] The Development of the Face and the Mouth Cavity
# The Amnion
+
## The Evolution of the Face
# The Yolk-sac
+
## The Mouth
# The Allantois
+
## The Teeth
# The Chorion
+
## The Salivary Glands
 
+
## The Tongue
 
+
## The Nose
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_6|CHAPTER VI.]]
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_10|CHAPTER X.]] The Development of the Vascular System
+
## The Vitelline Circulation and the Origin of the Blood
The Decidual and the Embedding of the Ovum; the Placenta; the Umbilical Cord  
+
## The Development of the Heart
# The Decidua and the Embedding of the Ovum  
+
## The Metamorphosis of the Single into the Double Heart
# The Placenta
+
## The Valves of the Heart
# The Umbilical Cord
+
## The Allantok- and the Placental Circulation
# Relations of the Fetal Membranes at Birth
+
## The Fetal Arterial System
 
+
## The Fetal Venous System
 
+
## The Formation of the Pericardium, the Pleura and the Diaphragm  
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_7|CHAPTER VII.]]
+
## The Portal Circulation
 
+
## The Final Stage of the Fetal Vascular System  
The Further Development of the External Form of the Body
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_11|CHAPTER XI.]] The Development of the Digestive System
# The Stage of the Ovum
+
## The Mouth
# The Stage of the Embryo
+
## The Pharynx
# The Visceral Arches and Clefts
+
## The Tongue
# The Stage of the Fetus
+
## The Tonsil  
 
+
## The Anus  
 
+
## The Differentiation of the Alimentary Canal into Separate Regions
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_8|CHAPTER VIII.]]
+
## Increase in Length and Further Subdivision
 
+
## Alteration in the Relative Position of Parts, and Further Development
The Development of the Connective Tissues of the Body, and of the Lymphatic System
+
## Histological Alterations
# The Connective Tissues
+
## Meckel's Diverticulum
# The Development of the Lymphatic System
+
## The Development of the Liver
 
+
## The Gall-bladder
 
+
## The Ligaments of the Liver  
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_9|CHAPTER IX.]]
+
## The Development of the Pancreas  
 
+
## The Development of the Spleen
The Development of the Face and the Mouth Cavity
+
## The Evoution of the Peritoneum
# The Evolution of the Face
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_12|CHAPTER XII.]] The Development of the Respiratory System
# The Mouth
+
## The Thyroid, the Parathyroid, and the Thymus Bodies  
# The Teeth
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_13|CHAPTER XIII.]] The Development of the Genito-urinary System
# The Salivary Glands
+
## The Development of the Kidney and the Ureter
# The Tongue
+
## The Mesonepliros or Wolffian Body
# The Nose
+
## The Metanephros or Permanent Kidney
 
+
## The Suprarenal Bodies
 
+
## The Development of the Internal Generative Organs
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_10|CHAPTER X.]]
+
## The Indifferent Type  
 
+
## The Male Type  
The Development of the Vascular System
+
## The Female Type  
 
+
## The Bladder and the Prostate Gland
# The Vitelline Circulation and the Origin of the Blood
+
## The External Organs of (t feneration
# The Development of the Heart
+
## The Female External Genitals
# The Metamorphosis of the Single into the Double Heart
+
## The Male External Genitals  
# The Valves of the Heart
+
## Summary
# The Allantok- and the Placental Circulation
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_14|CHAPTER XIV.]] The Development of the Skin and its Appendages
# The Fetal Arterial System
+
## The Skin
# The Fetal Venous System
+
## The Appendages of the Skin
# The Formation of the Pericardium, the Pleura and the Diaphragm  
+
## The Nails
# The Portal Circulation
+
## The Hair  
# The Final Stage of the Fetal Vascular System  
+
## The Sebaceous and Sweat Glands
 
+
## The Mammary Gland
 
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_15|CHAPTER XV.]] The Development of the Nervous System
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_11|CHAPTER XI.]]
+
## The Development of the Spinal Cord
 
