Anatomical and physiological studies on the growth of the inner ear of the albino rat 2 (1923)

From Embryology
Revision as of 16:48, 18 September 2020 by Z8600021 (talk | contribs) (Created page with "==III. On the growth of the largest nerve cells in the ganglion spirale== Observations. For the present studies the fourteen age groups used in the previous observations on...")
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

III. On the growth of the largest nerve cells in the ganglion spirale

Observations. For the present studies the fourteen age groups used in the previous observations on the growth of the tympanic wall of the cochlear duct were employed. In order to see the relation between the growth of the papilla spiralis and the cells of the ganglion spirale, both studies were made on the same sections. In addition, however, I made cross-sections of the cochlea (i.e., at right angles to the axis) in several age groups to follow the growth and the changes in the form of the nerve cells as they appear in this plane. The data for the animals thus used are given in table 94.


GROWTH OF THE INNER EAR OF ALBINO RAT


125


For the measurement of the nerve cells a Zeiss system was used with a micrometer eyepiece, having each division equal to 2jx. Since we have in the radial vertical section of the cochlea of the rat at least four turns, there are four cell groups available in each section (fig. 3). The ten largest cells in each ganglion were measured, and thus a total of forty cells in a section were taken for the measurement of the nucleus and the cell.

We used, as stated, four cochleas in each age group, so that 160 cells were measured for each age. Also in the cross-sections the four nearly corresponding turns were used for the measurements, selecting the ten largest cells in each turn.

TABLE 04 Data on rals used for cross-sections of the cochlea ganglion spirale


AGE


BOOT WEIGHT


BODY LENGTH


BEX


8IDE


HEARING


days


grams






15


20


84


(?


L.


Prompt response


20


27


93


d"


L.



25


39


114


P


L.



100


95


152


<?


R.



150


169


192


9


L.



371


220


206


c?


L.



In the measurement of the cell bodies the two maximum diameters at right angles to each other were determined, and also the two corresponding diameters for the nuclei.

Here it is to be noted that the expressions turn I, II, III, and IV are used in the same sense as in the earlier chapters.

In table 95 (chart 40) are given the values for the average diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei in the ganglion spirale in the radial vertical section according to fourteen age groups. Under 'cell body, diameter,' the first column gives the long, the second the short, and the third the computed diameter; i.e., the square root of their products. These last values approximate the mean diameters of the nerve cells. At the foot of the third column are given the ratios from 1 to 20, 1 to 546, and 20 to 546 days. The values for the diameters of the nurlei are similarly given and also the ratios.


126


ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON


As the tables and charts show, the diameters of the cell bodies and also of their nuclei are largest at twenty days of age. After that age they diminish, gradually. While the ratio for one to twenty days is 1:1.7 in the cell bodies and 1:1.3 in the nuclei, that for 1 to 546 days is 1:1.6 and 1:1.2, respectively.

TABLE 95

Diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei in the ganglion spirale (radial-vertica I

section) (chart 40)





Diameters in M





Cell body


Nucleus


AGE


BOOT


BODY





WEIGHT


LENGTH











Long


Short


Computed


Long


Short


Computed


days


grams


mm.








1


5


48


11.0


10.0


10.5


8.2


7.6


7.9


3


8


56


12.0


11.1


11.5


8.2


7.8


8.0


6


11


63


13.6


12.3


12.9


8.8


8.1


8.4


9


10


58


14.3


12.8


13.6


8.9


8.2


8.5


12


13


70


14.6


13.1


13.8


8.7


8.2


8.5


15


13


75


15.7


14.1


14.9


9.1


8.4


8.7


20


29


95


19.0


17.3


18.1


10.3


10.0


10.2


25


36


104


18.5


16.9


17.7


10.2


9.9


10.1


50


59


125


18.5


16.6


17.5


10.3


9.7


10.0


100


112


159


18.1


15.7


16.9


9.8


9.2


9.5


150


183


190


18.2


15.3


16.7


9.6


8.8


9.2


257


137


175


18.5


15.3


16.8


9.9


9.4


9.6


366


181


191


18.6


15.3


16.9


9.8


9.0


9.4


546


255


213


18.6


15.3


16.9


9.7


9.0


9.4


Ratios







120 days



1:1.7




1:1.3


1546 "



1.6




1.2


20546 "



0.9




0.9


In table 96 (chart 41) are a series of computed diameters of the cell bodies and of their nuclei according to the turns of the cochlea. At the bottom of each column are given the ratios from 1 to 20, 1 to 546, and 20 to 546 days. Determining the ratios for each column, it appears that in general the diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei are largest at twenty days throughout all the turns. This increase is very considerable from fifteen to twenty days. Then they decrease very slowly till 546 days.


GROWTH OF THE INNER EAR OF ALBINO RAT


127


Table 97 enables us to compare the ratios in the diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei in turns I, II, III, and IV in the condensed age groups. In both the cell bodies and their nuclei the ratios become slightly larger in passing from the basal toward the apical turn, except in the one day group, which it reversed.

