Abnormal Development - Rotavirus
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The rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhoea and vomiting (viral gastroenteritis) in infants and young children. The virus was first identified in 1973 from epithelial cells of duodenal mucosa from children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis.
The live attenuated rotavirus vaccine is contraindicated in pregnancy, but can be safely administered to household contacts of pregnant women. There is only a very small risk of transmission of the rotavirus vaccine virus to a susceptible pregnant woman and there is no evidence of risk to the fetus if pregnant women are in contact with recently vaccinated individuals.
(data based on: The Australian Immunisation Handbook 9th Edition 2008 2.3.2 Vaccination of women planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and preterm infants - updated July 2009 )
- Links: Abnormal Development - Rotavirus | Postnatal - Vaccination | The Australian Immunisation Handbook 9th Edition 2008 | Australian Immunisation Handbook - Rotavirus | 2.3.2 Vaccination of women planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and preterm infants - updated July 2009 | Medical Microbiology - Rotaviruses
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<pubmed limit=5>Abnormal Development Rotavirus</pubmed>
Search term: Rotavirus
Discovery of Rotavirus
The virus was identified in 1973 from epithelial cells of duodenal mucosa from children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis, and has been summarised in a 2009 paper by Ruth Bishop, who was one of original discoverers of the virus.
- "For centuries, acute diarrhea has been a major worldwide cause of death in young children, and until 1973, no infectious agents could be identified in about 80% of patients admitted to hospital with severe dehydrating diarrhea. In 1973 Ruth Bishop, Geoffrey Davidson, Ian Holmes, and Brian Ruck identified abundant particles of a 'new' virus (rotavirus) in the cytoplasm of mature epithelial cells lining duodenal villi and in feces, from such children admitted to the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Rotaviruses have now been shown to cause 40-50% of severe acute diarrhea in young children worldwide in both developing and developed countries, and > 600 000 young children die annually from rotavirus disease, predominantly in South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Longitudinal surveillance studies following primary infection in young children have shown that rotavirus reinfections are common. However the immune response that develops after primary infection is protective against severe symptoms on reinfection. This observation became the basis for development of live oral rotavirus vaccines"
- Non-enveloped, icosahedral virus of the Reoviridae family containing a genome of 11 segments of double stranded RNA (dsRNA).
- Divided into seven serotypes (Rotavirus A–G).
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Two oral rotavirus vaccines are available in Australia, and their efficacy and safety in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis have been extensively evaluated. Both rotavirus vaccines have been shown to have similar efficacy against rotavirus gastroenteritis (of any severity) of around 70%.
- Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline) - 2 oral doses (1.5 mL/dose)
- RotaTeq (bioCSL /Merck & Co Inc) - 3 oral doses (2 mL/dose)
- Bishop RF, Davidson GP, Holmes IH & Ruck BJ. (1973). Virus particles in epithelial cells of duodenal mucosa from children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Lancet , 2, 1281-3. PMID: 4127639
- Bines JE, At Thobari J, Satria CD, Handley A, Watts E, Cowley D, Nirwati H, Ackland J, Standish J, Justice F, Byars G, Lee KJ, Barnes GL, Bachtiar NS, Viska Icanervilia A, Boniface K, Bogdanovic-Sakran N, Pavlic D, Bishop RF, Kirkwood CD, Buttery JP & Soenarto Y. (2018). Human Neonatal Rotavirus Vaccine (RV3-BB) to Target Rotavirus from Birth. N. Engl. J. Med. , 378, 719-730. PMID: 29466164 DOI.
- Coldiron ME, Guindo O, Makarimi R, Soumana I, Matar Seck A, Garba S, Macher E, Isanaka S & Grais RF. (2018). Safety of a heat-stable rotavirus vaccine among children in Niger: Data from a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Vaccine , , . PMID: 29752026 DOI.
- Bishop R. (2009). Discovery of rotavirus: Implications for child health. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. , 24 Suppl 3, S81-5. PMID: 19799704 DOI.
- Vesikari T, Matson DO, Dennehy P, Van Damme P, Santosham M, Rodriguez Z, Dallas MJ, Heyse JF, Goveia MG, Black SB, Shinefield HR, Christie CD, Ylitalo S, Itzler RF, Coia ML, Onorato MT, Adeyi BA, Marshall GS, Gothefors L, Campens D, Karvonen A, Watt JP, O'Brien KL, DiNubile MJ, Clark HF, Boslego JW, Offit PA & Heaton PM. (2006). Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine. N. Engl. J. Med. , 354, 23-33. PMID: 16394299 DOI.
- Soares-Weiser K, Maclehose H, Ben-Aharon I, Goldberg E, Pitan F & Cunliffe N. (2010). Vaccines for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea: vaccines in use. Cochrane Database Syst Rev , , CD008521. PMID: 20464766 DOI.
Crawford SE, Ramani S, Tate JE, Parashar UD, Svensson L, Hagbom M, Franco MA, Greenberg HB, O'Ryan M, Kang G, Desselberger U & Estes MK. (2017). Rotavirus infection. Nat Rev Dis Primers , 3, 17083. PMID: 29119972 DOI.
Mwenda JM, Burke RM, Shaba K, Mihigo R, Tevi-Benissan MC, Mumba M, Biey JN, Cheikh D, Poy MSc A, Zawaira FR, Aliabadi N, Tate JE, Hyde T, Cohen AL & Parashar UD. (2017). Implementation of Rotavirus Surveillance and Vaccine Introduction - World Health Organization African Region, 2007-2016. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. , 66, 1192-1196. PMID: 29095805 DOI.
. (2017). Progress with the implementation of rotavirus surveillance and vaccines in countries of the WHO African Region, 2007–2016. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. , 92, 673-80. PMID: 29106113
Search term: Rotavirus
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 7) Embryology Abnormal Development - Rotavirus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Rotavirus
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G