+
## The Development of the Brain
The Development of the Digestive System
+
## The Fifth Brain-vesicle
# The Mouth
+
## The Hind-brain Vesicle
# The Pharynx
+
## The Mid-brain Vesicle
# The Tongue
+
## The Inter-brain Vesicle
# The Tonsil  
+
## The Fore-brain Vesicle
# The Anus  
+
## The Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
# The Differentiation of the Alimentary Canal into Separate Regions
+
## The Development of the Sympathetic System
# Increase in Length and Further Subdivision
+
## The Carotid Body, the Coccygeal Body, and the Organs of Zuckeikandl
# Alteration in the Relative Position of Parts, and Further Development
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_16|CHAPTER XVI.]] The Development of the Sense Organs
# Histological Alterations
+
## The Development of the Eye
# Meckel's Diverticulum
+
## The Retina and Optic Nerve
# The Development of the Liver
+
## The Crystalline Lens
# The Gall-bladder
+
## The Vitreous Body
# The Ligaments of the Liver  
+
## The Middle and Outer Tunics of the Eye
# The Development of the Pancreas  
+
## he Eyelids and the Lacrimal Apparatus
# The Development of the Spleen
+
## The Development of the Organ of Hearing
# The Evoution of the Peritoneum
+
## The Internal Ear
 
+
## The Middle and External Ear
 
+
## The Development of the Nope  
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_12|CHAPTER XII.]]
+
# [[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_17|CHAPTER XVII.]] The Development of the Muscular System
 
+
## The Striated or Voluntary Muscle
The Development of the Respiratory System 222
+
## The Muscles of the Trunk Proper
 
+
## The Metamorphosis of the Muscle-plate
The Thyroid, the Parathyroid, and the Thymus Bodies . . 226
+
## The Branchial Muscles
 
+
## The Muscles of the Extremities
 
+
## The Involuntary or Unstriated Muscular Tissue
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_13|CHAPTER XIII.]]
+
## The Cardiac Muscle
 
+
## The Development of the Skeleton and of the Limbs
The Development of the Genito-urlnary System 232
+
## The Axial Skeleton
 
+
## The Development of the Trunk
The Development of the Kidney and the L'reter . . . 232
+
## The Stage of the Chorda
 
+
## The Membranous Stage
The Mesonepliros or Wolffian Body 234
+
## The Cartilaginous Stage
 
+
## The Osseous Stage
The Metanephros or Permanent Kidney 237
+
## The Development of the Ribs and Sternum
 
+
## The Development of the Head Skeleton
The Suprarenal Bodies 241
+
## The Membranous Cranium
 
+
## The Cartilaginous Cranium
The Development of the Internal Generative Organs . 243
+
## The Osseoufi Stage
 
+
## The Appendicular Skeleton
The Indifferent Type 243
+
## The Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles
 
+
## The Bones of the Extremities
The Male Type 24')
+
## The Development of the Limbs
 
+
## The Position of the Limbs
The Female Type 249
+
## Tabulated Chronology of Development  
 
+
## Index
The Bladder and the Prostate Gland 25')
 
 
 
The External Organs of (t feneration 2'>s
 
 
 
The Female External Genitals 25l>
 
 
 
The Male External Genitals . 2t)l
 
 
 
Summary 2<>4
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_14|CHAPTER XIV.]]
 
 
 
The Development of the Skin and its Appendages 268
 
 
 
The Skin 2G8
 
 
 
The Appendages of the Skin 270
 
 
 
The Nails 270
 
 
 
The Hair 271
 
 
 
The Sebaceous and Sweat Glands 273
 
 
 
The Mammary Gland 274
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_15|CHAPTER XV.]]
 
 
 
The Development of the Nervous System 278
 
 
 
The Development of the Spinal Cord 281
 
 
 
The Development of the Brain 286
 
 
 
The Fifth Brain-vesicle 289
 
 
 
The Hind-brain Vesicle 292
 
 
 
The Mid-brain Vesicle 294
 
 
 
The Inter-brain Vesicle 296
 
 
 
The Fore-brain Vesicle 302
 
 
 
The Development of the Peripheral Nervous System . 316
 
 
 
The Development of the Sympathetic System 324
 
 
 
The Carotid Body, the Coccygeal Body, and the Organs of Zuckei^
 
 
 
kandl * 325
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_16|CHAPTER XVI.]]
 