On the comparison of the diameters of the nerve cell bodies and their nuclei in the ganglion spirale according to sex. For this comparison seven age groups were used. In each age group we have sometimes one, sometimes two cochleas of the same sex.


  • u

M

15

10

5 r\








































































/


'*






-4




>

























1













'<






















1

































j

































f *



































































































/





^

































?










""


-i


_


_


___



J]



_


-.



. _,



_



..


_




_.




v*


'
































































































































































































































































G


E


D


A


/Si






























25 50 5Q .Qo 2(X) 30Q 40Q


5OO


Chart 40 Showing the computed diameter of the largest cell bodies and their nuclei from the ganglion spirale, table 95.


Diameters of the cell bodies.


Diameters of the nuclei.

In the latter case the average value is recorded. In table 98 are given the values for these diameters, and it is plain that there is no significant difference in these values according to sex. On the comparison of the diameters of the nerve cell bodies and their nuclei in the ganglion spirale according to side. For this purpose fourteen age groups were employed. In most cases two cochleas from the same side were used in each age group. In these cases the average value is recorded. Table 99 shows the values for the diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei according to side, but reveals no evident difference in this character.


128


ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON


On the morphological changes in the ganglion cells during growth. As my sections could not be stained with thionine, my observations on the Nissl bodies are incomplete, yet the slides stained with Heidenhain's iron haematoxylin and van Gieson's stain, as well as by haematoxylin and eosin, were helpful here.


TABLE 96


Computed diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei in the ganglion spirale according to the turns of the cochlea (chart 41 )


AGE

days


BODY WEIGHT

gms


TURNS OF THE COCHLEA


Computed diameters M


I


II


in


IV


Cell body


Nucleus


Cell body


Nucleus


Cell body


Nucleus


Cell body


Nucleus


1


5


11.0


8.0


10.8


8.2


10.4


8.0


9.6


7.4


3


8


11.5


7.9


11.5


7.9


11.7


8.0


11.3


8.1


6


11


12.9


8.4


12.6


8.2


13.0


8.5


13.3


8.6


9


10


13.4


8.4


13.4


8.5


13.6


8.6


13.7


8.6


12


13


13.6


8.1


13.5


8.1


13.8


8.6


14.7


9.0


15


13


14.8


8.6


15.0


8.6


14.6


8.6


15.0


9.2


20


29


17.6


10.0


17.6


9.9


18.1


10.2


19.0


10.4


25


36


16.9


9.9


17.6


10.0


17.6


10.1


18.4


10.3


50


59


17.2


9.7


17.2


9.7


17.6


10.0


17.9


10.1


100


112


16.9


9.6


16.9


9.4


16.3


9.3


16.9


9.6


150


183


16.9


9.3


16.3


9.0


16.6


9.1


17.0


9.1


257


137


16.7


9.6


16.7


9.4


16.9


9.7


17.0


9.7


366


181


16.7


9.3


16.4


9.2


16.7


9.1


17.7


9.7


546 255 Ratios 1 20 day* 1546 " 20546 "


15.8 1:1 .6


9.2 1:1.3


16.3 1:1.6


9.4 1:12


16.9 1:1.7


9.4 1:1.3


17.4 1:2 .0


9.5 1:14


1 5


1 2


1 5


1 2


1 7


1 2


1 8


1 3


1.0


0.9


0.r
1.0


0.?'


0.9


O.S


0.9


TABLE 07 Condensed Ratios of the diameters of the cells and nuclei of the ganglion spirale


AVERAGE AGE


AVERAGE BODY WEIGHT


RATIOS BETWEEN TURNS


I-II


l-lll


I-IV


Cell body


Nucleus


Cell body


Nucleus


Cell body


Nucleus


days

1

8 18 13


grams 5 11 21 138


1 :0.98

0.99
1.01
0.99


1: 1.25

1.00
1.00
0 99


1:0-95

1.01
1.01
i.OI


1 : 1 . 00

1.02
1.01
1 . 00


1 : . 87

1.03

1.04

1.04


1 :0.93

1.05
1 . 05
1.02


GROWTH OF THE INNER EAR OF ALBINO RAT


129


19 M 18

17 16 15 14 13 12


10 9


Si;


DAYSi i i




25


50


, oo 2OO 3OO 4OO


Chart 41 'The computed diameter of the largest cell bodies and of their nuclei from the ganglion spirale, according to the turns of the cochlea, table 96. Upper graphs: diameters of the coll bodies. Lower graphs: diameters of the nuclei of the cells.


130


Figure 13 illustrates semidiagrammatically the nerve cells in the spiral ganglion of the albino rat at 1 day and at 20 and 366 days.

The body of the ganglion cells at birth is small and has the characteristic fetal form. The cytoplasm is homogeneous and scanty and the Nissl bodies are not yet seen. The nucleus forms


TABLE 98


Comparison according to sex of the diameters of the cell bodies and the nuclei in

the ganglion spirale


AGE


BODY WEIGHT


NO. OF RAT8


SEX


COMPUTED DIAMETERS M


Cell


Nucleus


days


grams






3


7


1


&


11.4


8.0



8


1


9


11.4


8.0


6


11


2


tf


13.1


8.5



10


2


9


12.8


8.4


9


10


2


c?


