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=THE ANATOMICAL RECORD=
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THE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ANATOMICAL RECORD
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
EDITORIAL BOARD
 
EDITORIAL BOARD
 
 
  
 
Irving Hardesty
 
Irving Hardesty
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Harvard University
 
Harvard University
 
 
  
 
Warren H. Lewis
 
Warren H. Lewis
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Johns Hopkins University
 
Johns Hopkins University
 
 
  
 
George L. Streeter
 
George L. Streeter
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1330 Hill Street. Ann Arbor. Michigan
 
1330 Hill Street. Ann Arbor. Michigan
 
  
  
 
VOLUME 9 1915
 
VOLUME 9 1915
 
 
 
  
 
PHILADELPHIA THE WISTAR institute OF ANATOMY AND BIOLOGY
 
PHILADELPHIA THE WISTAR institute OF ANATOMY AND BIOLOGY
 
 
 
L
 
 
 
 
§01
 
 
 
  
 
COMPOSED AND PRINTED AT THE
 
COMPOSED AND PRINTED AT THE
  
WA\-ERLY PRESS
+
WAVERLY PRESS
  
 
By THE WlLLIA-MS & WiLKINS COMPANY
 
By THE WlLLIA-MS & WiLKINS COMPANY
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Baltimore, Md., U. S. A.
 
Baltimore, Md., U. S. A.
  
 +
==Contents==
  
 +
No. 1. JANUARY
  
CONTENTS
+
Shixkishi Hatai. The growth of the body and organs in albino rats fed with a lipoidiree ration
  
 +
Frederick S. Hammett. The source of the hydrochloric acid found in the stomach 21
  
 +
stropping machine for microtome knives (M. J. G.). Three figures 26
  
Xo. 1. JANUARY
+
Daxiel Davjs. a simple apparatus for microscopic and macroscopic 'ph'ot'ography'.
  
Shixkishi Hatai. The growth of the body and organs in albino rats fed with a lipoidiree ration
+
Ihree ngures  
 
 
Frederick S. Hammett. The source of the hydrochloric'acid'found in' the" stomach' ' 21
 
 
 
stropping machine for microtome knives (M. J. G.). Three figures 26 Daxiel Davjs. a simple apparatus for microscopic and macros'copic 'ph'ot'ography'.
 
 
 
Ihree ngures ^„
 
  
 
Journals Announcement ~
 
Journals Announcement ~
  
Proceedings of the American Association of Anatomists. Thirty-first session. . ...... '.'.'. 35
+
Proceedings of the American Association of Anatomists. Thirty-first session. 35
  
 
Proceedings of the American Association of Anatomists. Abstracts 45
 
Proceedings of the American Association of Anatomists. Abstracts 45
  
Proceedings of the American Association of Anatomists. Demonstrations. . . ........... 138
+
Proceedings of the American Association of Anatomists. Demonstrations. 138
  
List of officers and members i ,c
+
List of officers and members 145
 
 
145
 
  
 
Xo. 2. FEBRUARY
 
Xo. 2. FEBRUARY
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F. C.^ockeray. Volumetric determinations of the parts of the brain in a human fetus 156 mm. long (crown-rump) 207
 
F. C.^ockeray. Volumetric determinations of the parts of the brain in a human fetus 156 mm. long (crown-rump) 207
  
Xo. 3 :\L\RCH
+
Xo. 3 MARCH
  
 
Helen DeaxV King. On the weight of the albino rat at birth and the factors that influence it r,lo
 
Helen DeaxV King. On the weight of the albino rat at birth and the factors that influence it r,lo
Line 145: Line 102:
 
in man. Two figures 243
 
in man. Two figures 243
  
Richard E. Scammon. On Weber's method of reconstruction and its application to
+
Richard E. Scammon. On Weber's method of reconstruction and its application to curved surfaces. Five figures 247
 
 
curved surfaces. Five figures 247
 
  
 
Charles D. Cipp. On the structure of the erythrocj'te. Four figures 259
 
Charles D. Cipp. On the structure of the erythrocj'te. Four figures 259
  
Xo. 4. APRIL Charles F. W. ]\1cClure. On the provisional arrangement of the embryonic lymphatic system. An arrangement by means of w-hich a centripetal lymph flow toward the venous circulation is controlled and regulated in an orderly and uniform manner, from the time lymph begins to collect in the intercellular spaces until it is forwarded to the venous circulation. Six figures 281
+
No. 4. APRIL Charles F. W. McClure. On the provisional arrangement of the embryonic lymphatic system. An arrangement by means of w-hich a centripetal lymph flow toward the venous circulation is controlled and regulated in an orderly and uniform manner, from the time lymph begins to collect in the intercellular spaces until it is forwarded to the venous circulation. Six figures 281
 
 
iii
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IV CONTENTS
 
 
 
Ida L. Revelet. The pyramidal tract in the guinea-pig. (Cavia aperea.) Ten figures. 297 Gilbert Horrax. A study of the afferent fibers of the body wall and of the hind legs
 
  
to the cerebellum of the dog by the method of degeneration. Seven figures 807
+
Ida L. Revelet. The pyramidal tract in the guinea-pig. (Cavia aperea.) Ten figures. 297 Gilbert Horrax. A study of the afferent fibers of the body wall and of the hind legs to the cerebellum of the dog by the method of degeneration. Seven figures 807
  
Ralph Edward Sheldon. Some new receptacles for cadavers and gross preparations.
+
Ralph Edward Sheldon. Some new receptacles for cadavers and gross preparations. Eight figures 323
  
Eight figures 323
+
Franklin Pearce Reagan. Vascularization phenomena in fragments of embryonic
 
 
Fraxklix Pearce Reagan. Vascularization phenomena in fragments of embryonic
 
  
 
bodies completely isolated from yolk-sac blastoderm. Ten figures .329
 
bodies completely isolated from yolk-sac blastoderm. Ten figures .329
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E. D. CoNGDON. The identification of tissues in artificial cultures. Ten figures 343
 
E. D. CoNGDON. The identification of tissues in artificial cultures. Ten figures 343
  
W. M. Baldwin. The action of ultra-violet raj's upon the frog's egg. I. The artificial
+
W. M. Baldwin. The action of ultra-violet raj's upon the frog's egg. I. The artificial production of spina bifida. Sixteen figures 365
  
production of spina bifida. Sixteen figures 365
+
T. B. Reeves. On the presence of interstitial cells in the chicken's testis. Three figures 383
 
