Difference between revisions of "Book - A Text-book of Embryology"

From Embryology
(PREFACE)
(CONTENTS)
Line 50: Line 50:
  
  
CHAPTER I.  
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_1|CHAPTER I.]]
  
 
The Male and Female Sexual Elements ; Maturation ; Ovulation; Menstruation; Fertilization 17  
 
The Male and Female Sexual Elements ; Maturation ; Ovulation; Menstruation; Fertilization 17  
Line 75: Line 75:
  
  
CHAPTER II.
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_2|CHAPTER II]]
  
 
The Segmentation of the Ovum and Formation of the Blastodermic Vesicle 45  
 
The Segmentation of the Ovum and Formation of the Blastodermic Vesicle 45  
Line 84: Line 84:
  
  
CHAPTER III.  
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_3|CHAPTER III.]]
  
 
The Germ-layers and the Primitive Streak 52  
 
The Germ-layers and the Primitive Streak 52  
Line 99: Line 99:
  
  
CHAPTER IV.  
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_4|CHAPTER IV.]]
  
 
The Beginning Differentiation of the Embryo; the Neural Canal ; The Chorda Dorsalis ; the Mesoblastic Somites m  
 
The Beginning Differentiation of the Embryo; the Neural Canal ; The Chorda Dorsalis ; the Mesoblastic Somites m  
Line 112: Line 112:
 
   
 
   
  
CHAPTER V.
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_5|CHAPTER V.]]
  
 
The Formation of the Body-wall, of the Intestinal Canal, and of the Fetal Membranes 79  
 
The Formation of the Body-wall, of the Intestinal Canal, and of the Fetal Membranes 79  
Line 127: Line 127:
  
  
CHAPTER VI.
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_6|CHAPTER VI.]]
 
   
 
   
 
The Decidual and the Embedding of the Ovum; the  
 
The Decidual and the Embedding of the Ovum; the  
Line 142: Line 142:
  
  
CHAPTER VII.  
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_7|CHAPTER VII.]]
  
 
The Further Development of the External Form of the Body 105  
 
The Further Development of the External Form of the Body 105  
Line 155: Line 155:
  
  
CHAPTER VIII.  
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_8|CHAPTER VIII.]]
  
 
The Development of the Connective Tissues of the Body, and of the Lymphatic System 124  
 
The Development of the Connective Tissues of the Body, and of the Lymphatic System 124  
Line 164: Line 164:
  
  
CHAPTER IX.  
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_9|CHAPTER IX.]]
  
 
The Development of the Face and the Mouth Cavity .... 130  
 
The Development of the Face and the Mouth Cavity .... 130  
Line 181: Line 181:
  
  
CHAPTER X.  
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_10|CHAPTER X.]]
  
 
The Development of the Vascular System 147  
 
The Development of the Vascular System 147  
Line 209: Line 209:
  
  
CHAPTER XI.  
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_11|CHAPTER XI.]]
  
 
The Development of the Digestive System 185  
 
The Development of the Digestive System 185  
Line 246: Line 246:
  
  
CHAPTER XXL
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_12|CHAPTER XII.]]
  
 
The Development of the Respiratory System 222  
 
The Development of the Respiratory System 222  
Line 253: Line 253:
  
  
CHAPTER XIIL
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_13|CHAPTER XIII.]]
  
The Development of the Qenito-urlnary System 232  
+
The Development of the Genito-urlnary System 232  
  
 
The Development of the Kidney and the L'reter . . . 232  
 
The Development of the Kidney and the L'reter . . . 232  
Line 285: Line 285:
  
  
CHAPTER XIV. PACK
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_14|CHAPTER XIV.]]
  
 
The Development of the Skin and its Appendages 268  
 
The Development of the Skin and its Appendages 268  
Line 303: Line 303:
  
  
CHAPTER XV.  
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_15|CHAPTER XV.]]
  
 
The Development of the Nervous System 278  
 
The Development of the Nervous System 278  
Line 331: Line 331:
  
  
CHAPTER XVI.  
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_16|CHAPTER XVI.]]
  
 
The Development of the Sense Organs 32(}  
 
The Development of the Sense Organs 32(}  
Line 358: Line 358:
  
  
 
+
[[Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology_17|CHAPTER XVII.]]
CHAPTER XVII.  
 