13.6


8.5



9


2


9


13.5


8.6


12


14


2


c? 1


13.7


8.5



12


2 .


9


13.9


8.4


100


146


. 1


<?


17.2


9.6



103


1


9


16.9


9.4


150


189


1


d 1


16.5


9.1



154


1


9


17.1


9.1


365


205


1


d 1


16.3


9.0



170


1


9


16.7


9.1


Average male


14.5


8.7


Average f e male


14.6


8.7


Male larger than female


3


3


Female larger than male


3


2


Male and female equal


1


2


the greater part of the cell. The chroma tin is not yet well differentiated, and the so-called 'Kernfaden' are not visible.

The sharply marked nucleolus is in most cases in the central position, but sometimes located peripherally.

The cytoplasm matures rapidly. At six days the Nissl bodies appear, though they are of course, less abundant and smaller than in the later stages. The nucleus develops also and the chromatin is well differentiated. Thus the development in both the cell body and the nucleus proceeds rapidly in the earlier stage.



20 Days


13



366 Days


Fig. 13 Showing semi-diagrammatically the size and the morphological changes in the ganglion cells in the ganglion spirale of the albino rat at the age of 1, 20 and 366 days. All cell figures have been uniformly magnified 1000 diameters.


GROWTH OF THE INNER EAR OF ALBINO RAT


131


At twenty days the cell body reaches its maximum size. The Nissl bodies are large and abundant. The nucleus also attains

TABLE 99

Comparison according to side of the cell bodies and their nuclei in the ganglion

spirale


AGE




SIDE


COMPUTED I.I \ M K r Ml- ft




Cell


Nucleus


days


grams






1


5


2


R.


10.6


8.0





L.


10.4


7.8


3


7


1


R.


11.4


8.0





L.


11.5


8.0


6


11


2


R.


13.0


8.5





L.


12.9


8.4


9


9


2


R.


13.4


8.5





L.


13.7


8.6


12


12


1


R.


13.9


8.4





L.


14.0


8.4


15


13


1


R.


14.7


8.6





L.


14.8


8.5


20


29


2


R.


18.0


10 1





L.


18.5


10.2


25


36


2


R.


17.6


10.1





L.


17.7


10 1


50


59


2


R.


17.5


9.9





L.


17.5


9.8


100


102


2


R.


16.8


9.5



123



L.


17.0


9.5


150


189


1


R.


16.4


9.2





L.


16.5


9.1


257


137


2


R.


17.1


9.7





L.


16.6


9.5


367


175


2


R.


17.3


9.7


365


188



L.


16.5


9.1


546


255


2


R.


16.9


9.3





L.


16.9


9.9


Average right side Average left side Right larger than left Left larger than right Right and left equal


15.3 ir>.:j 4 8 2


9.1 '.M) 7 2 5


its maximum size at this age, though the rate of increase is slower than that for the cell body. With this increase of size the histological structure becomes that of the adult rat. Then, as the


132


ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON


age advances, the size of both the cell body and of the nucleus slowly diminishes, while within the cytoplasm the differentiation of the Nissl bodies progresses. This relation is seen in the figure of the cell at 366 days, which shows that the absolute volume of the cell body and also of the nucleus is smaller than at twenty days.

From twenty to 366 days, gradual and progressive changes in all histological structures can be seen, though there are no sudden changes.


TABLE 100


Diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei in the ganglion spirale in cross sections

of the cochlea (chart 4%)




DIAMETERS IN M


AGE


BODY


Cell body


Nucleus




Long


Short


Computed


Long


Short


Computed


days


grams








15


20


15.7


14.3


15.0


9.3


8.4


8.8


20


27


18.3


16.6


17.4


10.3


10.0


10.1


25


39


18.0


16.6


17.3


10.1


9.8


9.9


100


95


17.6


16.2


16.9 '


9.9


9.5


9.7


150


169


17.4


16.0


16.7


9.8


9.1


9.4


371


220


16.5


15.8


16.2


9.5


8.6


9.0


Ratios 15 25 days



1 1.1




1 1.1


15371 "



1.1




1.0


25371 "



1.0




0.9


The question here arose whether this change in volume was in any way related to a shift in the long axis of the cell at the later ages. To answer this difficult question it was deemed desirable to compare the form of the ganglion cells obtained in the cross-section with that found in the radial section of the cochlea. In table 100 (chart 42) are given the values for the diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei in the ganglion spirale in the cross-section. Below are given the respective ratios from 15 to 25, 15 to 371, and 25 to 371 days. Both cell body and nucleus increase in size up to twenty days and then diminish very slowly, as the age advances. These are similar to the relations found in the radial sections.