 
 
The Development of the Sense Organs 32(}
 
 
 
The Deveix)pment op the Eye 326
 
 
 
The Retina and Optic Nerve 328
 
 
 
The Crystalline I-«ns 336
 
 
 
The Vitreous Body 338
 
 
 
The Middle and Outer Tunics of the Eye 339
 
 
 
The Eyelids and the Lacrimal Apparatus 343
 
 
 
The Development of the Organ of Hearing 345
 
 
 
The Internal Ear 346
 
 
 
The Middle and External Ear 355
 
 
 
The Development of the Nope 358
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_17|CHAPTER XVII.]]
 
 
 
The Development of the Muscular System 363
 
 
 
The Striated or Voluntary Muscle 363
 
 
 
The Muscles of the Trunk Proper 363
 
 
 
The Metamorphosis of the Muscle-plate 366
 
 
 
The Branchial Muscles 369
 
 
 
The Muscles of the Extremities 370
 
 
 
The Involuntary or Unstriated Muscular Tissue .... 371
 
 
 
The Cardiac Muscle 371
 
 
 
The Development of the Skeleton and of the Limbs .... 372
 
 
 
The Axial Skeleton 373
 
 
 
The Development of the Trunk 373
 
 
 
The Stage of the Chorda 373
 
 
 
The Membranous Stage 374
 
 
 
The Cartilaginous Stage 377
 
 
 
The Osseous Stage 379
 
 
 
The Development of the Ribs and Steraum 382
 
 
 
The Development of the Head Skeleton 384
 
 
 
The Membranous Cranium liSo
 
 
 
The Cartilaginous Cranium 38()
 
 
 
The Osseoufi Stage 389
 
 
 
The Appendicular Skeleton 402
 
 
 
The Pectoral and Pelvic (iirdles 403
 
 
 
The Bones of the Extremities 404
 
 
 
The Development of the Limbs 405
 
 
 
The Position of the Limbs . 407
 
 
 
Tabulated Chronology of Development 409
 
 
 
Index 417
 
  
  

Latest revision as of 21:23, 18 April 2017

Heisler JC. A text-book of embryology for students of medicine. 3rd Edn. (1907) W.B. Saunders Co. London.

title page
A TEXT-BOOK


OF


EMBRYOLOGY


FOR STUDENTS OF MEDICINE


BY


John Clement Heisler, M.D.


(1907)


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


Preface to the Third Edition

The great activity along the lines of embrvological research during the past half-dozen years has brought forth much literature and some new facts. In some cases existing views have thereby been modified or set aside; in others, they have been more firmly established. In presenting the third edition of this book the effort has been made so to revise the text as to harmonize it with the results of recent researches. To this end, certain of the sections have been practically rewritten, while others have been slightly altered, and still others have been merely somewhat amplified. Where changes have been made the authorities therefor have usually been cited. The revised portions of the book include the sections dealing with the ovum, the spermatozoon, the blastodermic vesicle, the amnion, the vascular system, the pancreas, the spleen, the larynx, the thymus, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal, the kidney, the spinal cord, the vitreous, the musculature, and the vertebral column.

J. C. H.

3829 Walnut St., Philadelphia, March, 1907.


Preface

The facts of embryology having acquired in recent years such great interest in connection with the teaching and with the proper comprehension of human anatomy, it is of first importance to the student of medicine that a concise and yet sufficiently full text-book upon the subject be available. It was with the aim of presenting such a book that this volume was written, the author, in his experience as a teacher of anatomy, having been impressed with the fact that students were seriously handicapped in their study of the subject of embryology by the lack of a text-book full enough to be intelligible, and yet without that minuteness of detail which characterizes the larger treatises, and which so often serves only to confuse and discourage the beginner.


