Abnormal Development - Varicella Zoster Virus

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Introduction

Varicella zoster virus
(CDC electron micrograph)

Varicella Zoster Virus or chickenpox maternal infection can be transmitted to the fetus.

Fetal varicella syndrome (FVS) is caused by transplacental infection by the varicella zoster virus following maternal infection. Commonly called chickenpox or shingles in adults.

The chickenpox vaccine is made from a weakened varicella virus producing an immune response that protects you against chickenpox infection. The United States has had a licensed chickenpox vaccine since 1995.

Viral Links: viral infection | TORCH | cytomegalovirus | hepatitis | HIV | parvovirus | polio | rubella virus | chickenpox | Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus | Zika virus | human papillomavirus | rotavirus | vaccination | varicella virus | environment
Historic Embryology - Viral 
1941 Rubella Cataracts | 1944 Rubella Defects

Fetal and Neonatal Risks

Risks are dependent on the infection timing.

  • before 20 weeks (GA) - FVS can occur with an incidence of about 1%. The lesions can affect the skin, limbs, central and autonomous nervous systems, eyes, cause calcifications, and growth retardation; mortality is high. Lesions typically follow one or several nerve territories, suggesting that damage results from in utero zoster following primary fetal infection.
  • during pregnancy - transmission can occur, but is usually asymptomatic; some infants develop zoster postnatally and a few have FVS.
  • around delivery - often leads to disseminated neonatal varicella.
Viral Links: viral infection | TORCH | cytomegalovirus | hepatitis | HIV | parvovirus | polio | rubella virus | chickenpox | Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus | Zika virus | human papillomavirus | rotavirus | vaccination | varicella virus | environment
Historic Embryology - Viral 
1941 Rubella Cataracts | 1944 Rubella Defects

Some Recent Findings

  • Fetal varicella - diagnosis, management, and outcome[1] "Fetal varicella syndrome (FVS) is due to transplacental infection by the Varicella zoster virus following maternal infection. The risks for the fetus and neonate depend on the timing. When varicella occurs around delivery, it often leads to disseminated neonatal varicella. When varicella occurs during pregnancy, transmission can occur, but is usually asymptomatic; some infants develop zoster postnatally and a few have FVS. Before 20 weeks' gestation, FVS can occur, with an incidence of about 1%. The lesions can affect the skin, limbs, central and autonomous nervous systems, eyes, cause calcifications, and growth retardation; mortality is high. Lesions typically follow one or several nerve territories, suggesting that damage results from in utero zoster following primary fetal infection."

Images

Taxonomy

The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has developed a published code of classification for viruses (currently 2011 Release).

Order: Herpesvirales

Subfamily: Alphaherpesvirinae
Genus: Varicellovirus
Species: Human herpesvirus 3

Virus History

References

  1. <pubmed>22514124</pubmed>

Textbooks

Reviews

<pubmed>16580940</pubmed>

Articles

<pubmed>11297117</pubmed>| eMJA

<pubmed>13222825</pubmed> <pubmed>19869091</pubmed>| PMC2131083

Search Pubmed

Search Pubmed: Varicella Zoster Virus | Congenital Varicella Syndrome | fetal varicella syndrome



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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 12) Embryology Abnormal Development - Varicella Zoster Virus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Varicella_Zoster_Virus

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G