GROWTH OF THE INNER EAR OF ALBINO RAT


133


Looking at the diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei in each turn (table 101), we do not find in the later age groups a regular increase in passing from the base toward the apex, as in the cells on the radial section. The differences are generally

TABLE 101

Diameter of the cell bodies and their nucki in the ganglion spirale according to the turns of the cochlea (cross section)





TURNS OV THE COCHLEA


AGE


BODT WEIGHT



I


II


ill


IV





Computed diameters ft




Cell body


Nucleus


Cell body


Nucleus


Cell body


Nucleus


Cell body


Nucleus


days 15


grams 20


15.0


8.7


14.7


8.8


14.9


8.9


14.9


9


20


27


16.7


9.7


17.2


10.0


17.5


10.1


18.1


10 6


25 100


39 95


16.9 17.2


10.0 10.0


17.2 16.9


9.9 9.6


17.6 16.7


9.8 9.6


17.3 16.8


10.0 9 6


150


169


17.0


9.9


16.6


9.3


16.6


9.4


16.4


9 1


371 Ratio 15

220 371 days


16.2 1:1.1


9.6 1:1.1


16.2 1:1.1


9.1 1:1.0


16.0 1:1.1


8.7 1:1.0


16.3 1:1.1


9.0 1:1.0


20


15


10



AGE DAYS


O


25


50


Chart 42 The average diameter of the largest cell bodies and of their nuclei of the nerve cells from the ganglion spirale, after 15 davs (cross-section) table 100.

Cell bodies. -.-.-.-.-. Nuclei.


134 ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON

far smaller than on the radial section. This result seems to have some connection with the position of the long axis of the ganglion cells in relation to the axis of the cochlea.

Comparing the diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei in nearly corresponding places in the radial and cross-section, the long diameters of the cells are in each age group almost always larger in the radial than on the cross-section. Therefore the cells are somewhat ovoid. The short diameters, however, are at the same age sometimes longer, sometimes shorter on the radial than on the cross-sect on. This is probably due to the fact that in the upper turns the cells stand with their long diameter more nearly parallel to the axis of the modiolus, and therefore, on passing from the upper to the lower turn, the long axes of the cells become more inclined to the modiolus.

In order to show that the cell form is ovoid, I reconstructed the cells at 15, 100, and 365 days of age by the usual method, and obtained models which agreed in form with that determined by the microscope.

It appears, therefore, that while there is some difference in the diameters of these cells according to the plane of the section, neverthless, the change in volume after twenty days is similar in both cases, and so this change does not depend on the plane in which the sections were made.

On the nucleus-plasma relations of the cells in the ganglion spirale. The computed diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei, measured on radial sections, are given in table 102 and the nucleus-plasma ratios have been entered in the last column. The ratio is at one day only 1:1.3 and increases rapidly and regularly till twenty days; after that period there are slight fluctuations. Generally speaking, the ratios increase with the advancing age of the rat, but after twenty days only very slightly. Thus we see that the nucleus-plasma relation nearly reaches an equilibrium at twenty days, though the cells mature slowly even after that time.

When we consider this relation according to the turns of the cochlea, we find that this ratio increases in all the turns regularly and definitely till twenty days, after which there are some


GROWTH OF THE INNER EAR OF ALBINO RAT


fluctuations (table 103). Thus we see here also the same relation as before.


TABLE 102 Nucleus-plasma ratios of cells in the ganglion spirale (radial-vertical section)


AGE


BODY WEIOHT


BOOT LENGTH


COMPUTED DIAMETERS M


Cell body


Nucleus


N ucleus-plasma ratios


days


grams


mm.





1


5


48


10.5


7.9


1 : 1.3


3


8


56


11.5


8.0


2.0


6


11


63


12.9


8.4


2.6


9


10


58


13.6


8.5


3.1


12


13


60


13.8


8.5


3.3


15


13


75


14.9


8.7


4.0


20


29


95


18.1


10.2


4.6


25


36


104


17.7


10.1


4.4


50


59


125


17.5


10.0


4.4


100


112


159


16.9


9.5


4.6


150


183


190


16.7


9.2


5.0


257


137


175


16.8


9.6


4.4


366


181


191


16.9


9.4


4.8


546


255


213


16.9


9.4


4.8


TABLE 103

Nucleus-plasma ratios of cells in the ganglion spirale according to the turns of the cochlea. Based on table 96


AQB


BODY WEIOHT


TURNS Or THE COCHLEA


I


ii


in


IV


days


grama






1


5


1 :1.6


1 :1.5


1 :1.2


1 : 1.2


3


8


2.1


2.1


2.1


1.7


6


11


2.6


2.6


2.6


2.7


9


10


3.1


2.9


3.0


3.0


12


13


3.7


3.6


3.1


3.4


15


13


4.1


4.3


3.9


3.2


20


29


4.5


4.6


4.6


5.1


25


36


4.0


4.5


4.3


4.7


50


59


4.6


4.6


4.5


4.6


100


112


4.5


4.8


4.4


4.5


150


183


5.0


4.9


5.1


5.5


257


137


4.3


4.6


4.3


4.4


366


181


4.8


4.7


5.2


5.1


546


255


5.1


4.2


4.8


5.1


136


ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON


In the nucleus-plasma ratio of the cells on the cross-section, as shown in table 104, the increase with age is very regular. As the diameters of the cell bodies and their nuclei decrease slowly after twenty days, this increase of the ratio means that the nuclei are diminishing relatively more rapidly than the cytoplasm.