 
T. B. Reeves. On the presence of interstitial cells in the chicken's testis. Three
 
 
 
figures 383
 
  
 
Paul E. Lineback. A simple method of brain dissection. Five figures 387
 
Paul E. Lineback. A simple method of brain dissection. Five figures 387
Line 189: Line 130:
 
Davenport Hooker. The roles of nucleus and cytoplasm in melanin elaboration. One figure 393
 
Davenport Hooker. The roles of nucleus and cytoplasm in melanin elaboration. One figure 393
  
Helen Dean King and J. M. Stotsenbtjrg. On the normal sex ratio and the size of
+
Helen Dean King and J. M. Stotsenbtjrg. On the normal sex ratio and the size of the litter in the albino rat (Mus norvegicus albinus). One figure 403
 
 
the litter in the albino rat (Mus norvegicus albinus). One figure 403
 
  
 
Ivan E. Wallin. An instance of acidophilic chromosomes and chromatin particles. One plate (twelve figures) 421
 
Ivan E. Wallin. An instance of acidophilic chromosomes and chromatin particles. One plate (twelve figures) 421
  
Henry Laurens. The connecting systems of the reptile heart. Eight figures (two
+
Henry Laurens. The connecting systems of the reptile heart. Eight figures (two plates) 427
  
plates) 427
+
Thesle T. Job. The adult anatomy of the lymphatic system in the common rat (Epimys norvegicus) . Four figures 447
 
 
Thesle T. Job. The adult anatomy of the lymphatic system in the common rat
 
 
 
(Epimys norvegicus) . Four figures 447
 
  
 
Frederic Pomeroy Lord. Some anatomical deductions from a pathological temporomandibular articulation. Three figures 459
 
Frederic Pomeroy Lord. Some anatomical deductions from a pathological temporomandibular articulation. Three figures 459
Line 215: Line 150:
 
E. I. Werber. Experimental studies aiming at the control of defective and monstrous development. A survey of recorded monstrosities with special attention to the ophthalmic defects. Twenty-nine figures 529
 
E. I. Werber. Experimental studies aiming at the control of defective and monstrous development. A survey of recorded monstrosities with special attention to the ophthalmic defects. Twenty-nine figures 529
  
Charles F. \V. McClure. The development of the lymphatic system in the light of
+
Charles F. W. McClure. The development of the lymphatic system in the light of the more recent investigations in the field of vasculogenesis 563
 
 
the more recent investigations in the field of vasculogenesis 563
 
  
 
H. D. Reed. The sound-transmitting apparatus in Necturus. Six figures 581
 
H. D. Reed. The sound-transmitting apparatus in Necturus. Six figures 581
  
So. 8. AUGUST
+
No. 8. AUGUST
  
R. W. SiiUFELDT. On the comparative osteology of the limpkin (Aramus vociferus;
+
R. W. SiiUFELDT. On the comparative osteology of the limpkin (Aramus vociferus; and its place in the system. Sixteen figures 591
  
and its place in the system. Sixteen figures 591
+
B. W. KuNKEL. The paraphysis and pineal reszion of the garter snake. Forty-one figures 607
  
B. W. KuNKEL. The paraphysis and pineal reszion of the garter snake. Forty-one
+
H. M. Helm. The gastric vasa brevia. Thirty-seven figures 637
 
 
figures 607
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS V
 
  
H. M. Helm. The gastric vasa brevia. Thirty-seven figures 637
+
Shinkishi Hatai. On the influence of exercise on the growth of organs in the albino rat. 647
  
Shinkishi Hatai. On the influence of exercise on the growth of organs in the albino rat. 647 J M. Stotsenburg. The growth of the fetus of the albino rat from the thirteenth to the twenty-second day of gestation. Two figures 667
+
J M. Stotsenburg. The growth of the fetus of the albino rat from the thirteenth to the twenty-second day of gestation. Two figures 667
  
 
No. 9. SEPTEMBER
 
No. 9. SEPTEMBER
  
A. R. RiNGOEN. Observations on the differentiation of the granules in the eosinophilic
+
A. R. RiNGOEN. Observations on the differentiation of the granules in the eosinophilic leucocytes of the bone-marrow of the adult rabbit 683
 
 
leucocytes of the bone-marrow of the adult rabbit 683
 
 
 
James Crawford Watt. An abnormal frog's heart with persisting dorsal mesocardium.
 
  
Six figures 703
+
James Crawford Watt. An abnormal frog's heart with persisting dorsal mesocardium. Six figures 703
  
Raphael Isaacs. A mechanical device to simplify drawing with the microscope. Three
+
Raphael Isaacs. A mechanical device to simplify drawing with the microscope. Three figures 711
 
 
figures 711
 
  
 
Alexander S. Begg. A simple form of drawing apparatus. One figure 715
 
Alexander S. Begg. A simple form of drawing apparatus. One figure 715
  
Warren H. Lewis. The use of guide planes and plaster of paris for reconstructions
+
Warren H. Lewis. The use of guide planes and plaster of paris for reconstructions from serial sections: some points on reconstruction. Five figures 719 No. 10. OCTOBER
  
from serial sections: some points on reconstruction. Five figures 719 No. 10. OCTOBER
+
R. W. Shufeldt. Comparative osteology of certain rails and cranes, and the systematic positions of the super-suborders gruiformes and ralliformes. Nine figures 731
  
R. W. Shufeldt. Comparative osteology of certain rails and cranes, and the systematic
+
Helen Dean King. The growth and variability in the body weight of the albino rat. Five figures 751
 
 
positions of the super-suborders gruiformes and ralliformes. Nine figures 731
 
 
 
Helen Dean King. The growth and variability in the body weight of the albino rat.
 
