BGDA Lecture - Development of the Nervous System

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Introduction

Mark Hill (talk) 11:37, 15 May 2017 (AEST) New lecture under development - this notice removed when completed. Begin your background reading by looking at the textbook links.


Neural development is a complex and ongoing process that commences in week 3 and continues through into the postnatal period. This lecture will introduce concepts about the timing, origin and abnormalities of the nervous system. Lecture content will be added to this current page, the linked online textbook chapters are available as pre-reading for this lecture.

The human MRI movie below (head, sagittal plane, left to right) shows the central nervous system (CNS) development at the end of the embryonic period (week 8; GA week 10).

Stage23 MRI S01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Sagittal Head
Page | Play
Stage23 MRI 3D02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo CNS
Page | Play
Stage23 MRI S02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Sagittal Embryo
Page | Play
Stage23 MRI T01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Trans. Embryo
Page | Play
Stage23 MRI C01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Coronal Embryo
Page | Play

Aim

To develop an understanding of the development of the nervous system and the consequences of abnormal development.


Draft Lecture Timetable - Monday 29 May 2017 09:00 AM - 10:00 AM Development of the nervous system Kensington - Rex Vowels Theatre

Textbooks

UNSW Embryology

Logo.png Hill, M.A. (2019). UNSW Embryology (19th ed.) Retrieved December 12, 2019, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au
Neural Links: ectoderm | neural | neural crest | ventricular | sensory | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | neural postnatal | neural examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural

The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology

Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. (links only function with UNSW connection)

The Developing Human, 10th edn.jpg
The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (10th edn) 
The Developing Human, 10th edn.jpg

UNSW Students have online access to the current 10th edn. through the UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).


APA Citation: Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Links: PermaLink | UNSW Embryology Textbooks | Embryology Textbooks | UNSW Library
  1. Introduction to the Developing Human
  2. First Week of Human Development
  3. Second Week of Human Development
  4. Third Week of Human Development
  5. Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development
  6. Fetal Period
  7. Placenta and Fetal Membranes
  8. Body Cavities and Diaphragm
  9. Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck
  10. Respiratory System
  11. Alimentary System
  12. Urogenital System
  13. Cardiovascular System
  14. Skeletal System
  15. Muscular System
  16. Development of Limbs
  17. Nervous System
  18. Development of Eyes and Ears
  19. Integumentary System
  20. Human Birth Defects
  21. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  22. Appendix : Discussion of Clinically Oriented Problems

Larsen's Human Embryology

Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.(links only function with UNSW connection)

Larsen's human embryology 5th ed.jpg
Larsen's Human Embryology (5th edn) 
Larsen's human embryology 5th ed.jpg
UNSW students have full access to this textbook edition through UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).


APA Citation: Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Links: PermaLink | UNSW Embryology Textbooks | Embryology Textbooks | UNSW Library
  1. Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
  2. Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
  3. Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
  4. Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
  5. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  6. Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
  7. Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
  8. Development of the Musculoskeletal System
  9. Development of the Central Nervous System
  10. Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
  11. Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
  12. Development of the Heart
  13. Development of the Vasculature
  14. Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
  15. Development of the Urinary System
  16. Development of the Reproductive System
  17. Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
  18. Development of the Ears
  19. Development of the Eyes
  20. Development of the Limbs

More Textbooks?

Week 3

Ectoderm

  • neural plate - midline (columnar cells)
    • neural crest - outside lateral edges of neural plate
  • surface ectoderm - lateral (cuboidal cells)
    • head - sensory and anterior pituitary (placodes)
    • integument - epidermis of skin, hair, glands, teeth enamel

Neural Plate

  • extends from buccopharyngeal membrane (oral membrane) to primitive node (Hensen's node)
  • forms above notochord and paraxial mesoderm
  • neuroectodermal cells - neural plate, neural crest
  • rostrocaudal width
    • brain plate (broad)
    • spinal cord (narrow)
Mesoderm-cartoon1.jpg
Week 3 Movies
Neuralplate 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Neural Plate
Page | Play

Week 4

Neural Tube

neural groove neural tube and neural crest
Mesoderm-cartoon3.jpg Mesoderm-cartoon4.jpg
Stage 10 - Dorsal View

Stage10 bf10.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 10 | Embryo Slides
Week 4 Movies
Neuraltube 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Neural Tube
Page | Play
Mouse neural tube 01 movie icon.jpg
 ‎‎Neural Tube Close
Page | Play

Neural Crest

Neural Crest Development

Primary Brain Vesicles

Traditional vesicle description (simplified name and alternate neuromere description in brackets)

CNS primary vesicles.jpg

Brain

  1. Prosencephalon (forebrain, prosomeres)
  2. Mesencephalon (midbrain, mesomeres)
  3. Rhombencephalon (hindbrain, rhombomeres)
Stage 13 image 053.jpg Stage 13 image 054.jpg

Spinal Cord

Stage11 sem10.jpgStage11 sem101.jpg

Neural Tube Regions  
Neural Tube Early Structures
Neural Tube (stage 11) Regions Anatomical location Patterning region
Stage11 sem102.jpg roof plate dorsal surface ectoderm
alar plate dorsal lateral surface ectoderm
basal plate ventral lateral notochord and floor plate
floor plate ventral notochord

Table above shows the future transient regions that develop from the early neural tube.