Comparing these ratios from the radial and cross sections, we find that they agree (table 105) .

TABLE 104

Nucleus-plasma ratios of the cells in the ganglion spirale (cross-sections)





COMPUTED DIAMETERS M




BODY LENGTH



AGE


BODY WEIGHT









Cell body


Nucleus


Nucleus-plasma ratios


days


grams


mm.





15


20


84


15.0


8.8


1 4.0


20


27


93


17.4


10.1


4.1


25


39


114


17.3


9.9


4.3


100


95


152


16.9


9.7


4.5


150


169


192


16.7


9.4


4.6


371


220


206


16.2


9.0


4.8


TABLE 105

The nucleus-plasma ratios according to the plane of the section at two age periods

albino rat


AGE


NUCLEUS-PLASMA RATIO ON THE RADIAL SECTION


NUCLEUS-PLASMA RATIO ON THE CROSS SECTION


AGE


days 15


1 :4.0


1 :4.0


days 15


366


1 :4.8


1 :4.8


371


Discussion. According to the foregoing data, the maximum size of the cells in the ganglion spirale, at twenty days, is in cross-sections about 18.7 x 16.9 y. for the cell body and 10.3 x 10.0 [L for the nucleus. Both the long and short diameter of the cell body thus obtained is therefore a little less than that obtained in the radial section, while the diameters for the nucleus are the same.

In the literature we have not found any data for the Norway rat, but there are a few observations on the size of these cells in other mammals by Kolliker ('67) and von Ebner ('02).


GROWTH OF THE INNER EAR OF ALBINO RAT


137


Schwalbe ('87) and Alagna ('09) find these ganglion cells 25 to 30 JJL in diameter in the guniea-pig and cat.

Alexander ('99) has also reported measurements on a series of mammals, but as the size of such cells is greatly influenced by the method of preparation, and as our averages are based on the largest cells while those of other authors have been obtained in a different manner, it seems best not to report the other values in the literature, as they are sure to be misleading.

TABLE 106

Showing the changes with age in the diameters of the cells and the nticlei of the sjriral ganglion afnd the lamina pyrmidalis of the cerebral cortex, respectively


AGE '


CELL BODY IN THE OANQL. SPIRALS COMPUTED DIAM. M


CELL BODY IN THE LAMINA PYRAMID COMPUTED DIAM.


NUCLEUS IN GANOL. SI-IK. COMP. DIAM.


NUCLEUS IN THE LAMINA PYRAM. COMP. DIAM.


AGE


days






days


1


10.5


11.4


7.9


9.4


1


20


18.1


18.7


10.2


15.7


20


546


16.9


17.0


9.4


13.8


730


Ratio be





ratio


tween 1 and


1 : 1.7


1 :1.6


1 :1.3


1 :1.3


of Ito


20 days






20







days


Ratio be





ratio


tween 1 and


1 : 1.6


1 : 1.5


1 :1.2


1 :1.2


of Ito


546 days






730







days


Considering the course of growth in these cells, we find it to be similar in both the spiral ganglion and the lamina pyramidalis of the cerebral cortex (rat) as reported by Sugita ('18). In the former the cells attain at twenty days of age, the time of weaning, their maximum size, and then diminish slowly with advancing age. The cells of the lamina pyramidalis also reach their full size at twenty days, and then diminish in the same way. Therefore, the course of the growth of both of these groups of nerve cells coincides. However, I do not know of other instances of the phenomenon. When tabulated, the relations here noted appear as in table 106.

The difference between them is only in the absolute values of the diameters of the cell bodies and especially of the nuclei,


138

the nuclei in the cells of the lamina pyramidalis being decidedly larger than in those of the spiral ganglion. The ratios of increase are, however, similar.

When we consider the increasing ratios of the diameters of the ganglion cells, we see a close similarity in the maximum values between the cells in the spiral and gasserian ganglion (Nittono, '20). Nevertheless while in the former the ratios from 1 to 20 and 1 to 366 days are in the cell bodies 1:1.7 and 1 : 1.6, respectively, in the latter the ratios for the corresponding intervals are 1: 1.43 and 1: 1.69, respectively (Nittono, '20, p. 235). In the nucleus also similar relations are to be seen in both ganglia.

As these ratios show, there is in the gasserian ganglion a definite increase in the diameters of cells and nuclei after 20 days of age; the time when the maximum is reached by the cells of the spiral ganglion. Thus the former continue to grow after growth in the latter has ceased. These results suggest that the neurons in the more specialized ganglia, like the spiral ganglion, may mature earlier than do those in the less specialized.