 
 
Five figures 751
 
  
 
George Bevier. An anomalous origin of the subclavian artery. Three figures 777
 
George Bevier. An anomalous origin of the subclavian artery. Three figures 777
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THE GROWTH OF THE BODY AND ORGANS IN ALBINO RATS FED WITH A LIPOID-FREE RATION
+
==The Growth Of The Body And Organs In Albino Rats Fed With A Lipoid-Free Ration==
  
SHINKISHI HATAI
+
Shinkishi Hatai
  
 
The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology
 
The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology
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In 1911 Professors Osborne and Mendel pubhshed a series of remarkable papers in which the results of maintenance experiments by means of various isolated proteins were fully described. According to these investigators, albino rats about one-third grown can maintain their body weight for a considerable period without revealing any sign of nutritional or physical deterioration. This satisfactory and constant procedure for producing undersized rats renewed my interest in the problem mentioned.
 
In 1911 Professors Osborne and Mendel pubhshed a series of remarkable papers in which the results of maintenance experiments by means of various isolated proteins were fully described. According to these investigators, albino rats about one-third grown can maintain their body weight for a considerable period without revealing any sign of nutritional or physical deterioration. This satisfactory and constant procedure for producing undersized rats renewed my interest in the problem mentioned.
  
During the past two years I have been so fortunate as to receive a number of stunted rats with their controls for examination. ■ These came through the courtesy of Dr. McCoUum, who raised the rats by feeding them with a 'lipoid-free ration.' These rats fall into two series: the series of 1913 and the series of 1914. The present paper contains the results of the anatomical examination of these interesting rats, and I take this
+
During the past two years I have been so fortunate as to receive a number of stunted rats with their controls for examination. ■ These came through the courtesy of Dr. McCoUum, who raised the rats by feeding them with a 'lipoid-free ration.' These rats fall into two series: the series of 1913 and the series of 1914. The present paper contains the results of the anatomical examination of these interesting rats, and I take this opportunity to thank Dr. McCoUiun for his courtesy in putting these animals at my disposal.
  
 +
The rats used were from those bred in the colonj^ at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia and sent to the University of Wisconsin. In each case rats belonging to the same litter were divided by Dr. IMcCoUum into two lots with nearly identical body weights. The one lot was used for control and received the normal mixed ration, while the other lot, which was used for the experiment, received a specially prepared diet. As to the dietary formula, the following statements were kindly furnished by Dr. McCollum: The ration of the experimented rats which received the lipoid-free food was as follows:
  
 +
Casein 18 per cent Agar-agar 2 per cent
  
THE ANATOMICAL RECORD, VOL. 9, NO. 1 JANUARY, 1915
+
Lactose 20 per cent Dextrin 56 per cent
  
 
+
The salts were as stated below:
 
 
2 SHINKISHI HATAI
 
 
 
opportunity to thank Dr. McCoUiun for his courtesy in putting these animals at my disposal.
 
 
 
The rats used were from those bred in the colonj^ at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia and sent to the University of Wisconsin. In each case rats belonging to the same litter were divided by Dr. IMcCoUum into two lots with nearly identical body weights. The one lot was used for control and received the normal mixed ration, while the other lot, which was used for the experiment, received a specially prepared diet. As to the dietary formula, the following statements were kindly furnished by Dr. McCollum: The ration of the experimented rats which received the lipoid-free food was as follows:
 
 
 
Casein 18 per cent Agar-agar 2 per cent
 
 
 
Lactose 20 per cent Dextrin 56 per cent
 
 
 
The salts were as stated below:
 
  
 
Salt mixture
 
Salt mixture
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Although the methods employed in determining the relative amount of alteration in the various organs of the experimented rats, and also the technique for the preparation of the bones and separation of the encephalon into the four parts can be found
 
Although the methods employed in determining the relative amount of alteration in the various organs of the experimented rats, and also the technique for the preparation of the bones and separation of the encephalon into the four parts can be found
 
 
 
GROWTH OF BODY AND ORGANS 3
 
 
 
in my papers recently published (Hatai '13 and '14), I shall briefly restate the essential points. The encephalon was divided into four parts in the following
 
in my papers recently published (Hatai '13 and '14), I shall briefly restate the essential points. The encephalon was divided into four parts in the following
  
Line 404: Line 304:
 
In order to determine the amount of modification following the experimental ration, we have employed our usual method of comparing the observed values with those found in a series of reference tables that have been compiled in this laboratory. These tables present for normal rats adequate data on all the organs and characters under consideration and in each case the graph representing the table can be expressed by a mathematical formula (Hatai '13; Hatai '14).
 
In order to determine the amount of modification following the experimental ration, we have employed our usual method of comparing the observed values with those found in a series of reference tables that have been compiled in this laboratory. These tables present for normal rats adequate data on all the organs and characters under consideration and in each case the graph representing the table can be expressed by a mathematical formula (Hatai '13; Hatai '14).
  
In making the comparison between the observed values and those in the tables— the body length is always used as the basal measurement and the weight of the body or organs as observed compared with the corresponding values given in the reference tables. In this manner comparison is made not only for the
+
In making the comparison between the observed values and those in the tables— the body length is always used as the basal measurement and the weight of the body or organs as observed compared with the corresponding values given in the reference tables. In this manner comparison is made not only for the experimented rats but also for those used as controls. The departures of the observed values from those in the tables having been observed in each case — the difference between that found for the experimented animals and that for the controls is obtained and this figure is used to indicate the amount by which the experimented animals have been modified.
 
 
 
 
 
 
4 SHINKISHI HATAI
 
 
 
experimented rats but also for those used as controls. The departures of the observed values from those in the tables having been observed in each case — the difference between that found for the experimented animals and that for the controls is obtained and this figure is used to indicate the amount by which the experimented animals have been modified.
 
  
 
Two examples will serve to illustrate this procedure. They are taken from table 3 — C, normal males, 1914 series: (1) On the 'mixed ration' the average tail length for the three rats is 172 mm., for the ^iven body length, 196 mm. We expect from the reference tables a tail length of 165 mm. The observed value is therefore plus 4.2 per cent. The two rats on the "lipoid-free diet and egg fat" give a tail length of 151 mm. for a body length of 168 nmi. From the reference tables we should expect a tail length of 139 mm. The observed value for the tail length of the experimented group is therefore plus 8.6 per cent. The difference between these two percentage shows the tail length in the experimented group to be 8.6 — 4.2, or 4.4 per cent greater than that of the controls. This is the value given in table 3. (2) Taking the brain weights for the groups just used we find by following the method employed above for the tail length, that the group on the "mixed ration" has a brain weight 4.8 per cent below the reference table value, while the group on the "hpoid-free ration plus egg-fat" has a brain weight which is 6.4 per cent deficient. Thus the brain weight in the experimented group is — 6.4 less — 4.8 or 1.6 per cent lower than in the controls. This is the value entered in table 2. All the percentage differences in the accompanying tables have been obtained in a manner similar to that illustrated by the two examples just given.
 
