The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology
Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. (links only function with UNSW connection)
Larsen's Human Embryology
Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.(links only function with UNSW connection)
- neural plate - midline (columnar cells)
- neural crest - outside lateral edges of neural plate
- surface ectoderm - lateral (cuboidal cells)
- head - sensory and anterior pituitary (placodes)
- integument - epidermis of skin, hair, glands, teeth enamel
- extends from buccopharyngeal membrane (oral membrane) to primitive node (Hensen's node)
- forms above notochord and paraxial mesoderm
- neuroectodermal cells - neural plate, neural crest
- rostrocaudal width
- brain plate (broad)
- spinal cord (narrow)
||neural tube and neural crest
Neural Crest Development
Primary Brain Vesicles
Traditional vesicle description (simplified name and alternate neuromere description in brackets)
- Prosencephalon (forebrain, prosomeres)
- Mesencephalon (midbrain, mesomeres)
- Rhombencephalon (hindbrain, rhombomeres)
|Neural Tube Regions
|Neural Tube Early Structures
|Neural Tube (stage 11)
||notochord and floor plate
Table above shows the future transient regions that develop from the early neural tube.
Links: Spinal Cord
Secondary Brain Vesicles
||Rapid growth folds the neural tube forming 3 brain flexures (cranial to caudal)
- cephalic flexure - (mesencephalic) pushes mesencephalon upwards
- pontine flexure - generates 4th ventricle (cerebellum will grow into this space)
- cervical flexure - between brain stem and spinal cord
- cavity within neural tube will form the contiguious space of the ventricules of the brain and central canal of spinal cord
- space is filled initially with amniotic fluid, later with CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF)
- CSF is secreted by
- chorioid plexus modified vascular structures lying within the ventricles
- floor of lateral ventricle and roof of the third and fourth ventricles
- ventricular ependymal cells and cells lining the subarachnoid space
- CSF also fills the subarachnoid space (between arachnoid mater and pia mater).
|Adult Ventricular Structures
|Brain four ventricles and several foramina (openings that connect ventricular spaces)
- 2 lateral ventricles (right and left)
- interventricular foramina (foramina of Monro)
- third ventricle
- cerebral aqueduct (Sylvius)
- fourth ventricle
- median aperture (Magendie) subarachnoid space via the cisterna magna
- right and left lateral aperture (Luschka) subarachnoid space via the cistern of great cerebral vein
|Adult Meninges Layers
- Links: Neural - Ventricular System Development
CSF-filled spaces in adult brain.
Note the shape and size of the different regions of the brain and spinal cord.
- Telencephalon (cerebrum) has begun to expand and will eventually cover the midbrain region.
- Dorsal root ganglia are visible outside the spinal cord.
Human week 10 fetus
|Brain and Ventricular Development
||Brain Fissure Development
The brain goes from a smooth surface to begin to fold.
- Folds occur as millions of cells push into the cortex, increasing the surface area.
- groove - fissure (plural, fissures).
- fold - gyrus (plural, gyri).
Human Fetus (CRL 240mm) Brain
Table below shows a direct comparison of brain growth in size between week 4 to 8 (GA 6-10)
|Adult CNS Structures
Neural Tube Development
||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
||Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle
||Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, November 15) Embryology BGDA Lecture - Development of the Nervous System. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/BGDA_Lecture_-_Development_of_the_Nervous_System
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- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G