On the correlation between the growth of the hair cells of the papilla spiralis and of the nerve cells of the ganglion spirale. When we compare the growth changes in the hair cells with those in the ganglion cells, we find that the course of the development is similar. Both classes increase in volume from one to twenty days of age, then tend to diminish slowly the hair cells more slowly than the ganglion cells. In the ratios of increase, however, there are marked differences. Thus in table 67 (bottom of last column) the volume ratios from 1 to 20 and 20 to 546 days are 1 : 2.4 and 1 : 0.9, respectively in the hair cells, and in the ganglion cells, table 108, the ratios of the volumes in the fourth column work out for the corresponding ages as 1: 5.1 and 1: 0.8, respectively. In the case of the nuclei the growth changes are somewhat different. In the hair cells the nucleus grows in diameter more rapidly, and therefore reaches at nine days its maximum value and then diminishes at succeeding ages.

I have sought to determine whether there was any correlation in growth between either the entire cylindrical surface or the area of the cross-section of the hair cells, on the one hand and the volume


139


of the cells of the ganglion spirale on the other. The reason for making this comparison was the fact that Levi ('08), Busacca ('16), and Donaldson and Nagasaka ('18) have noted in the cells of the spinal ganglia of several mammals that the postnatal growth in volume was correlated with the increase in the area of the body surface, and recently Nittono ('20) has found in the rat a similar relation between the growth of the cells of thegasserian ganglion and the area of the skin of the head. On examining this problem, it is evident that the correlations thus far reported

TABLE 107

Comparison of ratios between the volumes of the cells of the ganglion spirale. nn<l ///

ratios of the area of the cylijidrical surface of the hair

cells of the organ of Corti on the maximum values


AOE


BOOT WEIGHT


VOLUME OP 1 III ClANllI.ION CELL, /'


RATIOS ON THE MAXIMUM VALUE


AKEA OF CYLINDRICAL SURFACE OF THE HAIR CF.LLH- M *


1ATIO8 ON THE MAXIMUM VALUE


days


gms.




I


5


606


3105


1 :5.12


395


723


1


1.83


3


8


796




3.90


463





1.56


6


11


1124




2.76


582





1.24


9


10


1317




2.36


648





1.12


12


13


1376




2.26


681





1.03


15


13


1732




1.79


729





0.99


20


29


3105




1.00


723





1.00


25


36


2903




1.07


691





1.05


50


59


2806




1.11


697





1.04


100


112


2527




1.23


678





1.07


150


183


2439




1.28


691





1.05


257


137


2483




1.25


689





1.05


366


181


2527




1.23


683





1.06


546


255


2527




1.23


699





1.03


apply to the postnatal growth period, and that we must consider that the functional relations of the skin are well established, even at the earliest age. The data with which we have worked in the case of the cochlea are presented in several tables (107 to 110).

In tables 107 and 108 are given the volumes of the cells of the ganglion spirale and the areas of the cylindrical surface of the hair cells. In table 107 the ratios are computed by dividing the maximum value by the values at each age, and in table 108 by dividing the values at each age by the initial value.


TABLE 108

Comparison of the ratios of the volume of the cells of the ganglion spirals with the

ratios of the area of the cylindrical surface of the hair cells of the organ of

Corti on the initial values


AGE


BOOT WEIGHT


VOLUME OF THE GANGLION

CELLS M *


RATIOS ON THE INITIAL VALUE


AREA OF THE CYLINDRICAL SURFACE OF THI HAIR CELLS M


RATIOS ON , THE INITIAL \ VALUE


days


grams




1


5


606 : 606



1


1.00


395


395



1


1.00


3


8


796




1.31



463




1.17


6


11


1124




1.85



582




1.47


9


10


1317




2.17



648




1.64


12


13


1376




2.27



681




1.72


15


13


1732




2.86



729




1.85


20


29


3105




5.12



723




1.83


25


36


2903




4.79



691




1.75


50


59


2806




4.63



697




1.76


100


112


2527




4.17



678




1.72


150


183


2439




4.02



691




1.75


257


137


2483




4.10



689




1.74


366


181


2527




4.17



683




1.73


546


255


2527




4.17



699




1.77


TABLE 109

Area of the cross-section of the inner and outer hair cells






WEIGHTED





DIAMETER OF


AVERAGE


DIAMETER OF


WEIGHTED


AGE


BODY


ONE INNER


DIAMETER OF


INNER AND


AREAS OF CROSS



WEIGHT


HAIR CELL


THREE OUTER


OUTER HAIR


SECTION OF




M


HAIR CELLS


CELLS


HAIR CELLS





M


M


M 2


days


grams






1


5


6.6


6.0


6.2


30


3


8


8.0


7.4


7.6


45


6


11


8.1


7.6


7.7


48


9


10


8.8


8.5


8.6


5S


12


13


8.5


8.3


8.4


55


15


13


8.4


7.7


7.9


50


20


29


8.8


8.2


8.4


55


25


36


8.8


8.1


8.3


55


50


59


8.8


8.2


8.4


55


100


112


8.6


8.1


8.2


53


150


183


8.5


8.3


8.4


55


257


137


8.5


8.3


8.4


55


366


181


8.8


8.4


8.5


58


546


255


8.6


8.2 | 8.3


55


GROWTH OF THE INNER EAR OF ALBINO RAT


141


I have calculated the cylindrical surface of the hair cells according to the formula for the lateral surface of a cylinder; therefore, this area equals 2 v r a (r = radius, a = height of the cylinder) . As the hair cells are more or less pointed at their lower end, the surface obtained by this formula has nearly the value of the total surface of the hair cells less that for the upper end disk.

