Abnormal Development - Varicella Zoster Virus
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Varicella Zoster Virus or chickenpox maternal infection can be transmitted to the fetus.
Fetal varicella syndrome (FVS) is caused by transplacental infection by the varicella zoster virus following maternal infection. Commonly called chickenpox or shingles in adults.
The chickenpox vaccine is made from a weakened varicella virus producing an immune response that protects you against chickenpox infection. The United States has had a licensed chickenpox vaccine since 1995.
Fetal and Neonatal Risks
Risks are dependent on the infection timing.
- before 20 weeks (GA) - FVS can occur with an incidence of about 1%. The lesions can affect the skin, limbs, central and autonomous nervous systems, eyes, cause calcifications, and growth retardation; mortality is high. Lesions typically follow one or several nerve territories, suggesting that damage results from in utero zoster following primary fetal infection.
- during pregnancy - transmission can occur, but is usually asymptomatic; some infants develop zoster postnatally and a few have FVS.
- around delivery - often leads to disseminated neonatal varicella.
|Viral Links: viral infection | TORCH | cytomegalovirus | hepatitis | HIV | parvovirus | polio | rubella virus | chickenpox | Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus | Zika virus | human papillomavirus | rotavirus | vaccination | varicella virus | environment|
Some Recent Findings
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has developed a published code of classification for viruses (currently 2011 Release).
- Subfamily: Alphaherpesvirinae
- Genus: Varicellovirus
- Species: Human herpesvirus 3
- Genus: Varicellovirus
- Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Baron S, editor. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. Chapter 55 Togaviruses: Rubella Virus | Chapter 54Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae) | Table 55-1 Abnormalities Associated with Congenital Rubella Syndrome | Figure 55-3 Incidence rates of rubella USA 1966-1993
- Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. New York: Garland Science; 2002. Viruses Exploit Host Cell Machinery for All Aspects of Their Multiplication
- Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition. Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., editors. Washington (DC): World Bank; 2006. Chapter 20Vaccine-preventable Diseases
- Antenatal Care: Routine care for the healthy pregnant woman. NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 62. National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK). London: RCOG Press; 2008 Mar. 10.8. Rubella
|Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | zoonotic infection | toxoplasmosis | Malaria | maternal diabetes | maternal hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | hypoxia | biological toxins | chemicals | heavy metals | air pollution | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis|
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- Department of Health and Ageing (Australia) Immunise Australia Program Website | The Australian Immunisation Handbook 9th Edition 2008
- World Health Organization (WHO)
- CDC (USA) - Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccination
- International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 8) Embryology Abnormal Development - Varicella Zoster Virus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Varicella_Zoster_Virus
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G