Two examples will serve to illustrate this procedure. They are taken from table 3 — C, normal males, 1914 series: (1) On the 'mixed ration' the average tail length for the three rats is 172 mm., for the ^iven body length, 196 mm. We expect from the reference tables a tail length of 165 mm. The observed value is therefore plus 4.2 per cent. The two rats on the "lipoid-free diet and egg fat" give a tail length of 151 mm. for a body length of 168 nmi. From the reference tables we should expect a tail length of 139 mm. The observed value for the tail length of the experimented group is therefore plus 8.6 per cent. The difference between these two percentage shows the tail length in the experimented group to be 8.6 — 4.2, or 4.4 per cent greater than that of the controls. This is the value given in table 3. (2) Taking the brain weights for the groups just used we find by following the method employed above for the tail length, that the group on the "mixed ration" has a brain weight 4.8 per cent below the reference table value, while the group on the "hpoid-free ration plus egg-fat" has a brain weight which is 6.4 per cent deficient. Thus the brain weight in the experimented group is — 6.4 less — 4.8 or 1.6 per cent lower than in the controls. This is the value entered in table 2. All the percentage differences in the accompanying tables have been obtained in a manner similar to that illustrated by the two examples just given.
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GROWTH CF BODY AND ORGANS
+
GROWTH OF BODY AND ORGANS
  
  
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rats in 1913 made much better growth than the autumn rats in 1914. On the other hand, the experimented rats in both series made a noticeably poor growth when contrasted with the controls. In the 1913 series we notice that the experimented rats made continuous and steady growth throughout the period of experimentation, although the total amount of growth in weight was very slight. Curiously enough the experimented rats belonging to 1914 made a still smaller growth, and indeed in some cases the final body weight is no higher than the body weight at the begin
+
rats in 1913 made much better growth than the autumn rats in 1914. On the other hand, the experimented rats in both series made a noticeably poor growth when contrasted with the controls. In the 1913 series we notice that the experimented rats made continuous and steady growth throughout the period of experimentation, although the total amount of growth in weight was very slight. Curiously enough the experimented rats belonging to 1914 made a still smaller growth, and indeed in some cases the final body weight is no higher than the body weight at the beginning of the experiment. This difference in growth in the two series may probably be due to the different physiological condition of the rats in these two series, combined with slight differences in the preparation of the ration. One point is clear, however: that the rats cannot continue the normal rate of growth on the lipoid-free ration in combination with the salt mixture which was used.
  
 +
In table 2 we have also the data on the growth of the body of the albino rats which were fed first with the lipoid-free ration and later with the same ration to which a minute quantity of the egg-fat had been added. For convenience, these last mentioned rats will be designated simply as 'egg-fat series.'
  
SHINKISHI HATAI
+
It was found by McCollum and Davis ('13) that the rats whose body growth had ceased for a long period as the result of the lipoid-free ration, could be made to grow by the addition of a minute quantity of the extract of egg to the experimental ration. In order to see whether or not the rats thus treated would show any modifications other than those shown by the rats fed with the simple experimental ration, a small series was carried on. As will be seen from table 2, the 1914 rats given the extract of egg did not show the improvement in the growth of the body which was to be anticipated.^ Thus the growth of the body is nearly identical in both the lipoid-free series and in the egg-fat series. Why in the present experiment the egg-fat series did not show a noticeable improvement in the growth of the body is not clear. However, from the fact that the control rats belonging to the 1914 series did not make satisfactory^ growth when contrasted wdth the 1913 series, we conclude that the failure to grow was
  
 +
1 Our experience in feeding synthetic rations in this laboratory has convinced us that there exists a great variation in the vitality of individual rats as indicated by their ability to gro-^*^ on such rations. It is unfortunate that practically all of the animals employed in the work here reported were not sufficiently vigorous to grow for a time in a nearly normal manner on the experimental ration, or to respond by a period of active growth when the ration was supplemented with egg yolk fats. We have individual rats in our colony at the present time which have been on the diet employed in the lipoid-free period with egg j'olk fats added, during more than six hundred days, and which compare favorably with our stock rats in size and well-being." — E. V. McCollum.
  
  
  
 +
8 SHINKISHI HATAI
  
 +
probablj' due to a peculiarity of the rats rather than a pecuHarity of the experimental ration.
  
 +
Osborne and Mendel ('12) obtained normal growth of the rats with the ration from which the lipoid had been almost entirely removed. They carried the experiment for a considerable length of time by beginning with albino rats slightly over 30 days in age. In one series the experiment lasted for nearly 160 days. In every instance, so far as one can judge from the graphs, the body weight of the experimented rats was nearly identical with that of the control rats, while McCollum and Da\ds' rats, fed with the lipoid-free ration, did not grow at any period to the size of the controls (]McCollmii and Da\ds ' 13 ; see also present series) .
  
 +
This difference in growth between the rats of Osborne and Mendel, on the one hand, and those of McCollum and Davis on the other, was undoubtedly due to the nature of the inorganic salts and some extracts still contained in the food. The Osborne and Mendel rats received the inorganic salts from protein-free milk, while those of JMcCollum and Davis received the salts which were a laboratory mixture of pm"e chem.icals. In reference to the varying effects of different salt mixtures McCollum and Davis state ('13) that
  
 +
"Yoimg rats have been found to be very sensitive to variations in the character of the salt mixtures supplied, but with certain mixtures we have been able to obtain practically' normal growth for periods varying from 70 to 120 days. Beyond that time little or no increase in body weight can be induced with such ra^tions. The rats may remain in an apparent!}' good nutritional condition on those rations for man}^ weeks after growth ceases."
  
 +
ANATOMICAL ANALYSIS
  
 +
We now wish to present the results of the anatomical examination of these interesting rats reared by McCollum at the University of Wisconsin.
  