As has been already shown, both classes of cells grow rapidly from birth to twenty days, and after that both tend to decrease slightly in volume. It is evident that during the growing period,

TABLE 110

Comparison of the ratios of the volume of the cells of the ganglion spirale with the

ratios of the areas of the cross-section of the inner and outer hair cells

of the organ of Corti


AOE

days


BODY WEIGHT

gms


VOLUME OF THE GANGLION CELLS M '


RATIOS ON THE INITIAL VALUE


AREA Or THE CROSS-SECTION OF THE HAIR CELLS


RATIOS ON THE INITIAL VALUE


1


5


606


606


1


1.00


30 :30


1


1.00


3


8



796



1.31


45



1.50


6


11



1124



1.85


48



1.60


9


10



1317



2.17


58



1 . 9


12


13



1376



2.27


55



1.83


15


13



1732



2.86


50



1.67


20


29



3105



5.12


55



1.83


25


36



2903



4.79


55



l s:;


50


59



2806



4.63


53



1.77


100


112



2527



4.17


53



1.77


150


183



2439



4.02


55



1.83


257


137



2483



4.10


55



1.83


366


181



2527



4.17


58



1.93


546


255



2527



4.17


55



1.83


from one day to the end of the record, the volumes of the ganglion cells increase more rapidly than do the cylindrical areas of the hair cells (table 108). If we seek a numerical expression of these relations, it seems best to start not with the values at birth, but with those at nine days of age when the cochlea is just beginning to function, and to extend the comparison only up to twenty days when both groups of cells have reached their maximum size. Thus at nine days (table 108) the volume of the ganglion cells is 1317 [A 3 , while at twenty days it is 3105 [A 3 , or as 1: 2.3, while the area of the cylindrical surfaces of the hair cells at the respective


142 ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON

ages is 648 [x 3 and 723 [i 3 , or as 1 : 1.1, thus showing a rapid growth of the ganglion cell bodies accompanied by but slight enlargement of the hair cells.

It is evident from these ratios that the ganglion cells are increasing in volume more rapidly than the hair cells in area. It is possible that the nervus cochlearis innervates the other cells of the cochlea as well, but even if this is taken into consideration the general relations remain the same.

It follows from this that during the period between the earliest appearance of the functional response (nine days) and the attainment of the maximum size of the cells, the innervation of the hair cells is steadily improving, if we may infer such an improvement from the increase in the volume of the ganglion cells. After the close of this early growing period the relations are approximately fixed through the remainder of life. We do not find, therefore, in the cochlea any relation which corresponds to those found between the spinal ganglion cells or those of the gasserian ganglion and the associated areas of the skin during postnatal growth. This seems to indicate that in the cochlea growth is fixed or limited, while in the body as a whole it is more or less continuous, and the ganglion cells behave differently in the two cases.

In table 109 are shown the diameters of the inner and outer hair cells and their weighted diameters. In the last column is given the area of the cross-section of the hair cells.

The ratios of these areas on the initial area are shown in table 110 in comparison with the volumes of the ganglion cells on the initial volume, and indicate that from three days of age the values for the ganglion cells are increasing more rapidly than those for the area of the cross-section of the hair cells, and at twenty days the increase in the case of both elements has reached a maximum. Here, as in the case of the cylindrical surface, both elements show like phases of growth, but the increase in the volumes of the ganglion cells is much greater than the increase in the cylindrical area or cross-section of the hair cells.

As it may be desirable to use for comparison the measurements on the cells of the ganglion spirale as here reported, the


GROWTH OF THE INNER EAR OF ALBINO RAT


143


constants for the determinations based on 160 cells in each age group are given in . table 111 for the radial vertical sections and in table 112 for the cross-sections.

TABLE 111

A nalytical constants* giving the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variability unth their respective probable errors for the diameters of the cells and their nuclei of the ganglion spirale in radial vertical section


