||Gastrulation means "gut forming" and converts the inner cell mass which then formed the bilaminar embryo (epiblast, hypoblast) into the trilaminar embryo (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm).
The process involves the migration of cells from the epiblast layer through the primitive streak to form first the endoderm layer and then a second intermediate layer the mesoderm layer. Once all cells have left the epiblast layer it now becomes the ectoderm layer.
These three germ cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) will form in a layer specific manner all the future tissues of the developing embryo.
Approximate cross-section of an 18 day human conceptus.
Identify the 3 layers of the trilaminar embryo: ectoderm (columnar cells), intraembryonic mesoderm (mesenchymal cells, endodermal cells (cuboidal single layer). Identify primitive groove with dense cluster of primitive streak cells below it.
(Image: Nishimura etal., 1977)
|Features: embryonic disc, primitive node, primative streak, primitive groove, yolk sac
Facts: Week 3, 15 - 17 days, 0.4 mm
View 1: embryonic disc, showing the epiblast viewed from the amniotic (dorsal) side.
Events: Gastrulation is continuing as cells migrate from the epiblast, continuing to form mesoderm.
Mesoderm lies between the ectoderm and endoderm as a continuous sheet except at the buccopharyngeal and cloacal membranes. These membranes have ectoderm and endoderm only and will lie at the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) of the gastrointestinal tract.
|Gastrulation: Through the primitive streak cells migrate continuously through week 3 into week 4. Initial cells replace hypoblast as an epithelial layer the endoderm. Later migrating cells spread between the two epithelial layers to form mesoderm.
|Axes: embryonic disc is shown rostral (head) to top and caudal (tail) to bottom. Left and right are the lateral margins of the disc as shown.
Carnegie Stage 7 and 8, gastrulation, migration of cells through the primitive streak to form endoderm and mesodermal layers of embryo.
Scanning electron micrograph showing the early forming 3 layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
Now observe this brief animation of mesoderm development during week 3.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, October 25) Embryology BGDA Practical 3 - Gastrulation. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/BGDA_Practical_3_-_Gastrulation
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