 +
Although the growth rate was dissimilar in the two consecutive years, nevertheless it was found that the alterations shown by the various characters are nearly identical in the two series oi exper ments, and on account of this uniformity in the results, as well as to avoid unnecessary complication by presenting the two series of data separately, I have combined the results. Consequently, unless otherwise stated, the figures given in the tables represent the averages of the two sets of data belonging to the 1913 and the 1914 series combined.
  
 +
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  
 +
If the hpoid-free ration is able to produce any alterations in the lipoid content of the organs, the central nervous system would naturally be expected to indicate such effects, since the central nervous system of the albino rat at about 200 days of age normally contains some 60 per cent of lipoid in the dried residue (Koch '13). This lipoid content is certainly greater in the nervous system than in any other organ (Koch '11). The weights of the central nervous systems of the experimented and of the control rats are shown in table 3 (see also page 16). As will be seen from this table, the weight of the brain with respect to the body length is generally slightly smaller in both the lipoidfree and egg-fat series. Only one exception is found in the female rats (B) fed with the lipoid-free ration in which the experimented rats show a slight over weight of 0.7 per cent. This slight increase is probably due to the abnormally small brain weight of the control rats, thus raising the relative weight of the central nervous system of the experimented rats. Indeed the nonnal brain weight of the female rats corresponding to the body length of 189 mm. should be 1.80 grams as against the observed weight of 1.73 grams, i.e., the observed weight of the control is nearly 4 per cent less than the normal brain weight. Without making any correction, however, we find on the average that the experimented rats show about 2 per cent less brain weight than the controls.
  
 +
Similarly we find a reduction of 2.1 per cent in the weight of the spinal cord when compared with that of the control rats. This reduction of 2 per cent in weight in both the brain and spinal cord is somewhat greater than what we might expect from the normal fluctuation, nevertheless it is certainly far smaller than one might anticipate from the nature of the experunent. It seems reasonable, therefore, to conclude that the central nervous
  
  
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GROWTH OF BODY AND ORGANS 11
  
 +
system is adequately supplied with the necessary amount of the lipoids from the body and this fact in turn leads us to assume that the body has the ability to synthesize the lipoids from the non-lipoid materials. McCollum ('12) has demonstrated that the phosphorus needed by the animal for phosphatid formation can be drawn from inorganic phosphates, and that phosphatids can be synthesized anew in the animal body. Further investigation of McCollum ('12) indicates that certain complex lipoids of the lecithin type can be synthesized in large amounts by birds.
  
J^
+
The percentage of water found in the central nervous system indicates also that the chemical composition has not been noticeably altered since the difference between the control and experimented rats is only 0.2 per cent in the brain and 0.5 per cent in the spinal cord; both in favor of the controls. It is to be noted, however, that a small reduction appears in all the experimented series, thus indicating a strong tendency to a slight modification.
  
 +
To determine whether or not the reduction of 2 per cent in the weight of the central nervous system was mainly caused by the alteration in the white substance, in which the lipoids are predominant, the brain was divided into four parts and the weights and water content of those parts were found separately. The results of the investigation are shown in table 4. We notice from the table that although the percentage of water tends to be smaller in the experimented rats in all four parts, nevertheless the greatest relative reduction appears in the olfactory bulbs, the cerebellum comes next and the cerebrum and stem come in the order named. Thus the stem where the lipoid constituent is greatest is least modified and the olfactory bulbs and cerebellum, where the lipoid constituent is least, are most affected. From this we infer that the gray substance is most affected, and the white substance, in which one might anticipate the largest alteration, is least modified.
  
T3 C
+
This fact of greater change of the gray matter is interesting, since it is found that during partial starvation with non-nitrogenous food for three weeks, the total brain weight shows a reduction of 5 per cent (Hatai '04) but the amount of myelin, as can be seen from the normalitv in the amount of alcohol and ether extract as well as from the Weigert preparations, is not altered (Donaldson '11). We conclude therefore that the absence of lipoids from the ration does not affect the amount of the lipoids in the central nervous system, but on the contrary, the gray substance is affected. This alteration of the gray substance is similar to the effect of partial starvation on the brain of the albino rat.
  
 +
SKELETAL SYSTEM
  
(N
+
The skeletal system is naturally looked on as another structure which might show some alteration owing to the use of the artificial mixture of the pure chemicals contained in the ration in place of the salts normally present. For this purpose the following bones were examined: femur, tibia and fibula, humerus, radius and ulna. The results of the investigation are given in table 5. We note from this table that the ratio between body length and bone length and the ratio between body weight and bone weight are not altered. However, the water content found in these bones shows a distinct alteration in the experimented rats. The difference amounts to as much as 5.5 per cent in the case of the lipoid-free ration and 5.3 per cent in the case of the egg fat series; both in favor of the experimented rats. This difference of over 5 per cent is far greater than the usual incidental fluctuations. Furthermore, its constancy in direction in all these cases indicates that the chemical composition of the bones must be affected as the result of the experimental ration.
  
 +
SEX GLANDS
  
00
+
The alterations thus far recorded are all of small magnitude, but we now come to the consideration of the one very obvious alteration. This is manifested by the testes and ovaries.
  
 +
TESTES
  
•*
+
We notice from table 3 that the experimented male has considerably smaller testes than the control. The difference amounts to as much as 44 per cent against the experimented. We notice also that the initial body weight of the experimented male rat
 +
was 87 grams; this body weight calls for nearly 1.09 grams of testes, while the observed final weight is but 0.83 grams, thus showing a difference of nearly 23 per cent. We conclude therefore that the testes not only failed to grow during nearly six months of the special diet, but that there is a clear indication of an actual loss in weight.
  
 +
OVARIES
  
Tf
+
In the case of the ovaries the difference between the controls and experimented is less than one-half of that found in the case of testes. The difference amounts to 17.4 per cent against the experimented. The initial body weight of the female rat was 80 grams; this body weight calls for nearly 0.015 grams of ovaries, while the observed final weight is 0.028 grams, thus showing an increment of more than 80 per cent during the experimental period of nearly six months. Thus it is clear that although the weight of the ovaries was 17 per cent smaller than that of the controls, nevertheless the ovaries of the experimented rats made steady growth, and indeed the final weight of the ovaries was nearly double the initial weight. The functional normality of the ovaries in the lipoid-free series is demonstrated by the fact that some of the females raised on the lipoid-free ration produced litters (McCoUum and Davis '13).
  