AOK

days


FOR TOTAL NUMBER "K CELLS


Cell Nucleus


Mean


Standard deviation


Coefficient of variability


1


Cell


10.2 0.05


0.90 0.03


8.9 0.33



Nucleus


7.8 0.02


0.46 0.01


5.9 0.22


3


Cell


11.3 0.03


0.50 0.02


4.4 0.17



Nucleus


7.9 0.02


0.32 0.01


4.1 0.15


6


Cell


12.6 0.04


0.68 0.03


5.4 0.20



Nucleus


8.4 0.03


0.48 0.02


5.7 0.22


9


Cell


13.1 0.03


0.61 0.02


4.7 0.18



Nucleus


8.5 0.03


0.52 0.02


6.1 0.23


12


Cell


13.4 0.05


0.86 0.03


6.4 0.24



Nucleus


8.4 0.03


0.61 0.02


7.3 0.28


15


Cell


14.6 0.04


0.73 0.03


5.0 0.13



Nucleus


8.7 0.03


0.58 0.02


6.7 0.25


20


Cell


17.8 0.06


1.17 0.04


6.6 0.25



Nucleus


10.0 0.02


0.40 0.02


4.1 0.15


25


Cell


17.3 0.05


0.88 0.03


5.1 0.19



Nucleus


9.9 0.02


0.36 0.01


3.6 0.14


50


Cell


17.2 0.04


0.78 0.03


4.5 0.17



Nucleus


9.7 0.02


0.34 0.01


3.6 0.14


100


Cell


16.5 0.03


0.65 0.02


3.9 0.15



Nucleus


9.4 0.02


0.38 0.01


4.0 0.15


150


Cell


16.4 0.03


0.79 0.02


4.8 0.18



Nucleus


9.1 0.02


0.42 0.02


4.6 0.17


257


Cell


16.6 0.06


1.09 0.04


6.6 0.25



Nucleus


9.5 . 02


0.39 0.01


4.1 0.15


366


Cell


16.7 0.05


1.02 0.01


6.1 0.22



Nucleus


9.3 0.03


0.52 0.02


5.6 0.21


546


Cell


16.7 0.06


1 . 06 . 04


6.4 24



Nucleus


9.3 0.02


0.45 0.02


4.9 is


Conclusion. For the study of the growth of the nerve cells in the ganglion spirale fourteen age groups were taken and the data obtained from the 160 largest cells in each age group. Besides these, six age groups, representing six cochleas, were examined in cross-sections to determine the form of the ganglion


144


ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON


cells and the relation of their long axes to the axis of the cochlea. Here also the ten largest cells in each of four, nearly corresponding turns, were measured. We obtained the following results :

1 . As thus prepared, the ganglion cells at birth have a maximum size of 11 x 10 [i in cell body and 8.2 x 7.6 [x in nucleus. At twenty days the diameters are the largest, 18.7 x 16.9 [x in cell body and 10.3 x 10.0 [x in nucleus.

TABLE 112

Analytical constants giving the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variability with their respective probable errors for the diameters of the cells and their nuclei of the ganglion spirale, in cross-section


AGE


CeU Nucleus


FOB TOTAL NUMBER OP CELLS


Mean


Standard deviation


Coefficient of variability


days 15


Cell


14.7 0.04


0.40 0.03


2.7 0.21



Nucleus


8.9 0.04


0.34 0.03


3.8 0.29


20


Cell


17.1 0.09


0.83 0.06


4.9 0.37



Nucleus


10.0 0.06


0.58 0.04


5.8 0.44


25


Cell


17.1 0.07


0.63 0.05


3.7 0.28



Nucleus


9.8 0.03


0.30 0.02


3.1 0.23


100


Cell


16.7 0.05


0.44 0.03


2.6 0.20



Nucleus


9.6 0.04


0.36 0.03


3.7 0.25


150


Cell


16.4 0.07


0.69 0.05


4.2 0.32



Nucleus


9 . 4 . 05


. 46 . 03


4.9 0.37


371


Cell


16.0 0.06


0.55 0.04


3.5 0.24



Nucleus


9.1 0.05


0.43 0.03


4.7 0.36


2. The ganglion cells grow relatively rapidly after birth and reach at twenty days of age their maximum size. After having passed the maximum at twenty days, they diminish in size very slowly, but the internal structure matures more and more with successive age.

3. The nuclei are relatively large at birth but increase more slowly than the cell bodies do; nevertheless, they follow the same course of development as the latter. This peculiar course in the growth of the ganglion cells is similar to that followed by the cells of the lamina pyramidalis of the cerebral cortex of the rat as found by Sugita ('18)


GROWTH OF THE INNER EAR OF ALBINO RAT 145

4. Within the cochlea the cell bodies and nuclei increase their diameters from the base toward the apex, except in the earlier stages.

5. There are no evident differences in the diameters of the cell bodies and the nuclei of the ganglion cells either according to sex or side.

6. Both the cell bodies and the nuclei are immature at birth, but differentiate rapidly, and even at six days the Nissl bodies are visible. The differentiation proceeds with advancing age.

7. The ganglion cells are bipolar and oval in shape. The direction of the long axis of the cells differs according to the turn of the cochlea and in the upper turn it runs almost parallel to the axis of the modiolus but inclines more and more to the horizontal position on passing to the base.

8. The nucleus-plasma ratios of the ganglion cells increase with age in both the radial and cross-sections.

9. The increase in the volume of the ganglion cells and the area of the cross-section of the hair cells is approximately similar during the first nine days of life, but after that the ganglion cells increase relatively very rapidly. These relations are very different from those found for the spinal ganglion cells by Donaldson and Nagasaka ('18) and for the cells of the gasserian ganglion by Nittono ('20).

The nervus cochlearis innervates not only the hair cells, but all the elements of the cochlea, and this may have some influence upon this relation. It is interesting to note that the rate of increase in the cylindrical surface of the hah* cells is similar to that in the area of the cross-sections of these same cells.