In the arrangement of the subject-matter of the book, it has been the aim not only to present a connected story of human development, but also to make each chapter as nearly as possible complete in itself, for the sake of convenience of reference. It is for this reason that some repetitions occur in the text. The frequent allusions to certain facts of comparative embryology are rendered necessary by the very nature of the subject, but it has been the writer's aim to make these allusions as simple and as easily intelligible as possible.


In the selection of the illustrations, great care has been exercised to employ those of the greatest teaching value, and to arrange them, with reference to any one chapter, as nearly as possible in proper chronological sequence. Due acknowledgement is made in each case for every illustration borrowed from other works.


With few exceptions, no attempt has been made to cite authorities in the text, and the author would here express his obligations to the writings of His, O. Hertwig, Kolliker, Schultze, Bonnet, Balfour, Marshall, Piersol, Minot, Tourneux, and many others.


J. C. H.

3829 Walnut St., Philadelphia,

Contents

  1. CHAPTER I. The Male and Female Sexual Elements ; Maturation ; Ovulation; Menstruation; Fertilization
    1. The Spermatozoon
    2. The Ovum
    3. The Hen's egg
    4. Oogenesis
    5. Maturation of the Ovum
    6. Ovulation
    7. Menstruation
    8. The Relation of Menstruation to Ovulation and Conception
    9. Fertilization
    10. Artificial Fertilization
  2. CHAPTER II The Segmentation of the Ovum and Formation of the Blastodermic Vesicle
    1. Segmentation
    2. The Stage of the Blastula
  3. CHAPTER III. The Germ-layers and the Primitive Streak
    1. The Two-layered Stage of the Blastodermic Vesicle
    2. The Embryonal Area
    3. The Primitive Streak
    4. The Development of the Mesoderm
    5. The Derivatives of the Germ-lavers
  4. CHAPTER IV. The Beginning Differentiation of the Embryo; the Neural Canal ; The Chorda Dorsalis ; the Mesoblastic Somites
    1. The Neural or Medullary Canal
    2. The Notoohord or Chorda Dorsalis
    3. The Neurenteric Canal
    4. The Somites or Primitive Segments
  5. CHAPTER V. The Formation of the Body-wall, of the Intestinal Canal, and of the Fetal Membranes
    1. The Formation op the Body-wall and of the Intestinal Canal op the Embryo
    2. The Amnion
    3. The Yolk-sac
    4. The Allantois
    5. The Chorion
  6. CHAPTER VI. The Decidual and the Embedding of the Ovum; the Placenta; the Umbilical Cord
    1. The Decidua and the Embedding of the Ovum
    2. The Placenta
    3. The Umbilical Cord
    4. Relations of the Fetal Membranes at Birth
  7. CHAPTER VII. The Further Development of the External Form of the Body
    1. The Stage of the Ovum
    2. The Stage of the Embryo
    3. The Visceral Arches and Clefts
    4. The Stage of the Fetus
  8. CHAPTER VIII. The Development of the Connective Tissues of the Body, and of the Lymphatic System
    1. The Connective Tissues
    2. The Development of the Lymphatic System
  9. CHAPTER IX. The Development of the Face and the Mouth Cavity
    1. The Evolution of the Face
    2. The Mouth
    3. The Teeth
    4. The Salivary Glands
    5. The Tongue
    6. The Nose
  10. CHAPTER X. The Development of the Vascular System
    1. The Vitelline Circulation and the Origin of the Blood
    2. The Development of the Heart
    3. The Metamorphosis of the Single into the Double Heart
    4. The Valves of the Heart
    5. The Allantok- and the Placental Circulation
    6. The Fetal Arterial System
    7. The Fetal Venous System
    8. The Formation of the Pericardium, the Pleura and the Diaphragm
    9. The Portal Circulation
    10. The Final Stage of the Fetal Vascular System
  11. CHAPTER XI. The Development of the Digestive System
    1. The Mouth
    2. The Pharynx
    3. The Tongue
    4. The Tonsil
    5. The Anus