 +
EFFECT OF LIPOID-FREE RATION ON CASTRATED MALE RATS
  
'^ C-1
+
The reduction of the testes in weight as the result of the experimental ration (1913 series) suggested that the same experimental ration when given to castrated male rats might produce a diff'erent alteration. To determine tliis point a series of castrated rats was sent to Dr. McCollum. Five of these castrated rats were fed with a mixed ration and six others were fed with the lipoid-free ration, to which latter a small amount of the egg-fat was added occasionally. The results of the investigation are given in tables 2, 3, 4 and 5. As is seen from table 2, the growth of the body in weight in castrates fed with the lipoid-free ration is similar to that of the intact rats fed in the same way. Thus castration, plus the lipoid-free ration, does not produce any other alterations, the testis excepted, than those shown by the intact rats fed in the same way.
  
 +
We further note from tables 3 (E) and 4 that the central nervous system of the castrates fed with the experimental ration is not different from that of the intact rats fed in the same way Thus it is clear that the effect of the ration is not modified by castration. This conclusion applies also to the ratio between body length and bone length and the ratio between body weight and bone weight. The only difference is found in the percentage of water in bones of those castrates fed with lipoid-free ration.
  
w
+
We note that the difference in the water content of the bones between the castrates fed with the mixed ration and the castrates fed with the experimental ration, amounts to 13 per cent, which is much more than the difference between the intact rats on a mixed ration and those on the experimental ration. This greater difference of water content is found also in all individual cases. We conclude, therefore, that castration followed by the lipoid-free ration produces no further alteration than is found in the non-castrated rats fed with the same experimental ration, except in the water content in the bones. No explanation is possible for this singular result until further experiments have been made.
  
 +
THE VISCERAL ORGANS AND DUCTLESS GLANDS
  
CO
+
As has already been stated, the visceral organs and ductless glands, together with the eyeballs of these rats, were also examined. However, in ^dew of the greater variability of these organs as well as the relatively small number of rats examined, I have decided not to attempt at this moment to interpret the alterations recorded by these organs. Nevertheless, for the reader who may wish to know the weight relations between the controls and the experimented rats shown by these organs, table 6 is given, where the results of the investigation are presented.
  
 +
It may be important to add one word concerning the weight of the lungs. As will be seen from table 6, the weights of the lungs belonging to the experimented rats are always considerably smaller than those of the controls. This means that the lungs of the experimented rats were in a healthy condition and that the greater weights found in the controls were due not to sound lungs of larger size, but to a diseased condition. This fact must be considered when interpreting the weight relations given by various other organs whose weights vary with the condition of the hmgs (Hatai '13).
  
 +
CONCLUSIONS
  
 +
1. The lipoid-free ration diminishes the normal rate of the growth of the body.
  
 +
2. The weight of the central nervous system shows a reduction (^f about 2 per cent as the result of the experimental ration. The percentage of water found in the central nervous system shows a verj^ slight diminution.
  
 +
3. The different parts of the encephalon are differently altered. In general, the parts where the gray substance is predominant are more affected than the parts where the white substance is predominant.
  
 +
4. The weight and length of the longer bones with respect to body weight and body length are not modified. The percentage of water found in these bones, however, is constantly greater (5 per cent) in the experimented rats. This indicates that the chemical composition of the skeletal system has been somewhat altered.
  
 +
5. The testes of the experimented rats showed not only a deficiency of 44 per cent as a result of six months of the lipoidfree diet, but there is a clear indication of actual loss in weight (23 per cent).
  
 +
6. The ovaries of the experimented rats were smaller in weight by 17.4 per cent but no loss of the gland has occurred and growth was continuous.
  
 +
7. The reactions shown by the hpoid-free ration and egg fat series are similar to those produced by partial starvation, especially with respect to the responses by the central nervous system and b}' the sex glands.
  
 +
8. Although the lipoid-free ration causes a marked atrophy of the testes, yet in castrates on the lipoid-free ration no special alteration occurs which can be referred to castration, save the diminution of the solids in the bones.
  
 
+
9. Two incidental observations call for comment: (a) The loss of solids in the bones of the rats receiving a lipoid-free diet is of interest owing to the possible use of the phosphorus of the
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GROWTH OF BODY AND ORGANS 7
 
 
 
iiing of the experiment. This difference in growth in the two series may probably be due to the different physiological condition of the rats in these two series, combined with slight differences in the preparation of the ration. One point is clear, however: that the rats cannot continue the normal rate of growth on the lipoid-free ration in combination with the salt mixture which was used.
 
 
 
In table 2 we have also the data on the growth of the body of the albino rats which were fed first with the lipoid-free ration and later with the same ration to which a minute quantity of the egg-fat had been added. For convenience, these last mentioned rats will be designated simply as 'egg-fat series.'
 
 
 
It was found by McCollum and Davis ('13) that the rats whose body growth had ceased for a long period as the result of the lipoid-free ration, could be made to grow by the addition of a minute quantity of the extract of egg to the experimental ration. In order to see whether or not the rats thus treated would show any modifications other than those shown by the rats fed with the simple experimental ration, a small series was carried on. As will be seen from table 2, the 1914 rats given the extract of egg did not show the improvement in the growth of the body which was to be anticipated.^ Thus the growth of the body is nearly identical in both the lipoid-free series and in the egg-fat series. Why in the present experiment the egg-fat series did not show a noticeable improvement in the growth of the body is not clear. However, from the fact that the control rats belonging to the 1914 series did not make satisfactory^ growth when contrasted wdth the 1913 series, we conclude that the failure to grow was
 
 
 
1 Our experience in feeding synthetic rations in this laboratory has convinced us that there exists a great variation in the vitality of individual rats as indicated by their ability to gro-^*^ on such rations. It is unfortunate that practically all of the animals employed in the work here reported were not sufficiently vigorous to grow for a time in a nearly normal manner on the experimental ration, or to respond by a period of active growth when the ration was supplemented with egg yolk fats. We have individual rats in our colony at the present time which have been on the diet employed in the lipoid-free period with egg j'olk fats added, during more than six hundred days, and which compare favorably with our stock rats in size and well-being." — E. V. McCollum.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8 SHINKISHI HATAI
 
 
 
probablj' due to a peculiarity of the rats rather than a pecuHarity of the experimental ration.
 