  
 
The Development of the Muscular System 363  
 
The Development of the Muscular System 363  

Revision as of 10:31, 29 October 2012

A TEXT-BOOK

OF


EMBRYOLOGY


FOR STUDENTS OF MEDICINE


BY

John Clement Heisler, M.D.

(1907)

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION

The great activity along the lines of embrvological research during the past half-dozen years has brought forth much literature and some new facts. In some cases existing views have thereby been modified or set aside; in others, they have been more firmly established. In presenting the third edition of this book the effort has been made so to revise the text as to harmonize it with the results of recent researches. To this end, certain of the sections have been practically rewritten, while others have been slightly altered, and still others have been merely somewhat amplified. Where changes have been made the authorities therefor have usually been cited. The revised portions of the book include the sections dealing with the ovum, the spermatozoon, the blastodermic vesicle, the amnion, the vascular system, the pancreas, the spleen, the larynx, the thymus, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal, the kidney, the spinal cord, the vitreous, the musculature, and the vertebral column.

J. C. H.

3829 Walnut St., Philadelphia, March, 1907.


PREFACE

The facts of embryology having acquired in recent years such great interest in connection with the teaching and with the proper comprehension of human anatomy, it is of first importance to the student of medicine that a concise and yet sufficiently full text-book upon the subject be available. It was with the aim of presenting such a book that this volume was written, the author, in his experience as a teacher of anatomy, having been impressed with the fact that students were seriously handicapj>ed in their study of the subject of embryology by the lack of a text-book full enough to be intelligible, and yet without that minuteness of detail which characterizes the larger treatises, and which so often serves only to confuse and discourage the beginner.

In the arrangement of the subject-matter of the book, it has been the aim not only to present a connected story of human development, but also to make each chapter as nearly as possible complete in itself, for the sake of convenience of reference. It is for this reason that some repetitions occur in the text. The frequent allusions to certain facts of comparative embryology are rendered necessary by the very nature of the subject, but it has been the writer's aim to make these allusions as simple and as easily intelligible as possible.

In the selection of the illustrations, great care has been exercised to employ those of the greatest teaching value, and to arrange them, with reference to any one chapter, as nearly as possible in proper chronological sequence. Due acknowledgement is made in each case for every illustration borrowed from other works.

With few exceptions, no attempt has been made to cite authorities in the text, and the author would here express his obligations to the writings of His, O. Hertwig, Kolliker, Schultze, Bonnet, Balfour, Marshall, Piersol, Minot, Tourneux, and many others.

J. C. H.

3829 Walnut St., Philadelphia,


CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

The Male and Female Sexual Elements ; Maturation ; Ovulation; Menstruation; Fertilization 17

The Spermatozoon 20

The Ovum 24

The Hen's egg 27

Oogenesis 29

Maturation of the Ovum 32

Ovulation 80

Menstruation 38

The Relation of Menstruation to Ovulation and Conception . . 40

Fertilization 41

Artificial Fertilization 44


CHAPTER II

The Segmentation of the Ovum and Formation of the Blastodermic Vesicle 45

Segmentation 45

The Stage of the Blastula 49


CHAPTER III.

The Germ-layers and the Primitive Streak 52

The Two-layered Stage of the Blastodermic Vesicle . . 52

The Embryonal Area 58

The Primitive Streak 59

The Development of the Mesoderm 62

The Derivatives of the Germ-lavers 67


CHAPTER IV.

The Beginning Differentiation of the Embryo; the Neural Canal ; The Chorda Dorsalis ; the Mesoblastic Somites m

The Neural or Medullary Canal 7()

The Notoohord or Chorda Dorsalis 7.'>

The Neurenteric Canal 74

The Somites or Primitive Segments 75


CHAPTER V.

The Formation of the Body-wall, of the Intestinal Canal, and of the Fetal Membranes 79

The Formation op the Body-wall and of the Intestinal Canal op the Embryo 79

The Amnion 82

The Yolk-sac 87

The Allantois 89

The Chorion 92


CHAPTER VI.

The Decidual and the Embedding of the Ovum; the

Placenta; the Umbilical Cord 95

The Decidua and the Embedding of the Ovum 95

The Placenta 98

The Umbilical Cord 102

Relations of the Fetal Membranes at Birth 104


CHAPTER VII.

The Further Development of the External Form of the Body 105

The Stage of the Ovum 106

The Stage of the Embryo 107

The Visceral Arches and Clefts Ill

The Stage of the Fetus 118


CHAPTER VIII.