    6. The Differentiation of the Alimentary Canal into Separate Regions
    7. Increase in Length and Further Subdivision
    8. Alteration in the Relative Position of Parts, and Further Development
    9. Histological Alterations
    10. Meckel's Diverticulum
    11. The Development of the Liver
    12. The Gall-bladder
    13. The Ligaments of the Liver
    14. The Development of the Pancreas
    15. The Development of the Spleen
    16. The Evoution of the Peritoneum
  12. CHAPTER XII. The Development of the Respiratory System
    1. The Thyroid, the Parathyroid, and the Thymus Bodies
  13. CHAPTER XIII. The Development of the Genito-urinary System
    1. The Development of the Kidney and the Ureter
    2. The Mesonepliros or Wolffian Body
    3. The Metanephros or Permanent Kidney
    4. The Suprarenal Bodies
    5. The Development of the Internal Generative Organs
    6. The Indifferent Type
    7. The Male Type
    8. The Female Type
    9. The Bladder and the Prostate Gland
    10. The External Organs of (t feneration
    11. The Female External Genitals
    12. The Male External Genitals
    13. Summary
  14. CHAPTER XIV. The Development of the Skin and its Appendages
    1. The Skin
    2. The Appendages of the Skin
    3. The Nails
    4. The Hair
    5. The Sebaceous and Sweat Glands
    6. The Mammary Gland
  15. CHAPTER XV. The Development of the Nervous System
    1. The Development of the Spinal Cord
    2. The Development of the Brain
    3. The Fifth Brain-vesicle
    4. The Hind-brain Vesicle
    5. The Mid-brain Vesicle
    6. The Inter-brain Vesicle
    7. The Fore-brain Vesicle
    8. The Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
    9. The Development of the Sympathetic System
    10. The Carotid Body, the Coccygeal Body, and the Organs of Zuckeikandl
  16. CHAPTER XVI. The Development of the Sense Organs
    1. The Development of the Eye
    2. The Retina and Optic Nerve
    3. The Crystalline Lens
    4. The Vitreous Body
    5. The Middle and Outer Tunics of the Eye
    6. he Eyelids and the Lacrimal Apparatus
    7. The Development of the Organ of Hearing
    8. The Internal Ear
    9. The Middle and External Ear
    10. The Development of the Nope
  17. CHAPTER XVII. The Development of the Muscular System
    1. The Striated or Voluntary Muscle
    2. The Muscles of the Trunk Proper
    3. The Metamorphosis of the Muscle-plate
    4. The Branchial Muscles
    5. The Muscles of the Extremities
    6. The Involuntary or Unstriated Muscular Tissue
    7. The Cardiac Muscle
    8. The Development of the Skeleton and of the Limbs
    9. The Axial Skeleton
    10. The Development of the Trunk
    11. The Stage of the Chorda
    12. The Membranous Stage
    13. The Cartilaginous Stage
    14. The Osseous Stage
    15. The Development of the Ribs and Sternum
    16. The Development of the Head Skeleton
    17. The Membranous Cranium
    18. The Cartilaginous Cranium
    19. The Osseoufi Stage
    20. The Appendicular Skeleton
    21. The Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles
    22. The Bones of the Extremities
    23. The Development of the Limbs
    24. The Position of the Limbs
    25. Tabulated Chronology of Development
    26. Index



Heisler JC. A text-book of embryology for students of medicine. 3rd Edn. (1907) W.B. Saunders Co. London.

Heisler 1907: 1 Male and Female Sexual Elements - Fertilization | 2 Ovum Segmentation - Blastodermic Vesicle | 3 Germ-layers - Primitive Streak | 4 Embryo Differentiation - Neural Canal - Somites | 5 Body-wall - Intestinal Canal - Fetal Membranes | 6 Decidual Ovum Embedding - Placenta - Umbilical Cord | 7 External Body Form | 8 Connective Tissues - Lymphatic System | 9 Face and Mouth | 10 Vascular System | 11 Digestive System | 12 Respiratory System | 13 Genito-urinary System | 14 Skin and Appendages | 15 Nervous System | 16 Sense Organs | 17 Muscular System | 18 Skeleton and Limbs

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