 
 
Osborne and Mendel ('12) obtained normal growth of the rats with the ration from which the lipoid had been almost entirely removed. They carried the experiment for a considerable length of time by beginning with albino rats slightly over 30 days in age. In one series the experiment lasted for nearly 160 days. In every instance, so far as one can judge from the graphs, the body weight of the experimented rats was nearly identical with that of the control rats, while McCollum and Da\ds' rats, fed with the lipoid-free ration, did not grow at any period to the size of the controls (]McCollmii and Da\ds ' 13 ; see also present series) .
 
 
 
This difference in growth between the rats of Osborne and Mendel, on the one hand, and those of McCollum and Davis on the other, was undoubtedly due to the nature of the inorganic salts and some extracts still contained in the food. The Osborne and Mendel rats received the inorganic salts from protein-free milk, while those of JMcCollum and Davis received the salts which were a laboratory mixture of pm"e chem.icals. In reference to the varying effects of different salt mixtures McCollum and Davis state ('13) that
 
 
 
"Yoimg rats have been found to be very sensitive to variations in the character of the salt mixtures supplied, but with certain mixtures we have been able to obtain practically' normal growth for periods varying from 70 to 120 days. Beyond that time little or no increase in body weight can be induced with such ra^tions. The rats may remain in an apparent!}' good nutritional condition on those rations for man}^ weeks after growth ceases."
 
 
 
ANATOMICAL ANALYSIS
 
 
 
We now wish to present the results of the anatomical examination of these interesting rats reared by McCollum at the University of Wisconsin.
 
 
 
Although the growth rate was dissimilar in the two consecutive years, nevertheless it was found that the alterations shown by the various characters are nearly identical in the two series oi exper ments, and on account of this uniformity in the results, as well as to avoid unnecessary complication by presenting the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GROWTH OF BODY AND ORGANS 9
 
 
 
two series of data separately, I have combined the results. Consequently, unless otherwise stated, the figures given in the tables represent the averages of the two sets of data belonging to the 1913 and the 1914 series combined.
 
 
 
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTE:M
 
 
 
If the hpoid-free ration is able to produce any alterations in the lipoid content of the organs, the central nervous system would naturally be expected to indicate such effects, since the central nervous system of the albino rat at about 200 days of age normally contains some 60 per cent of lipoid in the dried residue (Koch '13). This lipoid content is certainly greater in the nervous system than in any other organ (Koch '11). The weights of the central nervous systems of the experimented and of the control rats are shown in table 3 (see also page 16). As will be seen from this table, the weight of the brain with respect to the body length is generally slightly smaller in both the lipoidfree and egg-fat series. Only one exception is found in the female rats (B) fed with the lipoid-free ration in which the experimented rats show a slight over weight of 0.7 per cent. This slight increase is probably due to the abnormally small brain weight of the control rats, thus raising the relative weight of the central nervous system of the experimented rats. Indeed the nonnal brain weight of the female rats corresponding to the body length of 189 mm. should be 1.80 grams as against the observed weight of 1.73 grams, i.e., the observed weight of the control is nearly 4 per cent less than the normal brain weight. Without making any correction, however, we find on the average that the experimented rats show about 2 per cent less brain weight than the controls.
 
 
 
Similarly we find a reduction of 2.1 per cent in the weight of the spinal cord when compared with that of the control rats. This reduction of 2 per cent in weight in both the brain and spinal cord is somewhat greater than what we might expect from the normal fluctuation, nevertheless it is certainly far smaller than one might anticipate from the nature of the experunent. It seems reasonable, therefore, to conclude that the central nervous
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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GROWTH OF BODY AND ORGANS 11
 
 
 
system is adequately supplied with the necessary amount of the lipoids from the body and this fact in turn leads us to assume that the body has the ability to synthesize the lipoids from the non-lipoid materials. McCollum ('12) has demonstrated that the phosphorus needed by the animal for phosphatid formation can be drawn from inorganic phosphates, and that phosphatids can be synthesized anew in the animal body. Further investigation of McCollum ('12) indicates that certain complex lipoids of the lecithin type can be synthesized in large amounts by birds.
 
 
 
The percentage of water found in the central nervous system indicates also that the chemical composition has not been noticeably altered since the difference between the control and experimented rats is only 0.2 per cent in the brain and 0.5 per cent in the spinal cord; both in favor of the controls. It is to be noted, however, that a small reduction appears in all the experimented series, thus indicating a strong tendency to a slight modification.
 
 
 
To determine whether or not the reduction of 2 per cent in the weight of the central nervous system was mainly caused by the alteration in the white substance, in which the lipoids are predominant, the brain was divided into four parts and the weights and water content of those parts were found separately. The results of the investigation are shown in table 4. We notice from the table that although the percentage of water tends to be smaller in the experimented rats in all four parts, nevertheless the greatest relative reduction appears in the olfactory bulbs, the cerebellum comes next and the cerebrum and stem come in the order named. Thus the stem where the lipoid constituent is greatest is least modified and the olfactory bulbs and cerebellum, where the lipoid constituent is least, are most affected. From this we infer that the gray substance is most affected, and the white substance, in which one might anticipate the largest alteration, is least modified.
 
 
 
This fact of greater change of the gray matter is interesting, since it is found that during partial starvation with non-nitrogenous food for three weeks, the total brain weight shows a reduction of 5 per cent (Hatai '04) but the amount of myelin, as can be seen from the normalitv in the amount of alcohol and
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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GROWTH OF BODY AND ORGANS 13
 
 
 
ether extract as well as from the Weigert preparations, is not altered (Donaldson '11). We conclude therefore that the absence of lipoids from the ration does not affect the amount of the lipoids in the central nervous system, but on the contrary, the gray substance is affected. This alteration of the gray substance is similar to the effect of partial starvation on the brain of the albino rat.
 
 
 
SKELETAL SYSTEM
 
 
 
The skeletal system is naturally looked on as another structure which might show some alteration owing to the use of the artificial mixture of the pure chemicals contained in the ration in place of the salts normally present. For this purpose the following bones were examined: femur, tibia and fibula, humerus, radius and ulna. The results of the investigation are given in table 5. We note from this table that the ratio between body length and bone length and the ratio between body weight and bone weight are not altered. However, the water content found in these bones shows a distinct alteration in the experimented rats. The difference amounts to as much as 5.5 per cent in the case of the lipoid-free ration and 5.3 per cent in the case of the egg fat series; both in favor of the experimented rats. This difference of over 5 per cent is far greater than the usual incidental fluctuations. Furthermore, its constancy in direction in all these cases indicates that the chemical composition of the bones must be affected as the result of the experimental ration.
 