The Development of the Connective Tissues of the Body, and of the Lymphatic System 124

The Connective Tissues 124

The Development of the Lymphatic System 127


CHAPTER IX.

The Development of the Face and the Mouth Cavity .... 130

The Evolution of the Face 130

The Mouth 134

The Teeth 137

The Salivary Glands 143

The Tongue 143

The Nose 145


CHAPTER X.

The Development of the Vascular System 147

The Vitelline Circulation and the Origin of the Blood 147


THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEART 152

The Metamorphosis of the Single into the Double Heart .... 156

The Valves of the Heart 161

The Allantok- and the Placental Circulation 163

The Fetal Arterial System 165

The Fetal Venous System 169

The Formation of the Pericardium, the Pleur^ and the

Diaphragm 174

The Portal Circulation 177

The Final Stage of the Fetal Vascular System . . . 181


CHAPTER XI.

The Development of the Digestive System 185

The Mouth 192

The Pharynx 193

The Tongue 194

The Tonsil 194

The Anus 195

The Differentiation of the Alimentary Canal into Separate Regions 197

Increase in Length and Further Subdivision 201

Alteration in the Relative Position of Parts, and Further Development 202

Histological Alterations 205

Meckel's Diverticulum 207

The Development of the Liver 207

The Gall-bladder 209

The Ligaments of the Liver 209

The Development of the Pancreas 211

The Development of the Spleen . . 212

The Evoution of the Peritoneum 214


CHAPTER XII.

The Development of the Respiratory System 222

The Thyroid, the Parathyroid, and the Thymus Bodies . . 226


CHAPTER XIII.

The Development of the Genito-urlnary System 232

The Development of the Kidney and the L'reter . . . 232

The Mesonepliros or Wolffian Body 234

The Metanephros or Permanent Kidney 237

The Suprarenal Bodies 241

The Development of the Internal Generative Organs . 243

The Indifferent Type 243

The Male Type 24')

The Female Type 249

The Bladder and the Prostate Gland 25')

The External Organs of (t feneration 2'>s

The Female External Genitals 25l>

The Male External Genitals . 2t)l

Summary 2<>4


CHAPTER XIV.

The Development of the Skin and its Appendages 268

The Skin 2G8

The Appendages of the Skin 270

The Nails 270

The Hair 271

The Sebaceous and Sweat Glands 273

The Mammary Gland 274


CHAPTER XV.

The Development of the Nervous System 278

The Development of the Spinal Cord 281

The Development of the Brain 286

The Fifth Brain-vesicle 289

The Hind-brain Vesicle 292

The Mid-brain Vesicle 294

The Inter-brain Vesicle 296

The Fore-brain Vesicle 302

The Development of the Peripheral Nervous System . 316

The Development of the Sympathetic System 324

The Carotid Body, the Coccygeal Body, and the Organs of Zuckei^

kandl * 325


CHAPTER XVI.

The Development of the Sense Organs 32(}

The Deveix)pment op the Eye 326

The Retina and Optic Nerve 328

The Crystalline I-«ns 336

The Vitreous Body 338

The Middle and Outer Tunics of the Eye 339

The Eyelids and the Lacrimal Apparatus 343

The Development of the Organ of Hearing 345

The Internal Ear 346

The Middle and External Ear 355

The Development of the Nope 358



CHAPTER XVII.

The Development of the Muscular System 363

The Striated or Voluntary Muscle 363

The Muscles of the Trunk Proper 363

The Metamorphosis of the Muscle-plate 366

The Branchial Muscles 369

The Muscles of the Extremities 370

The Involuntary or Unstriated Muscular Tissue .... 371

The Cardiac Muscle 371

The Development of the Skeleton and of the Limbs .... 372

The Axial Skeleton 373

The Development of the Trunk 373

The Stage of the Chorda 373

The Membranous Stage 374

The Cartilaginous Stage 377

The Osseous Stage 379

The Development of the Ribs and Steraum 382

The Development of the Head Skeleton 384

The Membranous Cranium liSo

The Cartilaginous Cranium 38()

The Osseoufi Stage 389

The Appendicular Skeleton 402

The Pectoral and Pelvic (iirdles 403

The Bones of the Extremities 404

The Development of the Limbs 405

The Position of the Limbs . 407

Tabulated Chronology of Development 409

Index 417



Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, October 17) Embryology Book - A Text-book of Embryology. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_A_Text-book_of_Embryology

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G