Links: Spinal Cord

Week 5

Secondary Brain Vesicles

CNS secondary vesicles.jpg

  1. Telencephalon
  2. Diencephalon
  3. Mesencephalon
  4. Metencephalon
  5. Myelencephalon

Brain Flexures

Stage 13 image 098.jpg Rapid growth folds the neural tube forming 3 brain flexures (cranial to caudal)
  • cephalic flexure - (mesencephalic) pushes mesencephalon upwards
  • pontine flexure - generates 4th ventricle (cerebellum will grow into this space)
  • cervical flexure - between brain stem and spinal cord

Ventricles

  • cavity within neural tube will form the contiguious space of the ventricules of the brain and central canal of spinal cord
  • space is filled initially with amniotic fluid, later with CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF)
  • CSF is secreted by
    • chorioid plexus modified vascular structures lying within the ventricles
      • floor of lateral ventricle and roof of the third and fourth ventricles
    • ventricular ependymal cells and cells lining the subarachnoid space
  • CSF also fills the subarachnoid space (between arachnoid mater and pia mater).
Adult Ventricular Structures  
Brain four ventricles and several foramina (openings that connect ventricular spaces)
  • 2 lateral ventricles (right and left)
    • interventricular foramina (foramina of Monro)
  • third ventricle
    • cerebral aqueduct (Sylvius)
  • fourth ventricle
    • median aperture (Magendie) subarachnoid space via the cisterna magna
    • right and left lateral aperture (Luschka) subarachnoid space via the cistern of great cerebral vein

Spinal cord

  • central canal
Adult Meninges Layers  
Meninges cartoon.jpg
Links: Neural - Ventricular System Development
Csf cartoon2.jpg

CSF-filled spaces in adult brain.

Week 6

Movie

Human embryo tomography Carnegie stage 17.jpg

Note the shape and size of the different regions of the brain and spinal cord.

  • Telencephalon (cerebrum) has begun to expand and will eventually cover the midbrain region.
  • Dorsal root ganglia are visible outside the spinal cord.

Week 8

Cortex

Stage 22 image 217.jpg

Spinal Cord

Human Stage22 spinal cord02.jpg


Fetal

Second Trimester

Human week 10 fetus 01.jpg

Human week 10 fetus

Brain ventricles and ganglia development 03.jpg Brain fissure development 02.jpg
Brain and Ventricular Development[1] Brain Fissure Development[1]

Sylvian Fissure Development

Third Trimester

Dev anat 01.jpg

The brain goes from a smooth surface to begin to fold.

  • Folds occur as millions of cells push into the cortex, increasing the surface area.
  • groove - fissure (plural, fissures).
  • fold - gyrus (plural, gyri).
Human Fetus CRL240mm brain.jpg

Human Fetus (CRL 240mm) Brain

Fetal Timeline

Neural-development.jpg


Brain Growth

Embryonic

Table below shows a direct comparison of brain growth in size between week 4 to 8 (GA 6-10)

Embryonic Central Nervous System
Stage 13 Stage 14 Stage 16 Stage 21
Human Stage13 sagittal upper half01.jpg

scale bar = 1 mm

Human Stage14 neural01.jpg Human Stage16 neural03.jpg Human Stage21 neural01.jpg
Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 8


Fetal

Human brain growth 01.jpg

Adult

Adult human brain.jpg

Adult CNS Structures  
Neural Tube Development
Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Brain
prosencephalon telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
Diencephalon Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle
mesencephalon mesencephalon Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct
rhombencephalon metencephalon pons, cerebellum
myelencephalon medulla oblongata
spinal cord

Movies

Neural Development
Neuralplate 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Neural Plate
Page | Play
Neuraltube 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Neural Tube
Page | Play
Secondary neurulation 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Secondary Neurulation
Page | Play
Stage13-CNS-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Stage 13 Neural
Page | Play
Stage13 MRI 3D02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo CNS
Page | Play
Mouse neural tube 01 movie icon.jpg
 ‎‎Neural Tube Close
Page | Play
Stage16 MRI 3D02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo CNS
Page | Play
Stage16 MRI S01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Stage 16
Page | Play
Human embryo tomography Carnegie stage 17.jpg
 ‎‎Stage 17 Embryo
Page | Play
Stage22-CNS-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Stage 22 Neural
Page | Play
Stage23 MRI 3D02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo CNS
Page | Play
Stage23 MRI S01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Sagittal Head
Page | Play
Abnormalities Ultrasound
Brain fissure development 03.jpg
 ‎‎Sylvian Fissure
Page | Play
Adult human brain tomography.jpg
 ‎‎Adult Brain
Page | Play
US Dandy-Walker 01.jpg
 ‎‎Dandy-Walker
Page | Play
US Spina bifida GA19week.jpg
 ‎‎Spina Bifida
Page | Play
Fetal-Brain-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Neural
Page | Play


Abnormalities

meningomyelocele


BGDsmall.jpg
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 12) Embryology BGDA Lecture - Development of the Nervous System. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/BGDA_Lecture_-_Development_of_the_Nervous_System

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G
  1. 1.0 1.1 <pubmed>19339620</pubmed>| PMC2721010 | J Neurosci.