 
 
SEX GLANDS
 
 
 
The alterations thus far recorded are all of small magnitude, but we now come to the consideration of the one very obvious alteration. This is manifested by the testes and ovaries.
 
 
 
TESTES
 
 
 
We notice from table 3 that the experimented male has considerably smaller testes than the control. The difference amounts to as much as 44 per cent against the experimented. We notice also that the initial body weight of the experimented male rat
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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GROWTH OF BODY AND ORGANS 15
 
 
 
was 87 grams; this body weight calls for nearly 1.09 grams of testes, while the observed final weight is but 0.83 grams, thus showing a difference of nearly 23 per cent. We conclude therefore that the testes not only failed to grow during nearly six months of the special diet, but that there is a clear indication of an actual loss in weight.
 
 
 
OVARIES
 
 
 
In the case of the ovaries the difference between the controls and experimented is less than one-half of that found in the case of testes. The difference amounts to 17.4 per cent against the experimented. The initial body weight of the female rat was 80 grams; this body weight calls for nearly 0.015 grams of ovaries, while the observed final weight is 0.028 grams, thus showing an increment of more than 80 per cent during the experimental period of nearly six months. Thus it is clear that although the weight of the ovaries was 17 per cent smaller than that of the controls, nevertheless the ovaries of the experimented rats made steady growth, and indeed the final weight of the ovaries was nearly double the initial weight. The functional normality of the ovaries in the lipoid-free series is demonstrated by the fact that some of the females raised on the lipoid-free ration produced litters (McCoUum and Davis '13).
 
 
 
EFFECT OF LIPOID-FREE RATION ON CASTRATED MALE RATS
 
 
 
The reduction of the testes in weight as the result of the experimental ration (1913 series) suggested that the same experimental ration when given to castrated male rats might produce a diff'erent alteration. To determine tliis point a series of castrated rats was sent to Dr. McCollum. Five of these castrated rats were fed with a mixed ration and six others were fed with the lipoid-free ration, to which latter a small amount of the egg-fat was added occasionally. The results of the investigation are given in tables 2, 3, 4 and 5. As is seen from table 2, the growth of the body in weight in castrates fed with the lipoid-free ration is similar to that of the intact rats fed in the same way. Thus castration, plus the lipoid-free ration, does not produce any other alterations, the testis excepted, than those shown by the intact rats fed in the same way.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16 SHINKISHI HATAI
 
 
 
We further note from tables 3 (E) and 4 that the central nervous system of the castrates fed with the experimental ration is not different from that of the intact rats fed in the same way Thus it is clear that the effect of the ration is not modified by castration. This conclusion applies also to the ratio between body length and bone length and the ratio between body weight and bone weight. The only difference is found in the percentage of water in bones of those castrates fed with lipoid-free ration.
 
 
 
We note that the difference in the water content of the bones between the castrates fed with the mixed ration and the castrates fed with the experimental ration, amounts to 13 per cent, which is much more than the difference between the intact rats on a mixed ration and those on the experimental ration. This greater difference of water content is found also in all individual cases. We conclude, therefore, that castration followed by the lipoid-free ration produces no further alteration than is found in the non-castrated rats fed with the same experimental ration, except in the water content in the bones. No explanation is possible for this singular result until further experiments have been made.
 
 
 
THE VISCERAL ORGANS AND DUCTLESS GLANDS
 
 
 
As has already been stated, the visceral organs and ductless glands, together with the eyeballs of these rats, were also examined. However, in ^dew of the greater variability of these organs as well as the relatively small number of rats examined, I have decided not to attempt at this moment to interpret the alterations recorded by these organs. Nevertheless, for the reader who may wish to know the weight relations between the controls and the experimented rats shown by these organs, table 6 is given, where the results of the investigation are presented.
 
 
 
It may be important to add one word concerning the weight of the lungs. As will be seen from table 6, the weights of the lungs belonging to the experimented rats are always considerably smaller than those of the controls. This means that the lungs of the experimented rats were in a healthy condition and that the greater weights found in the controls were due not to sound lungs of larger size, but to a diseased condition. This fact must
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GROWTH OF BODY AND ORGANS 17
 
 
 
be considered when interpreting the weight relations given by various other organs whose weights vary with the condition of the hmgs (Hatai '13).
 
 
 
co^XLUSIOXS
 
 
 
1. The lipoid-free ration diminishes the normal rate of the growth of the body.
 
 
 
2. The weight of the central nervous system shows a reduction (^f about 2 per cent as the result of the experimental ration. The percentage of water found in the central nervous system shows a verj^ slight diminution.
 
 
 
3. The different parts of the encephalon are differently altered. In general, the parts where the gray substance is predominant are more affected than the parts where the white substance is predominant.
 
 
 
4. The weight and length of the longer bones with respect to body weight and body length are not modified. The percentage of water found in these bones, however, is constantly greater (5 per cent) in the experimented rats. This indicates that the chemical composition of the skeletal system has been somewhat altered.
 
 
 
5. The testes of the experimented rats showed not only a deficiency of 44 per cent as a result of six months of the lipoidfree diet, but there is a clear indication of actual loss in weight (23 per cent).
 
 
 
6. The ovaries of the experimented rats were smaller in weight by 17.4 per cent but no loss of the gland has occurred and growth was continuous.
 
 
 
7. The reactions shown by the hpoid-free ration and egg fat series are similar to those produced by partial starvation, especially with respect to the responses by the central nervous system and b}' the sex glands.
 
 
 
8. Although the lipoid-free ration causes a marked atrophy of the testes, yet in castrates on the lipoid-free ration no special alteration occurs which can be referred to castration, save the diminution of the solids in the bones.
 
 
 
9. Two incidental observations call for comment: (a) The loss of solids in the bones of the rats receiving a lipoid-free diet is of interest owing to the possible use of the phosphorus of the
 
 
 
THE AXATOMICAL RECORD, VOL. 9, XO. 1,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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